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Napoleão Bonaparte

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Napoleão Bonaparte

  1. 1. 1799 a 1815 Prof. Carlos Bidu
  2. 2. <ul><li>Napoleão Bonaparte nasceu na ilha de Córsega, em 1769. </li></ul><ul><li>Governou a França de 1799 a 1815 </li></ul><ul><li>Além de ter sido um grande general, conquistava a lealdade de seus soldados com promessas de glória e riqueza. </li></ul>
  3. 3. ERA NAPOLEÔNICA
  4. 4. <ul><li>1 - O CONSULADO (1799 – 1804): </li></ul><ul><li>Pacificação interna e externa. </li></ul><ul><li>Acordos de paz com países vizinhos. </li></ul><ul><li>Acordo com a Igreja – catolicismo oficial. </li></ul><ul><li>Acordo com a nobreza – anistia. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Retorno de famílias nobres emigradas SEM devolução de terras perdidas durante a Revolução Francesa. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recuperação econômica: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Criação do Banco da França (1800). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nova moeda: Franco. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financiamentos industriais e agrícolas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prêmios para invenções. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Centralização administrativa : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Napoleão = 1º Cônsul, responsável pelo Poder Executivo por 10 anos (Constituição de 1802). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Escolha de ministros. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Código Civil Napoleônico (1804): igualdade jurídica, direito à propriedade, proibição de greves e sindicatos, escravidão nas colônias. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conquistas burguesas asseguradas. </li></ul><ul><li>Controle do ensino. </li></ul><ul><li>Transformado em Cônsul Vitalício e a seguir em Imperador, ambos em 1804, através de plebiscitos. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>A COROAÇÃO DE NAPOLEÃO: </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>2 - O IMPÉRIO (1804 – 1815): </li></ul><ul><li>Atritos permanentes com inimigos vizinhos. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ING – concorrência comercial. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demais países – monarquias absolutistas temerosas com ideais liberais. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Derrotado pela ING na batalha de TRAFALGAR (1805). </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>BLOQUEIO CONTINENTAL (1806): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Napoleão proíbe os países da Europa de manter relações comerciais com a Inglaterra. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objetivo: vencer a Inglaterra através do esgotamento de sua economia. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fracasso. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contrabando. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ING reforça comércio com outras áreas ( principalmente América). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>A EUROPA NAPOLEÔNICA: </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><ul><li>Fuga da família real portuguesa para o Brasil (1808). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carência de produtos manufaturados na Europa. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploração de populações dominadas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resistência a Napoleão. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lenta decadência. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deposição de monarquias absolutistas na Europa. </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>1812 – Campanha da Rússia. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grande derrota de Napoleão. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ terra arrasada”. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1814 – Sexta Coligação (RUS + ING + AUS + PRUS) vence Napoleão. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exílio em Elba. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Retorno – Governo dos Cem Dias (1815). </li></ul><ul><li>1815 – WATERLOO – derrota final de Napoleão. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preso na Ilha de Santa Helena. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Morre em 1821. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>3 - O CONGRESSO DE VIENA (1815): </li></ul><ul><li>Reunião de potências européias após a queda de Napoleão. </li></ul><ul><li>Principais países: AUS – RUS – PRUS – ING (vencedores). </li></ul><ul><li>Objetivo principal: restauração do Antigo Regime. </li></ul><ul><li>Princípios básicos: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LEGITIMIDADE – retorno de velhas dinastias absolutistas ao poder. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EQUILÍBRIO EUROPEU – divisão territorial no continente e no restante do mundo. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maiores beneficiados: líderes. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FRA: fronteiras anteriores à Revolução Francesa. </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>A EUROPA DO CONGRESSO DE VIENA: </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>Criação da SANTA ALIANÇA: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exército conservador, criado por sugestão do czar Alexandre I (RUS). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AUS – RUS – PRUS. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combate ao liberalismo e ao nacionalismo . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manutenção das decisões do Congresso de Viena. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contra os movimentos de independência na América Latina. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>NAPOLEÃO BONAPARTE: </li></ul>

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