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Morton presentation6


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The powerpoint presentation i used at Morton Arboretum on Wednesday 9th December - Overview of TERN Ausplots, Methods used and a focus on photopoints.

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Morton presentation6

  1. 1. AusPlots Designing a surveillance monitoring network for Australia. Presentation by Ben Sparrow With help from the Ausplots Team
  2. 2. Political/Historical context • Global Financial Crisis • Australian Government response -Stimulus • Favoured Infrastructure – NCRIS (National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Scheme) • Research infrastructure – Environmental = TERN • Not tangible infrastructure eg. Roads, but not classical research either research – need to deliver Data – Different measures of Success
  3. 3. Primarily funded to support / develop ecological research infrastructure – integrate existing data and make it accessible to the national and global ecosystem sciences community in a common format; and – collect new data strategically in areas of high priority to allow subsequent analysis and modeling of the assimilated data. In the context of AusPlots the Plots and their associated data are considered to be infrastructure. TERN the Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network
  4. 4. What is TERN? • A Network of scientists and practitioners collecting and delivering ecological research infrastructure. • Delivered as a number of facilities: • Auscover: Ecological/ biophysical remote sensing products • Ausplots: Surveillance monitoring of Australian ecosystems • ACEAS – A Synthesis facility similar to NCEAS
  5. 5. • Coasts: Info in the interface between terrestrial and marine • Australian Supersite Network (ASN): Highly instrumented study sites. • Australian Transect Network (ATN): Data and questions on environmental gradients; Space as a proxy for time • Eco-informatics – Data delivery warehouse; Fully integrated data • E-Mast – Ecological and biophysical modelling
  6. 6. • Long Term Ecological Research Network (LTERN): Brings together scientists working on long term sites – Question based targeted monitoring • Ozflux: a series of flux towers to understand fluxes between land and atmosphere • Soil and Landscape Grid: Delivering Australian Soil information in line from plot to continent • Many facilities collaborate together on aspects of their work.
  7. 7. After Eyre et. al. 2011 Population Ecology Community Ecology Biogeography/ Landscape Ecology Types of monitoring Auscover/ E-mast/ ACEAS/ Soil Grid LTERN/OzFlux/ASN ATN Ausplots
  8. 8. Monitoring There is ongoing tension between different types of monitoring regarding their relative merits. Often a monitoring program is judged on what would define a successful monitoring program for a different type of monitoring. Each type of monitoring needs to be judged against its aims and objectives.
  9. 9. Which is better? They all have their Place! All are needed and provide useful contributions to our knowledge of Australian environments. Each of these endeavours need to cooperate/ collaborate with the others to provide a holistic solution to monitoring. The most important parts are actually the arrows!
  10. 10. Surveillance Monitoring • Looks at entire communities ( Is more likely to be concerned with the trajectory of communities rather than individuals or species) • Versatile and reusable – Useful for many purposes • Drivers unknown (May provide some insight, but that is not the focus of design) • Broad stakeholder base, given multiple purposes • Detect and quantify change that we don’t know about and weren’t anticipating • Some hope of method standardisation – If method broad in scope
  11. 11. • Likely to be able to adapt to emerging issues – If method broad in scope • Has focus areas rather than tightly defined questions – it is likely that this information will inform on many questions. • Aims to detect and quantify environmental change across large geographical areas. • Less likely for the same sites to be regularly revisited – Longer re-visit time. (Duration of many years) • More often assessing long term change rather than shorter term dynamics.
  12. 12. NOT Because we want to know if there is a problem, but we don’t have the resources to have the fire department everywhere all the time!
  13. 13. Types of environments we work in
  14. 14. Acacia Forests and Woodlands
  15. 15. Chenopod Shrublands, Samphire Shrublands and Forblands
  16. 16. Tussock Grasslands
  17. 17. Mallee Woodlands and Shrublands
  18. 18. Melaleuca Forests and Woodlands
  19. 19. Hummock Grasslands
  20. 20. Eucalypt Woodlands
  21. 21. Eucalypt Open Forests
  22. 22. Tropical Eucalypt Woodlands/Grasslands
  23. 23. AusPlots An example of surveillance monitoring
  24. 24. Objectives of AusPlots National network of surveillance and ecosystem baseline assessment sites Developing standardised plot assessment methods to be used for measuring and sampling vegetation and soils, and Developing and implementing a stratification process to decide the locations of plots, which is applicable at a continental scale, and Establish permanent plot infrastructure throughout Australia where baseline surveys of vegetation and soils will be conducted by Implementing the plot assessment methods developed for measuring and sampling vegetation and soils - in the locations decided, and - analysing the samples collected, and Storing the data and making it freely available To enable the detection (and trajectory and magnitude) of environmental change across the continent to be determined.
  25. 25. Two Programs • Ausplots Forests – 48 plots in Tall Eucalypt Forrest – Accurately quantify Growth of Trees – 1 week a site • Ausplots Rangelands – Rangelands a management – using FAO definition ½ forest – 500+ Sites across the country – 1 day per site – Focus of this presentation
  26. 26. 81% of Australia Wide variety of environments Wide climatic variation Generally Data poor / gaps Where we work
  27. 27. AusPlots
  28. 28. Stage 1. Determining Bioregional groupings using hierarchical clustering techniques Stage 2. Decisions on which bioregions to sample Stage 3. GIS analysis within each bioregion Stage 4. Field Location whilst on ground. Where? - Stratification
  29. 29. Addresses knowledge gaps Located where there is a NEED for data
  30. 30. Respond to local and regional information needs where compatible
  31. 31. Hutchinson et. al., 2005
  32. 32. Prentice/Dong u diag Relates to a series of Temperature variables RelatestoaseriesofMoisturevariables
  33. 33. Since the creation of the Rangelands protocols, and their widespread acceptance we’ve added: » A Tall Eucalypt Forest protocol » A Condition assessment protocol » A Woodlands Protocol » A Vertebrate Fauna Survey Protocol, With ongoing work on: » A Fungi Protocol » A Ground Dwelling Invertebrates » A Core attributes (quicker) method » Identifying and articulating what re-visits entail. New Method Development
  34. 34. Use new / innovative techniques where sensible
  35. 35. Consistent and accurate data Standards, Collection and Curation A Nationally accepted method Details all aspects of method Easy to use and well illustrated Explains reasoning Regularly updated Available at: useourinfrastructure/ Designed to be used with our training course New modules being added – Check back regularly.
  36. 36. Data collection and curation 66
  37. 37. Field Data Collection App: AusScribe 67
  38. 38. Data Delivery System Field Collection Curation Database Storage Retrieval
  39. 39. Data Delivery: Soils to Satellites
  40. 40. Data Delivery: Aekos
  41. 41. Widespread collaboration Extensive Networking / Collaboration / input to the process The challenges of this kind of project are greater socially than they are scientifically! Over 50 national and international collaborators working with us on data collection and analysis. SA SA National NationalNational Collaborator TAS QLD NSW NSW NSWNT WA WA NSW National TERN TERN TERN TERN QLD
  42. 42. Field team • Based in Adelaide • Provides consistency • Best way to use scarce resources – Would prefer to have state based teams in the future if funding allowed. • Well equipped • Can train others • Work in conjunction with state agencies where possible. • Work well together in trying conditions.
  43. 43. Training courses • At least one per year • A day of lectures explaining all aspects of the method • A day learning each component of our method (Vegetation, Soils and Technical Aspects) • Focuses on theoretical and practical aspects • Pragmatic • Held in the Rangelands
  44. 44. Outputs Still early days for the project given that re-visits are only just starting (along with further roll out) Currently used for validation of groundcover Rangeland management programs Taxonomy – New species and range extensions Modelling of climate change scenarios Government are supporting surveillance monitoring as an essential input to future state of environment reporting. Inform on soil crust ( and hence erosion)
  45. 45. …and many publications 2015 Christmas M., Breed M., and Lowe A.J. (In review) Constraints and conservation implications for climate change adaptation in plants. Biological Conservation Guerin G.R., Sweeney S.M., Pisanu P., Caddy-Retalic S., and Lowe A.J. (In review) Establishment of an ecosystem transect to address climate change policy questions for natural resource management. Environmental Management Guerin G.R. and Lowe A.J. (In review) Mapping phylogenetic endemism using georeferenced branch extents. Methods in Ecology and Evolution Guerin G.R., Ruokolainen L. and Lowe A.J. (In press) A georeferenced implementation of weighted endemism. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 2014 Bowman D.M.J.S., Williamson G.J., Keenan R.J. and Prior L.D. (2014) A warmer world will reduce tree growth in evergreen broadleaf forests: Evidence from Australian temperate and subtropical eucalypt forests. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 23(8): 925-934. (DOI: 10.1111/geb.12171) Breed M.F., Christmas M.J. and Lowe A.J. (2014) Higher levels of multiple paternities increase seedling survival in the long-lived tree Eucalyptus gracilis.PLOS ONE, 9(2) e90478 (DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0090478) Guerin G.R., Martín-Forés I., Biffin E., Baruch Z., Breed M.F., Christmas M.J., Cross H.B. and Lowe A.J. (2014) Global change community ecology beyond species sorting: a quantitative framework based on Mediterranean Biome examples. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 23: 1062– 1072. Guerin G.R., Biffin E., Jardine D.I., Cross H.B. and Lowe A.J. (2014) A spatially predictive baseline for monitoring multivariate species occurrences and phylogenetic shifts in Mediterranean southern Australia. Journal of Vegetation Science, 25: 338–348. McCallum K., Guerin G.R., Breed M.F. and Lowe A.J. (2014) Combining population genetics, species distribution modelling and field assessments to understand a species vulnerability to climate change. Austral Ecology, 39: 17–28. Prior L.D. and Bowman D.M.J.S. (2014) Across a macro-ecological gradient forest competition is strongest at the most productive sites. Frontiers in Plant Science, 5: 260. (DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2014.00260) Prior L.D. and Bowman D.M.J.S. (2014) Big eucalypts grow more slowly in a warm climate: evidence of an interaction between tree size and temperature. Global Change Biology, 20(9): 2793-2799. (DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12540) Schut A.G.T., Wardell-Johnson G.W., Yates C.J., Keppel G., Baran I., Franklin S.E., Hopper S.D., Van Neil K., Mucina L. and Byrne M. (2014) Rapid characterisation of vegetation structure to predict refugia and climate change impacts across a global biodiversity hotspot. PLOS ONE, 9: e82778. (DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0082778) Tapper S-L., Byrne M., Yates C.J., Keppel G., Hopper S.D., Van Niel K., Schut A.G.T., Mucina L. and Wardell-Johnson G.W. (2014) Isolated with persistence or dynamically connected? Genetic patterns in a common granite outcrop endemic. Diversity and Distributions, 20(9): 987-1001 (DOI: 10.1111/ddi.12185) Tapper S-L., Byrne M., Yates C.J., Keppel G., Hopper S.D., Van Niel K., Schut A.G.T., Mucina L. and Wardell-Johnson G.W. (2014) Long-term isolation and persistence of Stypandra glauca R.Br. (Hemerocallidaceae) on granite outcrops in both mesic and arid environments in southwestern Australia. Journal of Biogeography, 41: 2032-2044. (DOI: 10.1111/jbi.12343)
  46. 46. Getting our message out • Presentations to community groups. • Workshops • Targeted presentations (state agencies, fed Govt.) • Briefing ministerial advisors • Well maintained website • Conference presentations • International reference groups / tours • Regular TERN Newsletter articles to large mailing list.
  47. 47. About Our Method • Practicality/pragmatism has had to prevail • “It’s not about developing the perfect method, but rather understanding how imperfect the method is.” Modular Methods • The method has been designed in modules • Ease of use in the field • For your own purposes (not AusPlots funded) there is the possibility of only including some modules • For AusPlots and training purposes we will cover all modules
  48. 48. S1 NEN5N4N3N2N1NW W5 W4 W3 W2 W1 SW S2 S3 S4 S5 SE E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 What do we collect?
  49. 49. Voucher Specimens for official Identification and future use.
  50. 50. Vouchers for genetic and isotope analysis 1. Take around 10 cm2 from each voucher specimen 2. Place into a synthetic tea bag and seal 3. Label with adhesive voucher label and scan with app 4. Place bag in box with ⅓ cup silica granules (self indicating and non-indicating granules) 5. Seal box and ensure it is labelled with plot identifier. Preferably 1 box per plot. Change silica every few days until indicator no longer changes colour. 6. Samples can then be used for isotope and DNA analyses + Duplicates for Dominant species
  51. 51. Laying out the measuring tape between the transect end pegs First point taken at the ‘0’ Meter mark Point Intercept
  52. 52. Densiometer Graduated Staff Laser Pointer Field Cover Assessment Device (Gandalf’s Staff)
  53. 53. Assesses canopy cover above the device Indicates height Assesses Cover below the device Field Cover Assessment Device (Gandalf’s Staff) Any vegetation touching the device between the laser pointer and the densitometer is also included
  54. 54. In this example the substrate is litter as that is what the laser is intersecting Height is read from the staff
  55. 55. Assessing Cover above the device • Uses a densitometer • Ensure the device is level using the bubble level • Use the cross hairs and small circle to identify what is intersected.
  56. 56. No Intersect In Canopy - Sky Eucalyptus sp.
  57. 57. Point Intercept Data
  58. 58. Basal Wedge
  59. 59. Three most dominant species nominated in each strata, in decreasing order of cover Structural Information
  60. 60. Ground Layer Cenchrus cilliaris - 1
  61. 61. Mid Layer Senna artemisioides ssp. Filifolia - 1
  62. 62. Upper LayerAcacia aneura – 1 Acacia estrophiolata – 2 Hakea divaricata - 3
  63. 63. Emergent Layer Acacia estrophiolata - 1
  64. 64. During After Leaf Area Index
  65. 65. Soil Metagenomic Samples 9 Samples across the site Top 3cm of soil and crust Dried and stored
  66. 66. Soil Pit
  67. 67. 9 x 30cm Subsites to sample variability Store samples in bags and prepare for NSA on return from the field
  68. 68. Bulk density • 3 depths at pit. • To calibrate other measures to soil volume
  69. 69. 1 Basal Area from Photopoints….. • Is it possible?
  70. 70. Ways it is currently obtained 10 5 Basal Wedge DBH Measurement Terrestrial LiDAR
  71. 71. An Alternative: A New Photopoint method Photo Layout 10 6 •24mm Focal Length •Aperture = F11 •ISO 100 •Raw Format (+/- JPG) •1.3m to centre of lens •Calibration target used •2.5m Baseline •DGPS Location recorded
  72. 72. A New Photopoint method The Tripod 10 7 Tripod and Star Picket setup If terrain not flat then attempt to copy the average slope.
  73. 73. A New Photopoint method Raw outputs 10 8 ETC.
  74. 74. The Scene Reconstruction Process 10 9 Identifes Like features in images pairs Uses this to calculate camera location Using Camera location information projects information into 3d space
  75. 75. DBH Calculations Trunks then identified Spectrally, but including 3D information A Cylinder is fitted to each trunk The Cylinder is cut at 1.3m (DBH) and the area of the cross section is calculated (DBH for the individual tree) These DBH’s are then summed for the whole site. Currently hasa max depth of view, but improvements being worked on.
  76. 76. Trunk Identification and Basal area calculation 11 1
  77. 77. Other outputs: pointclouds 11 2
  78. 78. Other Outputs: Panoramas 11 3
  79. 79. Benefits 11 4
  80. 80. Benefits 11 5 Method Cost Equipment Cost Staff Time Accuracy Direct Harvesting * *** *** *** Basal Wedge * * * * DBH measures * *** *** *** LIDAR *** *** *** *** Photopoints ** * * **
  81. 81. Future work 11 6 Take account of Occlusion Trial and accuracy assess in a variety of ecosystems Determine method variation needed for different environments Automate processing (Work Commenced) – Submission for the public using a web interface Manage Huge Datasets Process our archive of 300+ Sites With your help: Assess performance in snow Non – Australian environments Performance in urban environments.
  82. 82. Link To Video
  83. 83. How to get samples At Present have collected approximately: >10,000 Soil samples ~2700 Soil metagenomic Samples >15000 Voucher specimens ~ 15000 Genetic Samples ~ 16000 Dominant Genetic replicates All of which can be access following standard protocols Information pack available for download at our website Details how to get access.
  84. 84. What can AusPlots offer you? For details including Volunteering, HDR, Data, methods, Samples, Training, App etc. 08 8313 1201