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Les vlans

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Les vlans

  1. 1. Les VLANsVirtual Local Area NetworkGuillaume Le Grand IR3 – Ingénieurs 2000
  2. 2. Sommaire• Intérêt• Historique• Principe• La norme 802.1Q• Interconnexion inter-VLAN• GVRP• VTP• VLAN et STP• Exemple d’application• Conclusion
  3. 3. Intérêt
  4. 4. Historique• Originellement ISL (Cisco): ▫ Introduit les notions de Base des VLAN  Étiquettage  Routage inter-VLAN  etc• Par la suite IEEE 802.1Q (1998) ▫ Reprend principalement les notions de l’ISL• IEEE 802.1Q (2003) ▫ Possibilité d’enregistrement dynamique des VLANs (GVRP) ▫ Support la transmission de trames sur plusieurs instances de spanning-tree
  5. 5. Principe• Niveau 2 du modèle OSI.• Segmentation d’un support physique en segments logiques.• Avantages: ▫Limite la diffusion des broadcasts. ▫Plus grande flexibilité de la segmentation du réseau. (indépendance géographique) ▫Amélioration de la sécurité. ▫Priorisation des flux.
  6. 6. Trame ethernet 802.1Q• TPID: type du tag, 0x8100 pour 802.1Q• Priorité: niveaux de priorité définis par l’IEEE 802.1P• CFI: Ethernet ou token-ring• VID: VLAN identifier, jusqu’à 4096 vlans
  7. 7. Types de VLAN• Par port• Par adresse MAC• Par adresse IP• Par Protocole de niveau 3
  8. 8. Terminologie• VID : Vlan ID• PVID : Port Vlan ID• Mode d’accès ▫ Port Access ou untagged(non étiqueté) ▫ Port trunk ou tagged(étiquetté) ▫ Matériel Aware (Vlan-informé)• VLANs de base ▫ VLAN par défaut généralement VLAN 1 ▫ VLAN utilisateur ▫ VLAN de management ▫ VLAN natif
  9. 9. Exemple
  10. 10. Trame Ethernet PVID=20 CommutateurPVID = 20 VLAN 20 autorisé, Port trunkPort access Trame Ethernet VID =20 Trame Ethernet Tag: champs 802.1q
  11. 11. Tag: champs 802.1q VID =20 Trame Ethernet VLAN 20 autorisé, port trunk CommutateurPVID= 20 Port untagged VLAN 20 autorisé, Port trunk Trame Ethernet VID =20 Trame Ethernet Tag: champs 802.1q
  12. 12. Interconnexion inter-VLAN• Se fait au niveau 3 du modèle OSI,• Donc routage, entre interfaces virtuelles• Seul un routeur peut réaliser l’interconnexion entre deux VLANs et modifier ainsi le VID associé à une trame.
  13. 13. Switch#vlan databaseSwitch(vlan)# vlan 2 name VLAN2Switch(vlan)# vlan 3 name VLAN3Switch(vlan)# exitSwitch#conf tSwitch(config)# interface FastEthernet2/1Switch(config-if)# description vers PCSwitch(config-if)# no ip addressSwitch(config-if)# duplex autoSwitch(config-if)# speed autoSwitch(config-if)# switchport access vlan 2
  14. 14. Switch(config-if)# interface FastEthernet2/1Switch(config-if)# description vers switchSwitch(config-if)# no ip addressSwitch(config-if)# duplex autoSwitch(config-if)# speed autoSwitch(config-if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan 2,3Switch(config-if)# encapsulation dot1q
  15. 15. Routeur(config)# interface Vlan 2Routeur(config-if)# description vers secrétariatRouteur(config-if)# ip address 192.168.0.1 255.255.254.0Routeur(config-if)# ip mroute-cacheRouteur(config-if)#interface Vlan 3Routeur(config-if)# description vers DirectionRouteur(config-if)# ip address 192.168.100.1 255.255.255.0Routeur(config-if)# ip mroute-cache
  16. 16. GVRP ou GARP VLAN• Diffusion dynamique des VLAN définis statiquement• Définit dans le 802.1P• BPDU GVRP envoyées de proche en proche ▫ (GID) GARP Information Declaration ▫ (GIP) GARP Information Propagation• GVRP pruning
  17. 17. VTP (VLAN Trunking Protocol)• Propriétaire Cisco• Permet d’administrer les VLANs• Plusieurs mode: ▫ Server ▫ Client ▫ Transparent• Paramètres: ▫ VTP domain ▫ VTP password ▫ VTP pruning
  18. 18. Routeur1# vlan databaseRouteur1(vlan)# vtp domain monDomainRouteur1(vlan)# vtp passwd monMotDePasseRouteur1(vlan)# vtp serverRouteur1(vlan)#vtp prunningRouteur1(vlan)# exitRouteur2# vlan databaseRouteur2(vlan)# vtp domain monDomainRouteur2(vlan)# vtp passwd monMotDePasseRouteur2(vlan)# vtp clientRouteur2(vlan)# vtp prunningRouteur2(vlan)# exit
  19. 19. Vlan et Spanning-tree (STP)• IEEE 802.1D• STP classique ▫ Trame STP sur le Vlan de management. ▫ Nécessairement un seul arbre recouvrant. ▫ En bref, non adapté, pas prévu pour.
  20. 20. Multiple STP et Rapid STP• MSTP: IEEE 802.1s ▫ Un arbre de recouvrement par VLAN. ▫ Un port peut être forwarding pour un VLAN et disabled pour un autre.• RSTP: IEEE 802.1w ▫ Possibilité d’avoir un arbre de recouvrement par VLAN (mode PVST) ▫ Ou pour réduire le nombre d’instances reduire à deux arbres de recouvrement.
  21. 21. RSPAN• Permet de monitorer un port à distanceRouteur(Config)#set vlan 200 rspan• Sur le switch distantRouteur(Config)# set rspan source 3/1 bothOURouteur(Config)# set rspan source 100 bothRouteur(Config)#set rspan destination 4/5
  22. 22. Exemple d’application ToIP
  23. 23. Conclusion• Flexibilité• Sécurité• Facilité d’administration (selon l’architecture)• Dynamique (ou pas)
  24. 24. Bibliographie• IEEE: La source, en anglais. ▫ http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/download/802.1Q-199 8.pdf ▫ http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/download/802.1Q-2003.pdf ▫ http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/download/802.1X-2004.pdf• CISCO: Matériels, exemples, VTP, ISL. ▫ http://www.cisco.com/univercd ▫ http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/473/21.html• CERTA: assez complet, GVRP ▫ http://www.reseaucerta.org/docs/didactique/VLAN.pdf
  25. 25. Question ?

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