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  1. 1. <ul><li>The Supervisor </li></ul><ul><li>as Leader </li></ul>
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>You and Your People </li></ul><ul><li>The Nature of Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Choosing a Leadership Style </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>“ Managers are people who do </li></ul><ul><li>things right; </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders are people who do </li></ul><ul><li>right things.” </li></ul>
  4. 4. “ Leadership is simply the process of influencing someone to do something that he or she might otherwise not do.” Dr. Paul Hersey Chairman, Center for Leadership Studies
  5. 5. <ul><li>Great people talk about ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Average people talk about things. </li></ul><ul><li>Small people talk about other people.        -- Author: Unknown </li></ul>
  6. 6. Definitions <ul><li>Autocratic leader </li></ul><ul><li>Carrot-and stick technique </li></ul><ul><li>Coaching style </li></ul><ul><li>Delegating style </li></ul><ul><li>Directing style </li></ul><ul><li>Formal authority </li></ul><ul><li>Formal leader </li></ul><ul><li>Generation X </li></ul><ul><li>Informal leader </li></ul><ul><li>Leader </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership style </li></ul><ul><li>MBWA </li></ul><ul><li>Power </li></ul><ul><li>Real authority </li></ul><ul><li>Situational leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting style </li></ul><ul><li>Theory X </li></ul><ul><li>Theory Y </li></ul><ul><li>Transactional leader </li></ul><ul><li>Transformational leader </li></ul>
  7. 7. You and Your People <ul><li>The hospitality industry:70 percent part-time job. </li></ul><ul><li>No special skill, ability or experience is required. </li></ul><ul><li>Turnover rate of hourly workers in restaurants is 100 % </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse workplace </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately half of the foodservice workers 18-34 years a group referred to as Generation X. </li></ul><ul><li>At least 50% of both food service and hotel workers are women </li></ul><ul><li>Employees do not want a militant fashion supervisors </li></ul><ul><li>Supervisors and managers are essentials in the hospitality </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Nature of Leadership <ul><li>Leader: Someone who guides or influences the actions of his or her employees to reach certain goals. </li></ul><ul><li>An important managerial function is to be a leader </li></ul><ul><li>A leader is a person whom people follow voluntarily. </li></ul><ul><li>You have to get people to work for you willingly and to the best of their ability . </li></ul><ul><li>Many leadership skills are innate; not all managers make great leaders. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Jobs and the Workers <ul><li>Characteristics of the Hospitality Industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many low-wage, entry level positions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semi-skilled or skilled positions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generation X ( born between 1964-1979) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generation Y (born between 1980-1990) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees do not want supervisors to bark orders in a militant fashion, they want training and expect management to invest time and money on their training and development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High turnover </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>60% women workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minority workers </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Characteristics of Leaders <ul><li>Characteristics of Leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Drive </li></ul><ul><li>Desire to influence others </li></ul><ul><li>Honesty & Moral character </li></ul><ul><li>Self-confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Relevant knowledge </li></ul>
  11. 11. Characteristics of Leaders <ul><li>Primary Sources of Power </li></ul><ul><li>Legitimate power </li></ul><ul><li>Reward Power </li></ul><ul><li>Coercive power </li></ul><ul><li>Expert power </li></ul>
  12. 12. Seven steps of establishing a foundation for leadership development: <ul><li>Investing time, resources, and money to create a supportive culture </li></ul><ul><li>Defining the differences between management skills and leadership abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Developing quantifiable measurable that support leadership skills </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>4. Focusing on leadership skill during management training </li></ul><ul><li>5. Encouraging continuous education of leadership skills </li></ul><ul><li>6. Recognizing leaders on all levels </li></ul><ul><li>7. Rewarding all enthusiastic leaders </li></ul>Seven steps of establishing a foundation for leadership development:
  14. 14. Definitions Power Formal Leader <ul><li>The ability to command </li></ul><ul><li>The person who act as leader </li></ul>Informal Leader <ul><li>Informal leaders are perceived by others as showing higher levels of leading than formal leaders overall. </li></ul>Formal Authority <ul><li>Right to command employees, given you by the organization </li></ul>MBWA <ul><li>Management by Wandering (Walking) Around </li></ul>more
  15. 15. Leadership Styles Autocratic Bureaucratic <ul><ul><li>Making decisions without input from staff. Give orders without explanation </li></ul></ul>“ Manage by the book”. Be a “Police Officer” Democratic (Participative) <ul><ul><li>Share decision making responsibility. Input from employees. </li></ul></ul>Laissez-faire <ul><ul><li>“ Lead as little as possible” </li></ul></ul>more
  16. 16. Old-Style Boss <ul><li>PROS </li></ul><ul><li>Some workers respond to a command-obey style of direction </li></ul><ul><li>Can be effective </li></ul><ul><li>Can be necessary </li></ul><ul><li>CONS </li></ul><ul><li>Average American does not respond to autocratic style </li></ul><ul><li>More likely to increase problems than to lessen them </li></ul><ul><li>Breeds resentment, low morale, and adversary relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Customer service suffers and patrons go somewhere else </li></ul>
  17. 17. Theory X and Theory Y <ul><li>Theory X’s Faulty Assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>The “average human being” has an inborn dislike of work and will avoid it as much as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>He or she must be “coerced, controlled, directed, threatened with punishment” to get the work done. </li></ul><ul><li>He or she prefers to be led, avoids responsibility, lacks ambition, and wants security above all else. </li></ul>Douglas McGregor
  18. 18. Theory X and Theory Y <ul><li>Theory Y Propositions </li></ul><ul><li>Work is as natural as play or rest; people do not inherently dislike it. </li></ul><ul><li>People will work of their own accord toward objectives to which they feel committed without control or the threat of punishment. </li></ul><ul><li>People become committed to objectives that fulfill their inner personal needs. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Theory X and Theory Y <ul><li>Theory Y Propositions </li></ul><ul><li>People can learn not only to accept responsibility but also to seek it. Lack of ambition, avoidance of responsibility, and the desire for security are not innate human characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity for applying imagination, ingenuity, and creativity to solving on-the-job problems is “widely, not narrowly, distributed in the population.” </li></ul><ul><li>The modern industrial organization uses only a portion of the intellectual potential of the average human being. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Theory X & Y Theory X Work is natural Capable of self-direction Seek responsibility Can make good decisions Work avoiding Need to control Avoid responsibility Workers seek security Theory Y
  21. 21. Situational Leadership <ul><li>Behaviors </li></ul>(Kenneth Blanchard and Paul Hersey) Directive Behaviors Supportive Behaviors
  22. 22. Situational Leadership Styles Directing Coaching Close supervision most effective for training or emergencies Direct supervision and support to build commitment Supportive Delegating <ul><ul><li>Assists employees lacking commitment to improve performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Lead as little as possible” </li></ul></ul>more
  23. 23. Situational Leadership Styles
  24. 24. Transactional Leadership ( Burns, 1978; Bass 1985) <ul><li>Transactional Leadership… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership is a process where a leader is able to bring about desired actions from others by using certain behaviors, rewards, or incentives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transactional leaders motivate workers by appealing to their self-interest </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Transactional Leaders <ul><li>Transactional leaders use conventional reward and punishment to gain compliance from their followers. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Do as I say and you will get a raise.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Meet this quota or you will get fired.&quot; </li></ul>a typical statement: «If you reach the quality goal, you‘ll get 5% of your annual wage as a bonus»
  26. 26. Transformational Leaders <ul><li>Transformational leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate with and inspire workers about the mission and objectives of the company </li></ul><ul><li>Provide workers with meaningful, interesting, and challenging jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Act as coaches and mentors to support, develop and empower workers </li></ul><ul><li>Lead by example </li></ul>a typical statement: «You are a bit unconcentrated during the last days; is there anything wrong at home or with your collegues?»
  27. 27. Transformational Leadership <ul><li>Transformational Leadership… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership is a process of eliciting performance above and beyond normal expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Charisma </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Individual consideration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual stimulation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Transformational Leadership Elements Transformational Leadership Communicating the Vision Modelling the Vision Creating a Strategic Vision Building Commitment
  29. 29. Developing Your Own Style <ul><li>No one can teach you; but a lot of what the behavioral scientists are saying can be very useful to you. </li></ul><ul><li>Theory X makes people unproductive and worst counterproductive. </li></ul><ul><li>Theory Y satisfy inner needs as self respect, achievement, independence, responsibility status, and growth. </li></ul><ul><li>How you behave, your leadership style </li></ul><ul><li>Who your followers are: their competence and motivation for a given task </li></ul><ul><li>The match between how and who </li></ul><ul><li>What leadership skills you can apply </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Leaders: </li></ul><ul><li>Establish direction </li></ul><ul><li>Align people </li></ul><ul><li>Motivate and inspire </li></ul><ul><li>Produce change </li></ul><ul><li>Look forward </li></ul>Leader vs. Manager <ul><li>Managers: </li></ul><ul><li>Plan & Budget </li></ul><ul><li>Organize & Staff </li></ul><ul><li>Problem solve </li></ul><ul><li>Produce order& predictability </li></ul><ul><li>Move things forward </li></ul>
  31. 31. .. <ul><li>L.E.A.D.E.R.S.H.I.P. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>L oyalty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E xcellence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A ttitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D etermination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E nergy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R esponsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S tandards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H onor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I nspiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P erformance </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Leaders and Managers: Distinguishing their Roles Establish organizational mission Formulate Strategy for implementing mission Implement organizational strategy Leader’s Job Manager’s Job
  33. 33. Examples of Applying Theory Situation Leader Followers Outcomes Substandard performance (no rewards for performance) Reduced role ambiguity (clearer effort-to-performance links) Newly formed work unit Directive behaviors (tell followers what to do and how to do it) Directive behaviors (make rewards available and contingent on performance) Clearer performance-to-reward links (increased valence) Higher effort Higher satisfaction Higher effort Higher satisfaction
  34. 34. .. <ul><li>“ Always dream and shot higher than you know you can do. Don’t bother just to be better than your contemporaries or predecessors. Try to be better than yourself” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Old Chinese Proverb </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>Thanking You </li></ul><ul><li>By:- </li></ul><ul><li>super VAR </li></ul>