Spanish 3 Grammar Book

644 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

Spanish 3 Grammar Book

  1. 1. Spanish 3 Grammar Book Bruno Peters
  2. 2. Table of Contents <ul><li>1- Title </li></ul><ul><li>2- Table of Contents </li></ul><ul><li>3- Preterite Tense </li></ul><ul><li>4- Preterite Triggers </li></ul><ul><li>5- Car, Gar, Zar </li></ul><ul><li>6- Spock </li></ul><ul><li>7- Snake, Snakey </li></ul><ul><li>8- Cucuracha </li></ul><ul><li>9- Imperfect Tense </li></ul><ul><li>10- Imperfect Triggers </li></ul><ul><li>11- Irregulars </li></ul><ul><li>12-Preterite vs. Imperfect </li></ul><ul><li>13- Ser vs. Estar </li></ul><ul><li>14- Verbs like Gustar </li></ul><ul><li>15- Comparatives and Superlatives </li></ul><ul><li>16- Future Tense </li></ul><ul><li>17- Future Triggers </li></ul><ul><li>18- Future Irregulars </li></ul><ul><li>19- Transition Words </li></ul><ul><li>20- Por </li></ul><ul><li>21- Para </li></ul>
  3. 3. Preterite <ul><li>This verb form is used for completed actions in the past. Such as you ate yesterday, comiste ayer, or I swam at 8, Nadé a las ocho. They have a definitive start and end. </li></ul><ul><li>Regular Verb Forms </li></ul><ul><li>-Ar </li></ul><ul><li>-Er/Ir </li></ul>é amos aste - ó aron í imos iste - ió ieron
  4. 4. Triggers <ul><li>Every verb tense has words which will help you identify which tense to use. For the preterite tense... </li></ul><ul><li>Ante ayer </li></ul><ul><li>El dia anterior </li></ul><ul><li>El jueves pasado </li></ul><ul><li>El otro dia </li></ul><ul><li>UN! vez </li></ul><ul><li>All these will help you identify the perterite tense </li></ul>
  5. 5. Car, Gar, Zar <ul><li>Most (if not all) verb forms have irregulars. The preterite has quite a few...the first being the car, gar, and zar verbs. </li></ul><ul><li>For these verbs, take off the ending of the infintive, and for the YO form with verbs ending in car, gar, or zar, use the endings qué, gué, and cé respectively. </li></ul><ul><li>buscar---busqu é </li></ul><ul><li>llegar---llegué </li></ul><ul><li>empezar---empecé </li></ul>
  6. 6. Spock! <ul><li>Irregular conjugations for each grouping. No accents! </li></ul>Hacer Dar Ir Ser Ver Dar/Ver -i,-imos,-iste,-io,-ieron Hacer hice, hicimos, hiciste, hizo, hicieron Ir/Ser fui, fuimos, fuiste, fue, fueron
  7. 7. Snake....Snakey <ul><li>Only the bottom of the chart....(3 rd person) has an irregular conjugation where the vowel changes to a y. </li></ul><ul><li>Leer </li></ul><ul><li>leyó </li></ul><ul><li>leyeron </li></ul><ul><li>Oir </li></ul><ul><li>oy ó </li></ul><ul><li>oyeron </li></ul>
  8. 8. Cucurachas! <ul><li>These verbs all have the same endings: e, imos, iste, o, ieron. </li></ul><ul><li>Anduve, anduvimos, anduviste, anduvo, anduvieron </li></ul><ul><li>andar anduv- </li></ul><ul><li>estar estuv- </li></ul><ul><li>tener tuv- </li></ul><ul><li>caber cup- </li></ul><ul><li>haber hub- </li></ul><ul><li>poder pud- </li></ul><ul><li>poner pus- </li></ul><ul><li>saber sup- </li></ul><ul><li>hacer hic- </li></ul><ul><li>querer quis- </li></ul><ul><li>venir vin- </li></ul><ul><li>*decir dij- </li></ul><ul><li>*producir produj- </li></ul><ul><li>*traer traj- </li></ul>***** for those, the 3 rd person plural drops the 'I' in the conjugation. For example. Trajeron instead of trajieron....
  9. 9. Imperfect <ul><li>Used to describe past actions that don't have a specific beginning or ending. They have an imperfect time. They describe habitual past actions, or uncompleted actions. Also vague refrences would use the imperfect.... cuando ERA niño... </li></ul><ul><li>The endings are.... </li></ul><ul><li>-Ar </li></ul><ul><li>-Er/Ir </li></ul>aba abámos abas - aba aban ía íamos ías - ía ían
  10. 10. Triggers <ul><li>Denotes the imperfect tense!!!! </li></ul><ul><li>A veces </li></ul><ul><li>A menudo </li></ul><ul><li>De vez en cuando </li></ul><ul><li>Mientras </li></ul><ul><li>Muchas veces </li></ul><ul><li>Los lunes </li></ul><ul><li>Cada dia </li></ul><ul><li>Frequentemente </li></ul><ul><li>siempre </li></ul>
  11. 11. Imperfect Irregulars <ul><li>Ir </li></ul><ul><li>iba </li></ul><ul><li>ibas </li></ul><ul><li>iba </li></ul><ul><li>íbamos </li></ul><ul><li>iban </li></ul><ul><li>Ser </li></ul><ul><li>era </li></ul><ul><li>eras </li></ul><ul><li>era </li></ul><ul><li>éramos </li></ul><ul><li>eran </li></ul>Ver veía veías veía veíamos veían
  12. 12. Preterite v s. Imperfect <ul><li>We have two ways we could possibly express past actions, with the preterite and imperfect tenses. So, which one should we use? Well, the preterite, as I said before, is like a snapshot, a definite time. Imperfect is like a movie, it keeps moving. </li></ul><ul><li>If that isn't confusing enough, they can both be used in the same sentence. But luckily, the imperfect shows the background information such as time, weather, and location, while the preterite shows the specific events. </li></ul>Nadaste a las dies (Pret.) Nadaba de vez en cuando (imp.) Cuando dorm ía, mi perro comió una hamburguesa con queso.
  13. 13. Ser v s. Estar <ul><li>Ser </li></ul><ul><li>D- descriptions </li></ul><ul><li>O- occupations </li></ul><ul><li>C- characteristic </li></ul><ul><li>T- time </li></ul><ul><li>O- origin </li></ul><ul><li>R- relationships </li></ul><ul><li>P- possesion </li></ul><ul><li>E- events </li></ul><ul><li>D- dates </li></ul><ul><li>Estar </li></ul><ul><li>H- health </li></ul><ul><li>E- emotions </li></ul><ul><li>L- location </li></ul><ul><li>P- physical characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>ING- for verbs in English ending in -ing you need estar + verb + ando/iendo </li></ul>
  14. 14. Verbs like Gustar <ul><li>Some verbs work like gustar </li></ul><ul><li>Personal pronoun + gusta/an + noun </li></ul><ul><li>me encantan los zapatos </li></ul><ul><li>me fascina comer </li></ul><ul><li>no me importa </li></ul><ul><li>aburrir, faltar, importar, interesar, molestar, quedar, caer, doler, disgustar, preocupar, sorprender, apetecer </li></ul>
  15. 15. Comparatives and Superlatives <ul><li>Comparatives </li></ul><ul><li>Mas ____ que ____ </li></ul><ul><li>Menos ____ que ____ </li></ul><ul><li>Nuestra casa es mas grande que su casa </li></ul><ul><li>Superlatives </li></ul><ul><li>el mas ___ de ____ </li></ul><ul><li>el menos ___ de ____ </li></ul><ul><li>Nuestra casa es el mas grande de todos en el mundo </li></ul><ul><li>*Irregular adjectives </li></ul><ul><li>Bueno- mejor </li></ul><ul><li>Malo- peor </li></ul><ul><li>Viejo- mayor </li></ul><ul><li>Joven- menor </li></ul><ul><li>*Numbers! </li></ul><ul><li>Mas de or menos de </li></ul><ul><li>*OTRO! </li></ul><ul><li>Tan___ como </li></ul><ul><li>as ___ as </li></ul><ul><li>Tanto ___como </li></ul><ul><li>as much/many as </li></ul>
  16. 16. Future Tense <ul><li>All verbs end the same way! Infintive + ending </li></ul><ul><li>Hablaré miercoles. </li></ul>é emos ás - á án
  17. 17. Triggers <ul><li>When you see these, you know the event will be happening sometime in the future! </li></ul><ul><li>Mañana </li></ul><ul><li>El lunes </li></ul><ul><li>Despues de mañana </li></ul><ul><li>El proximo dia </li></ul>
  18. 18. Irregulars! <ul><li>Same endings, but the stem changes! </li></ul><ul><li>Caber cabr </li></ul><ul><li>Poner pondr </li></ul><ul><li>Decir dir </li></ul><ul><li>Haber habr </li></ul><ul><li>Salir saldr </li></ul><ul><li>Hacer har </li></ul><ul><li>Poder podr </li></ul><ul><li>Tener tendr </li></ul><ul><li>Querer querr </li></ul><ul><li>Valer valdr </li></ul><ul><li>Sabe sabr </li></ul><ul><li>Venir vendr </li></ul>
  19. 19. Transition Words <ul><li>These words will spice up your sentences and provide you with ways of saying more things. </li></ul><ul><li>Aunque- even though </li></ul><ul><li>Mientras- while </li></ul><ul><li>A pasar de- in spite of </li></ul><ul><li>Por lo tanto- therefore </li></ul><ul><li>Sin embargo/no obstante- nevertheless </li></ul>
  20. 20. Por <ul><li>For </li></ul><ul><li>By means of </li></ul>Passing through PORtal General, not specific PORtugal How long PORever The cause of something PORpuse An exhange imPORt/exPORt Doing something in place of someone I am POR, pay for me By means of moving transPORtation
  21. 21. Para <ul><li>For </li></ul><ul><li>In order to </li></ul>For whom something is done Suprise PARAtay Destination PARAguay The purpose for whom something is done PARAsites Opinions PARAdon me, but... Contrast and compare comPARAson deadline PARAmedic

×