Egyptian Artisanry


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Egyptian Artisanry

  1. 1. Egyptian Artisanry
  2. 2. <ul><li>Artisans only produced work for higher class people. </li></ul><ul><li>The same basic materials were used throughout the Egyptian period. </li></ul><ul><li>Woodwork: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cabinet makers for the rich; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower classes made their own basic furniture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shipwrights also for the rich </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Metalwork: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gold, silver, electrum, iron, copper, bronze; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smelting of copper and tin for bronze, and later of iron; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for funerary items and jewellery for the rich. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Stone Masons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Worked on temples, houses and tombs for the higher classes, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sculpture for Royalty (‘advertising’), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Draftsmen and masons separate jobs, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stone was polished and painted, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bronze saws 3metres long, set with jewels, and jewelled drills used. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Weights and Measures <ul><li>Standardisation very important for trade </li></ul><ul><li>The DEBEN was a standard of weight/worth </li></ul><ul><li>It was used as a ‘proto-currency’ (“almost-money”) </li></ul><ul><li>Sets of bronze rings were kept as a ‘base’ for exchange ( they weren’t exchanged) </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Most Egyptians lived at subsistence level, so could not ‘afford’ luxuries </li></ul><ul><li>(the basically grew enough to feed themselves, with a bit extra for tax), </li></ul><ul><li>60kg of wheat = Two Deben of Copper </li></ul>
  7. 7. Conversion rates: <ul><li>1/12 deben = one Seniu </li></ul><ul><li>1 seniu of silver = 8 deben of copper </li></ul><ul><li>1 loaf of bread = 1 deben of copper </li></ul><ul><li>1 litre of beer = ½ deben of copper </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Foreman earned 15 sacks of corn (4 ½ deben) </li></ul><ul><li>Worker earned 11 sacks </li></ul>
  9. 9. Taxes <ul><li>Temples owned 1/3 of all land and were exempt from tax </li></ul><ul><li>Grain was heavily taxed (and the redistributed by government) </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants were taxed the most heavily </li></ul>
  10. 10. Imports Sinai Copper, turquoise, malachite Punt Incense, resin Palestine Silver Nubia Gold, ivory, ebony Mediterranean Olive oil, pottery Lebanon Cedar Afghanistan Ornaments, oils, wine From Product