Gilles DeleuzeContemporary French Philosopher.A typological study of cinema:Movement Image or Action-Image—a form ofrealism.fromGilles Deleuze, Cinema 1: The Movement ImageandCinema 2: The Time Image, published 1990.
Realism= action-image• Realism occurs when emotions are seen asbehaviours which reflect geographical,historical and social space-times” (Deleuze,Cinema I. 141).Dallas=Her behaviour reflects the definite limitsgiven to the prostitute by the social space andtime of the “wild-west” (narrative).
Ford’s choice of location for Westerns:• Monument ValleyDeterminate• The space-time of realism is a “Determinate,with exact and definite limits” (141), as withPlymouth Rock country.• Milieu
• Milieu= geographical, historical and socialspace-times• Synsign= the sign of the milieu• Richard Maltby.
• Classical (Hollywood) Cinema is based onprinciples of “decorum, proportion, formalharmony, respect for tradition, mimesis, self-effacing craftsmanship, and cool control of theperceiver’s response” (richard Maltby, 7).• the “classical paradigm emphasises dramaticunity, plausible motivations, and coherence of itsconstituent parts. Each shot is seamlessly elidedto the next in an effort to produce a smooth flowof action, and often a sense of inevitability “(Giannetti, 361).
• global synthesis: unity of image. For Deleuze, itis brought about by the necessary interaction (orrelation) between the milieu and the behavioursof the characters• Encompasser/Englobing, and that whichenglobes, (for example, the sky encompasses therest of the scene in Stagecoach.• Englobing: a meeting of forces, either betweenone actant and the milieu, or two actants(characters).
• “The Milieu and its forces incurve on themselves,that is, they act on the character, throw him achallenge and constitute a situation in which he iscaught” (Deleuze: Cinema 1. 141).• “Encompassed by the sky, the milieu in turnencompasses the collectivity (the group oftravellers and the folk of the West). It is as amember of this collectivity and milieu that thehero becomes capable of an action which makeshim equal to the milieu” (Deleuze: Cinema 1146).
• “the action-image always entails anencompassing milieu of forces and the relatedactions/reactions of an individual andindividuals” (Ronald Bogue, 86).• Deleuze also refers to this conflict of forces asa duel of forces.• Deleuze cites two forms of narrative in whichthe duel of forces are played out, the LargeForm and the Small Form action-image.
Large form Action Image• Large form Action Image— SAS(Situation+Action+Situation).• Binomial: The name given to the sign of aspecific Action/duel of forces is binomial.the binomial exists wherever one force, or bothforces, foresee the activity of the other force, aswith Ringo’s anticipation of the Plummbers
Deleuze sights five laws at work in the Large Formaction-image.• Deleuze sights five laws at work in the Large Form action-image.• First law is the milieu which is a landscape where impingingforces meet.• Second law involves the duel forces of the binomial sign.• Third law involves the convergent forces eventually meetingin a single shot• Fifth law involves a distance (Deleuze refers to a “great gap”)between the englobing milieu/initial situation and theclimactic action.
Small Form Action-Image• Small Form is A-S-A —(Action+Situation+Action).Where the large form action-image forms a unity ofimage, an englobing, the small form action imageconsists of a series of heterogeneous fragments (aswith Lost In Translation).The space is constructed piece by piece; each spacehas its own internal geometric coordinates, its owntemporal rhythms, and its own dramatic intensities,’(Bogue, 90). (Again, consider in terms of Lost inTranslation.)cont….
In the Large Form Action Image, after theestablishing situation in which the protagonist andantagonist face off “the following scenes intensifythis conflict in a rising pattern of action. Thisescalation is treated in terms of cause-effect, witheach scene implying a link to the next” (360).Obversely, in the Small-Form action-image, “’eachscene, each shot … brings a character or an event tothe summit of its autonomy, of its intensivepresence’” (Bogue quoting Deleuze, 90).