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My Westward Expansion ABC Book 1 Created By:  Matthew Martinez
Westward Expansion Timeline map of territorial expansion Created By: Matthew Martinez 2
WESTWARD EXPANSION MAP Created By:  Matthew Martinez 3
Andrew Jackson Created By: Matthew Martinez 4 A Andrew Jackson – 7th president of the United States(1829-1839) He was a staunch champion of states' rights against federalism, and his administration was marked by expansion in Texas, wars with the Indians and his rejection of the Bank of the United States.He took Lincoln’s place after his murder. Andrew Jackson passed the law called “The Indian Removal Act”  in his second year of presidency. This act set forth the handling of Indian affairs. In fact the Cherokee were forced off their lands on the “trail of tears” and to their death in 1838. Born: 15 March 1767  Birthplace: Waxhaw, South Carolina  Died: 8 June 1845
Brigham Young Created By: Matthew Martinez 5 B Brigham Young- (Best Known AsEarly Mormon leader) In 1835 three years after he joined the Mormon church, he was called to the Quorum of the Apostles as successor to Joseph Smith, he led  the migration west. He led the great Mormon migration of 1846-48 and oversaw the church's establishment and growth in Utah. An early convert to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (also known as the Mormons),Young was named president of the church after the 1844 murder of its founder, Joseph Smith. In 1846 to the Rocky Mountains and he found Salt Lake City. Young led the Mormons west and personally chose the site of the church's new colony, which became Salt Lake City.  Born: 1 June 1801  Birthplace:Whitingham, Vermont  Died: 29 August 1877
California Gold Rush Created By: Matthew Martinez 6 C In January 1848, James Wilson Marshall discovered gold while constructing a saw mill. It was in the American River Northeast of present-day Sacramento  It was reported to the San Francisco newspaper but nobody believed the account. But they had proof so on May 1848 30,000 people headed to California. Ships that docked in San Francisco Bay at the height of the fever risked losing their entire crews to the goldfields. Although 80 percent of the "forty-niners" were from the United States and all states were represented, this migration also was a global event, drawing gold seekers from California Indian bands, East Asia, Chile, Mexico, and western Europe. For the United States it was the largest mass migration to date, flooding the previously lightly traveled trails to the West Coast as more than 1 percent of the nation's population moved to California in just a few years. This event was called the  “California Gold Rush.”
DryFarming Created By: Matthew Martinez 7 D Dry Farming- was an agricultural method that allowed crops to be cultivated on the prairie. Which typically received low levels of rainfall  and endured very hot summers and harsh winters. Growers who practiced dry farming cultivated some fields while allowing others to lie fallow. Dry-farming techniques evolved where settlements during the early part of the 1850s, for example, Americans in California began to raise crops such as winter Wheat, whose principal growing season coincided with the winter rainfall season. A type of farming practice
Exodusters Created By: Matthew Martinez 8 E Exodusters- was a name given to African Americans who fled the Southern United States for Kansas in 1879 and 1880. After the end of Reconstruction, racial oppression and rumors of the reinstitution of slavery led many freedmen to seek a new place to live.African Americans  homesteaders who moved westward during the  last decades of the nineteenth century to settle   on the Great Plains. In the South of 1877, the  twelve-years  period of reconstruction (1865- 1877), civil rights for African Americans began to erode. Southern states legislatures adopted laws, so called  “Black Codes” restricted rights for African Americans this was the cause for the civil War. BLACK LAW CODES in 1895:  A  law restricting the freedom of former slaves and were designed to assure white supremacy.
Fremont, John Charles Created By: Matthew Martinez 9 F John Charles Fremont- (Best Known As: The man who mapped the West ) hewas one of most famous explorers of the American West and a towering figure in the history of California's 19th century gold rush. He graduated at Charleston College in 1830. His father was a Frenchman, and his mother  a Virginian. He was an instructor in mathematics for the U.S. Navy from 1833-1835. In the late 1830s and early 1840s he explored and surveyed much of the American west, in particular the Oregon Trail. He eventually settled in California and grew wealthy during the gold rush of 1848. Nationally famous as an explorer, soldier and politician Born: 21 January 1813  Birthplace: Savannah, Georgia  Died: 13 July 1890
Gadsden,James Created By: Matthew Martinez 10 G James Gadsden- U.S. soldier and diplomat. He was appointed an officer in the U.S. Army in 1812. He established military posts in Florida in 1820 and supervised the forced removal of Seminole Indians to reservations in southern Florida in 1823. In 1832 he negotiated a treaty for the removal of the Seminoles to the West, and he served in the war that followed the refusal of some Seminoles to leave Florida. He had a meeting in Mexico City on December 30, 1853 as the U.S. minister to Mexico with the General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, president of Mexico, and he signed the “Gadsden Purchase.” This purchase and treaty settled the dispute over the exact location of the Mexican border west of El Paso, Texas; giving the U.S. claim to approximately 29,000 miles of land. Born: May 15, 1788,  Charleston, S.C.,    Died: Dec. 26, 1858 Charleston, S.C
Homestead Act Created By: Matthew Martinez 11 H The Homestead Act-is one of three  United States federal laws that gave an applicant  freeholdtitle to an area called a "Homestead" – typically 160 acres (65 hectares or one-fourth  section) of undeveloped federal land west of the  Mississippi River. The law required three steps: file an application, improve the land, and file for deed of title. Anyone who had never taken up arms against the U.S. government, including freed slaves, could file an application to claim a federal land grant. The occupant also had to be 21 or older, had to live on the land for five years and show evidence of having made improvements.  The original Homestead Act was signed into law by President  Abraham Lincoln on May 20, 1862
Indian Removal Act Created By: Matthew Martinez 12 I The Indian Removal Act was strongly supported in the South, where states were eager to gain access to lands inhabited by  the FiveCivilized Tribes. In particular,   Georgia, the largest state at that time, was involved in a contentious jurisdictional  dispute with the Cherokee nation. President Jackson hoped removal would resolve the Georgia crisis..  The Indian Removal Act was also very controversial. While Native American  removal was, in theory, supposed to be voluntary, in practice great pressure was  put on Native American leaders to sign removal treaties. Most observers, whether they were in favor of the Indian removal policy or not, realized that the passage of the act meant the inevitable removal of most Indians from the states. Some Native  American leaders who had previously resisted removal now began to reconsider  their positions, especially after Jackson's landslide re-election in 1832. Affected  tribes include the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole.
John Fitch Created By: Matthew Martinez 13 J An American mechanic and inventor, was the first to build and operate a steam boat successfully. In July 1788 Fitch successfully launched a new  and larger boat, which made many trips between Philadelphia and Burlington, N.J., carrying as  many as 30 passengers at a time. In 1790 he put  another boat into service that made regularly  scheduled runs across the Delaware River.  Despite this success, however, steamboat travel  was not accepted by the public. This, combined  with constant mechanical troubles and uncertain  financial backing, resulted in the failure of Fitch's enterprise. John Fitch (1743-1798)
Kearny, Stephen Created By: Matthew Martinez 14 K U.S. Army officer. He served in the War of 1812 and later on the western frontier. At the outbreak  of the Mexican War, he was ordered to seize  New Mexico and California. Using diplomacy to  persuade Mexican troops to withdraw, he  marched unopposed to Santa Fe, where in 1846  he proclaimed a civil government for the province.  Heading to California, he was informed that the  conquest had already been completed by  Robert F. Stockton and John C. Frémont. He  arrived to discover that Mexican rebels had  retaken most of the province. He then joined  forces with Stockton to defeat the rebels in 1847. After initial opposition from Frémont, who had persuaded Stockton to appoint him governor,  Kearny pacified the rest of California and  established a stable civil government. He was  then sent to Mexico, where he died of yellow fever. Born: Aug. 30, 1794,  Newark, N.J., U.S.  Died: Oct. 31, 1848, St. Louis, Mo.
Lewis and Clark Created By: Matthew Martinez 15 L First overland expedition to the U.S. Pacific coast and  back, led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark.  Initiated by Pres. Thomas Jefferson, the expedition  set out to find an overland route to the Pacific,  documenting its exploration through the new  Louisiana Purchase. In 1803, Thomas Jefferson commissioned Capt. Meriwether Lewis and Lt.  William Clark to explore what is now the northwest  United States. The Louisiana Purchase later the same year altered the character of the planned expedition from an exploration of French territory to a first glimpse of lands that, in the view of many contemporaries, were essential to maintaining the agrarian, republican character of the nation. Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804-1806)
Manifest Destiny Created By: Matthew Martinez 16 M Referred to a growing conviction that the  United States was preordained by God to  expand throughout North America. This conviction of a destined glorious future for the United States had roots in colonial times. Many colonial leaders adopted time-honored expansion imagery from the Bible, portraying northern European Protestant colonists as the new Israelites and North America as the new Promised Land to justify conquering new lands and dominating other cultures. Motivated by ideas of manifest destiny, the new English-speaking settlers rebelled in 1835 in an attempt to form an independent state. A series of reactions led to the annexation of Texas in 1845 and war between Mexico and the United States in 1846. The stories of Native  American and Mexican  resistance to Anglo-Saxon  occupation are well known.
New Orleans Louisiana Purchase Created By: Matthew Martinez 17 N A territory of the western United States  extending from the Mississippi River to the  Rocky Mountains between the Gulf of Mexico  and the Canadian border. It was purchased  from France on April 30, 1803, for $15 million  and officially explored by the Lewis and Clark  expedition (1804-1806). In 1762 France had  ceded Louisiana west of the Mississippi River  to Spain, but Spain returned it to French control  in 1800. Alarmed by this potential increase in  French power, Pres. Thomas Jefferson threatened to form an alliance with Britain.  Napoleon then sold the U.S. the entire  Louisiana Territory, although its boundaries  remained unclear; its northwestern and  southwestern limits were not established until  1818 – 19.  The purchase doubled  the area of the U.S.
Oregon Trail Created By: Matthew Martinez 18 O A historical overland route to the western United States extending from various cities on the Missouri River to the Oregon Country and later Oregon Territory. The trail was opened in 1842, and by 1845 more than 3,000 migrants had made the arduous journey. After the coming of the railroad, the trail fell into disuse and was finally abandoned in the 1870s. Major U.S. route to the Northwest in the 1 9th century. It stretched about 2,000 mi (3,200 km), from Independence, Mo., to the Columbia River region of Oregon. First used by fur traders and missionaries, it was  heavily used in the 1840s by travelers to  Oregon, including settlers of the "great  migration," led by Marcus Whitman.  Of all western trails, it was in use for the longest  period, surviving competition from the railroad by serving as a trail for eastward cattle and sheep drives.
Panning for Gold Created By: Matthew Martinez 19 P In almost all cultures around the world throughout  history, gold has been valued and sought as a  precious metal: gold as a mineral, gold as a  commodity, gold as a precious object. The search for gold led the masses to migrate westward and pan for gold. The nuggets found in the American River near Sacramento by James Marshall in 1848 spurned the rush of some half-million people in search of instant wealth. They encountered successive waves of explorers, would-be colonizers, and immigrants, including Spanish missionaries, Mexican and Californio rancheros, Russian hunters, and American trappers, traders and farmers. Who was a Californian? And what did California mean to them? California’s beauty and its immense bounty of natural resources. Each saw a different kind of "gold" to be reaped from this land.
Quincy, John Adams Created By: Matthew Martinez 20 Q (1817 – 25), he was instrumental in acquiring Florida  from Spain and in drafting the Monroe Doctrine. Adams's presidency was unsuccessful; when he ran for  reelection, Jackson defeated him. In 1830 he was elected  to the House, where he served until his death. He was  outspoken in his opposition to slavery; in 1839 he  proposed a constitutional amendment forbidding slavery  In any new state admitted to the Union. Following Andrew Jackson's victory in 1828, Adams was elected to the  House of Representatives, where he opposed nullification, the imposition of a gag rule, and annexation of Texas. In 1841, abolitionists persuaded him to defend the right to freedom of fifty‐three Africans before the Supreme Court in United States v. The Amistad (1841).  He was the only  Federalist senator  from New England to  vote for the Louisiana  Purchase.
Robert Fulton Created By: Matthew Martinez 21 R In 1801 he was commissioned by Robert R. Livingston to  build a steamboat, and in 1807 Fulton's Clermont made  the 150-mi (240-km) journey up the Hudson River from  New York City to Albany in 32 hours, cutting 64 hours off  the usual sailing time. It became the first commercially  successful steamboat in the U.S. Fulton also made  important contributions in portrait painting, canal  engineering, and naval warfare. Born in Pennsylvania,  he lived most of his adult life in Europe. His first naval  project was the submarine Nautilus, manually driven  underwater and tested successfully in French waters in  1800. He later designed several other steamboats,  including the world's first steam warship (1812). He was  a member of the commission that recommended building  the Erie Canal.  The steamboat used for troop transport in the War of 1812, and the construction of the first steam warship in history, USSFulton the First.
Santa Fe Trail Created By: Matthew Martinez 22 S A trade route to the southwest United States  extending about 1,287 km (800 mi) westward  from Independence, Missouri, to Santa Fe,  New Mexico. First traversed in 1821, it was  the primary wagon and stage route to the  Southwest until the coming of the railroad in  1880. Historic wagon trail from  Independence, Mo., to Santa Fe, N.M.,  U.S. An important commercial route from  1821 to 1880, it was opened by  William Becknell and used by merchant  wagon caravans. When the Santa Fe  railroad was completed in 1880, use of the  trail ceased. A 780-mile (1255-km) wagon route  from western Missouri to Santa Fe,  New Mexico, that opened in 1821  and was frequently used, mainly  for trade
Transcontinental Railroad Created By: Matthew Martinez 23 T The world's First Transcontinental Railroad was  built between 1863 and 1869 to join the eastern  and western halves of the United States. Transcontinental railroads helped open up  unpopulated interior regions of continents to  exploration and settlement that would not  otherwise have been feasible. In many cases  they also formed the backbones of cross- country passenger and freight transportation  Networks.. its construction was considered to be  one of the greatest American technological feats  of the 19th century. Known as the "Pacific  Railroad" when it opened, this served as a vital  link for trade, commerce, and travel and opened  up vast regions of the North American heartland  for settlement. The railroad resulted in the end  of most of the far slower and  more hazardous stagecoach lines and wagon trains, and it  led to a great decline of traffic  on the Oregon and California Trail
Union Pacific Railroad Created By: Matthew Martinez 24 U When East met West, Union Pacific Railroad  was there. The principal operating subsidiary  of Union Pacific was chartered by Congress  in 1862 to build part of the first transcontinental rail line. Today, it is one of  North America's largest railroads, providing  freight transportation over 32,000 route miles  of track across the western two-thirds of the  US. It links every major West Coast and Gulf  Coast port and provides service to the east  through major gateways in Chicago, St. Louis,  Memphis, and New Orleans. Union Pacific  Railroad is the nation's largest hauler of  chemicals and one of the largest intermodal  carriers. It also serves all six major gateways  to Mexico and connects with Canada's rail  systems.  In 1865 construction of the  Union Pacific begun. from  Omaha westward Central Pacific, to NW of Ogden, Utah, thus connecting the Missouri River and the Pacific Ocean by rail
Vigilante Created By: Matthew Martinez 25 V Colonial era in America - Formally-defined vigilantism arose in the early American colonies. Established the mid-18th century, for instance, the Regulator movement of American colonial times was composed of citizen volunteers of the frontier who opposed official misconduct and extrajudicially punished banditry. 19th century - A lynching carried out by the San Francisco Committee of Vigilance of 1856. Later in the United States, vigilante groups arose in poorly governed frontier areas where criminals preyed upon the citizenry with impunity For generations, the figures have been associated with the vaunted vigilantes who cleaned up the gold camps in 1864 and earned a place in history as great heroes.  Thomas Dimsdale’s The  Vigilantes of Montana,  praised and defended the  hangmen’s work and  heralded them as founding  fathers, a portrait that endures
Wounded Knee Created By: Matthew Martinez 26 W Hamlet and creek in southwestern South  Dakota, the site of two conflicts between the  Sioux Indians and the U.S. government. In  1890 the Sioux had been inspired by the  Ghost Dance movement to take up arms and  reclaim their heritage, but federal military  intervention quelled the rebellion. On  December 29 a young brave became  involved in a scuffle while surrendering, and  a trooper was killed. Soldiers fired at the  Indians, killing more than 200 men, women,  and children. Thirty soldiers also died. The  so-called Battle of Wounded Knee is  regarded as the final episode in the  conquest of the North American Indian.  Events claims that during the  process of disarming the Lakota,  a deaf tribesman named  Black Coyote was reluctant to  give up his rifle claiming he  had paid a lot for it.
Pony eXpress Created By: Matthew Martinez 27 X The Pony Express was a fast mail service  crossing the Great Plains, the Rocky Mountains,  and the High Sierra from St. Joseph, Missouri,  to Sacramento, California, from April 3, 1860 to  October 1861. It became the west's most direct  means of east-west communication before the  telegraph and was vital for tying California closely  with the Union just before the American Civil War.  Although a financial failure, the Pony Express  successfully filled the communication gap before  the completion of the telegraph, provided  westerners with speedier access to family and  friends in the East, improved contact between  western military outposts, proved the Central  Route was passable year round, and paved the  way for permanent transportation systems along  its route. In 1860 there were about 157  Pony Express stations that were about 10 miles (16 km) apart along the Pony Express route. This was roughly the distance a horse could travel at a gallop before tiring. At each station stop the express rider would change horses to a fresh horse
York(black slave on the Lewis & Clark Expedition) Created By: Matthew Martinez 28 Y An African American slave best known for his  participation with the Lewis and Clark Expedition. As  William Clark's slave, he performed hard manual labor  without pay,but participated as a full member of the  expedition. Like many other expedition members, his  ultimate fate is unclear. There is evidence that after the  expedition's return, Clark had difficulty compelling York  to resume his former status, and York may have later  escaped or been freed, but nothing is entirely clear on  this.York was William Clark's servant from boyhood,  and was left to William in his father's will. The journals  record that the assignments given him attest to his skill  in scouting, hunting and field medicine, but included  manual labor in extreme weather conditions. York used  a firearm to hunt game such as buffalo, as well as for  "protection."  The native nations treated York with respect, and he “played a key role in diplomatic relations" because of his appearance
Zebulon Pike Created By: Matthew Martinez 29 Z As a United States (US) Army captain in 1806-1807, he  led the Pike Expedition to explore and document the  southern portion of the Louisiana Purchase and to find  the headwaters of the Red River, during which he  recorded the discovery of what later was called  Pikes Peak. Captured by the Spanish while wintering in  present-day Colorado after his party got confused in its  travels, Pike and his men were taken to Chihuahua,  present-day Mexico and questioned by the governor.  They were released later in 1807 at the border of  Louisiana. As a prisoner, Pike was treated very well by  the Spaniards. However, they confiscated most of his  papers. (He managed to conceal some notes in his  men's rifle barrels.) Finally, after a year's absence, he  was returned to the United States at Natchitoches, La.,  by a Spanish escort. After the outbreak of the War of 1812 he was promoted to brigadier general (1813)

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My Westward expansion

  • 1. My Westward Expansion ABC Book 1 Created By: Matthew Martinez
  • 2. Westward Expansion Timeline map of territorial expansion Created By: Matthew Martinez 2
  • 3. WESTWARD EXPANSION MAP Created By: Matthew Martinez 3
  • 4. Andrew Jackson Created By: Matthew Martinez 4 A Andrew Jackson – 7th president of the United States(1829-1839) He was a staunch champion of states' rights against federalism, and his administration was marked by expansion in Texas, wars with the Indians and his rejection of the Bank of the United States.He took Lincoln’s place after his murder. Andrew Jackson passed the law called “The Indian Removal Act” in his second year of presidency. This act set forth the handling of Indian affairs. In fact the Cherokee were forced off their lands on the “trail of tears” and to their death in 1838. Born: 15 March 1767 Birthplace: Waxhaw, South Carolina Died: 8 June 1845
  • 5. Brigham Young Created By: Matthew Martinez 5 B Brigham Young- (Best Known AsEarly Mormon leader) In 1835 three years after he joined the Mormon church, he was called to the Quorum of the Apostles as successor to Joseph Smith, he led the migration west. He led the great Mormon migration of 1846-48 and oversaw the church's establishment and growth in Utah. An early convert to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (also known as the Mormons),Young was named president of the church after the 1844 murder of its founder, Joseph Smith. In 1846 to the Rocky Mountains and he found Salt Lake City. Young led the Mormons west and personally chose the site of the church's new colony, which became Salt Lake City. Born: 1 June 1801 Birthplace:Whitingham, Vermont Died: 29 August 1877
  • 6. California Gold Rush Created By: Matthew Martinez 6 C In January 1848, James Wilson Marshall discovered gold while constructing a saw mill. It was in the American River Northeast of present-day Sacramento It was reported to the San Francisco newspaper but nobody believed the account. But they had proof so on May 1848 30,000 people headed to California. Ships that docked in San Francisco Bay at the height of the fever risked losing their entire crews to the goldfields. Although 80 percent of the "forty-niners" were from the United States and all states were represented, this migration also was a global event, drawing gold seekers from California Indian bands, East Asia, Chile, Mexico, and western Europe. For the United States it was the largest mass migration to date, flooding the previously lightly traveled trails to the West Coast as more than 1 percent of the nation's population moved to California in just a few years. This event was called the “California Gold Rush.”
  • 7. DryFarming Created By: Matthew Martinez 7 D Dry Farming- was an agricultural method that allowed crops to be cultivated on the prairie. Which typically received low levels of rainfall and endured very hot summers and harsh winters. Growers who practiced dry farming cultivated some fields while allowing others to lie fallow. Dry-farming techniques evolved where settlements during the early part of the 1850s, for example, Americans in California began to raise crops such as winter Wheat, whose principal growing season coincided with the winter rainfall season. A type of farming practice
  • 8. Exodusters Created By: Matthew Martinez 8 E Exodusters- was a name given to African Americans who fled the Southern United States for Kansas in 1879 and 1880. After the end of Reconstruction, racial oppression and rumors of the reinstitution of slavery led many freedmen to seek a new place to live.African Americans homesteaders who moved westward during the last decades of the nineteenth century to settle on the Great Plains. In the South of 1877, the twelve-years period of reconstruction (1865- 1877), civil rights for African Americans began to erode. Southern states legislatures adopted laws, so called “Black Codes” restricted rights for African Americans this was the cause for the civil War. BLACK LAW CODES in 1895: A law restricting the freedom of former slaves and were designed to assure white supremacy.
  • 9. Fremont, John Charles Created By: Matthew Martinez 9 F John Charles Fremont- (Best Known As: The man who mapped the West ) hewas one of most famous explorers of the American West and a towering figure in the history of California's 19th century gold rush. He graduated at Charleston College in 1830. His father was a Frenchman, and his mother a Virginian. He was an instructor in mathematics for the U.S. Navy from 1833-1835. In the late 1830s and early 1840s he explored and surveyed much of the American west, in particular the Oregon Trail. He eventually settled in California and grew wealthy during the gold rush of 1848. Nationally famous as an explorer, soldier and politician Born: 21 January 1813 Birthplace: Savannah, Georgia Died: 13 July 1890
  • 10. Gadsden,James Created By: Matthew Martinez 10 G James Gadsden- U.S. soldier and diplomat. He was appointed an officer in the U.S. Army in 1812. He established military posts in Florida in 1820 and supervised the forced removal of Seminole Indians to reservations in southern Florida in 1823. In 1832 he negotiated a treaty for the removal of the Seminoles to the West, and he served in the war that followed the refusal of some Seminoles to leave Florida. He had a meeting in Mexico City on December 30, 1853 as the U.S. minister to Mexico with the General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, president of Mexico, and he signed the “Gadsden Purchase.” This purchase and treaty settled the dispute over the exact location of the Mexican border west of El Paso, Texas; giving the U.S. claim to approximately 29,000 miles of land. Born: May 15, 1788, Charleston, S.C., Died: Dec. 26, 1858 Charleston, S.C
  • 11. Homestead Act Created By: Matthew Martinez 11 H The Homestead Act-is one of three United States federal laws that gave an applicant freeholdtitle to an area called a "Homestead" – typically 160 acres (65 hectares or one-fourth section) of undeveloped federal land west of the Mississippi River. The law required three steps: file an application, improve the land, and file for deed of title. Anyone who had never taken up arms against the U.S. government, including freed slaves, could file an application to claim a federal land grant. The occupant also had to be 21 or older, had to live on the land for five years and show evidence of having made improvements. The original Homestead Act was signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln on May 20, 1862
  • 12. Indian Removal Act Created By: Matthew Martinez 12 I The Indian Removal Act was strongly supported in the South, where states were eager to gain access to lands inhabited by the FiveCivilized Tribes. In particular, Georgia, the largest state at that time, was involved in a contentious jurisdictional dispute with the Cherokee nation. President Jackson hoped removal would resolve the Georgia crisis.. The Indian Removal Act was also very controversial. While Native American removal was, in theory, supposed to be voluntary, in practice great pressure was put on Native American leaders to sign removal treaties. Most observers, whether they were in favor of the Indian removal policy or not, realized that the passage of the act meant the inevitable removal of most Indians from the states. Some Native American leaders who had previously resisted removal now began to reconsider their positions, especially after Jackson's landslide re-election in 1832. Affected tribes include the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole.
  • 13. John Fitch Created By: Matthew Martinez 13 J An American mechanic and inventor, was the first to build and operate a steam boat successfully. In July 1788 Fitch successfully launched a new and larger boat, which made many trips between Philadelphia and Burlington, N.J., carrying as many as 30 passengers at a time. In 1790 he put another boat into service that made regularly scheduled runs across the Delaware River. Despite this success, however, steamboat travel was not accepted by the public. This, combined with constant mechanical troubles and uncertain financial backing, resulted in the failure of Fitch's enterprise. John Fitch (1743-1798)
  • 14. Kearny, Stephen Created By: Matthew Martinez 14 K U.S. Army officer. He served in the War of 1812 and later on the western frontier. At the outbreak of the Mexican War, he was ordered to seize New Mexico and California. Using diplomacy to persuade Mexican troops to withdraw, he marched unopposed to Santa Fe, where in 1846 he proclaimed a civil government for the province. Heading to California, he was informed that the conquest had already been completed by Robert F. Stockton and John C. Frémont. He arrived to discover that Mexican rebels had retaken most of the province. He then joined forces with Stockton to defeat the rebels in 1847. After initial opposition from Frémont, who had persuaded Stockton to appoint him governor, Kearny pacified the rest of California and established a stable civil government. He was then sent to Mexico, where he died of yellow fever. Born: Aug. 30, 1794, Newark, N.J., U.S. Died: Oct. 31, 1848, St. Louis, Mo.
  • 15. Lewis and Clark Created By: Matthew Martinez 15 L First overland expedition to the U.S. Pacific coast and back, led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. Initiated by Pres. Thomas Jefferson, the expedition set out to find an overland route to the Pacific, documenting its exploration through the new Louisiana Purchase. In 1803, Thomas Jefferson commissioned Capt. Meriwether Lewis and Lt. William Clark to explore what is now the northwest United States. The Louisiana Purchase later the same year altered the character of the planned expedition from an exploration of French territory to a first glimpse of lands that, in the view of many contemporaries, were essential to maintaining the agrarian, republican character of the nation. Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804-1806)
  • 16. Manifest Destiny Created By: Matthew Martinez 16 M Referred to a growing conviction that the United States was preordained by God to expand throughout North America. This conviction of a destined glorious future for the United States had roots in colonial times. Many colonial leaders adopted time-honored expansion imagery from the Bible, portraying northern European Protestant colonists as the new Israelites and North America as the new Promised Land to justify conquering new lands and dominating other cultures. Motivated by ideas of manifest destiny, the new English-speaking settlers rebelled in 1835 in an attempt to form an independent state. A series of reactions led to the annexation of Texas in 1845 and war between Mexico and the United States in 1846. The stories of Native American and Mexican resistance to Anglo-Saxon occupation are well known.
  • 17. New Orleans Louisiana Purchase Created By: Matthew Martinez 17 N A territory of the western United States extending from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains between the Gulf of Mexico and the Canadian border. It was purchased from France on April 30, 1803, for $15 million and officially explored by the Lewis and Clark expedition (1804-1806). In 1762 France had ceded Louisiana west of the Mississippi River to Spain, but Spain returned it to French control in 1800. Alarmed by this potential increase in French power, Pres. Thomas Jefferson threatened to form an alliance with Britain. Napoleon then sold the U.S. the entire Louisiana Territory, although its boundaries remained unclear; its northwestern and southwestern limits were not established until 1818 – 19. The purchase doubled the area of the U.S.
  • 18. Oregon Trail Created By: Matthew Martinez 18 O A historical overland route to the western United States extending from various cities on the Missouri River to the Oregon Country and later Oregon Territory. The trail was opened in 1842, and by 1845 more than 3,000 migrants had made the arduous journey. After the coming of the railroad, the trail fell into disuse and was finally abandoned in the 1870s. Major U.S. route to the Northwest in the 1 9th century. It stretched about 2,000 mi (3,200 km), from Independence, Mo., to the Columbia River region of Oregon. First used by fur traders and missionaries, it was heavily used in the 1840s by travelers to Oregon, including settlers of the "great migration," led by Marcus Whitman. Of all western trails, it was in use for the longest period, surviving competition from the railroad by serving as a trail for eastward cattle and sheep drives.
  • 19. Panning for Gold Created By: Matthew Martinez 19 P In almost all cultures around the world throughout history, gold has been valued and sought as a precious metal: gold as a mineral, gold as a commodity, gold as a precious object. The search for gold led the masses to migrate westward and pan for gold. The nuggets found in the American River near Sacramento by James Marshall in 1848 spurned the rush of some half-million people in search of instant wealth. They encountered successive waves of explorers, would-be colonizers, and immigrants, including Spanish missionaries, Mexican and Californio rancheros, Russian hunters, and American trappers, traders and farmers. Who was a Californian? And what did California mean to them? California’s beauty and its immense bounty of natural resources. Each saw a different kind of "gold" to be reaped from this land.
  • 20. Quincy, John Adams Created By: Matthew Martinez 20 Q (1817 – 25), he was instrumental in acquiring Florida from Spain and in drafting the Monroe Doctrine. Adams's presidency was unsuccessful; when he ran for reelection, Jackson defeated him. In 1830 he was elected to the House, where he served until his death. He was outspoken in his opposition to slavery; in 1839 he proposed a constitutional amendment forbidding slavery In any new state admitted to the Union. Following Andrew Jackson's victory in 1828, Adams was elected to the House of Representatives, where he opposed nullification, the imposition of a gag rule, and annexation of Texas. In 1841, abolitionists persuaded him to defend the right to freedom of fifty‐three Africans before the Supreme Court in United States v. The Amistad (1841). He was the only Federalist senator from New England to vote for the Louisiana Purchase.
  • 21. Robert Fulton Created By: Matthew Martinez 21 R In 1801 he was commissioned by Robert R. Livingston to build a steamboat, and in 1807 Fulton's Clermont made the 150-mi (240-km) journey up the Hudson River from New York City to Albany in 32 hours, cutting 64 hours off the usual sailing time. It became the first commercially successful steamboat in the U.S. Fulton also made important contributions in portrait painting, canal engineering, and naval warfare. Born in Pennsylvania, he lived most of his adult life in Europe. His first naval project was the submarine Nautilus, manually driven underwater and tested successfully in French waters in 1800. He later designed several other steamboats, including the world's first steam warship (1812). He was a member of the commission that recommended building the Erie Canal. The steamboat used for troop transport in the War of 1812, and the construction of the first steam warship in history, USSFulton the First.
  • 22. Santa Fe Trail Created By: Matthew Martinez 22 S A trade route to the southwest United States extending about 1,287 km (800 mi) westward from Independence, Missouri, to Santa Fe, New Mexico. First traversed in 1821, it was the primary wagon and stage route to the Southwest until the coming of the railroad in 1880. Historic wagon trail from Independence, Mo., to Santa Fe, N.M., U.S. An important commercial route from 1821 to 1880, it was opened by William Becknell and used by merchant wagon caravans. When the Santa Fe railroad was completed in 1880, use of the trail ceased. A 780-mile (1255-km) wagon route from western Missouri to Santa Fe, New Mexico, that opened in 1821 and was frequently used, mainly for trade
  • 23. Transcontinental Railroad Created By: Matthew Martinez 23 T The world's First Transcontinental Railroad was built between 1863 and 1869 to join the eastern and western halves of the United States. Transcontinental railroads helped open up unpopulated interior regions of continents to exploration and settlement that would not otherwise have been feasible. In many cases they also formed the backbones of cross- country passenger and freight transportation Networks.. its construction was considered to be one of the greatest American technological feats of the 19th century. Known as the "Pacific Railroad" when it opened, this served as a vital link for trade, commerce, and travel and opened up vast regions of the North American heartland for settlement. The railroad resulted in the end of most of the far slower and more hazardous stagecoach lines and wagon trains, and it led to a great decline of traffic on the Oregon and California Trail
  • 24. Union Pacific Railroad Created By: Matthew Martinez 24 U When East met West, Union Pacific Railroad was there. The principal operating subsidiary of Union Pacific was chartered by Congress in 1862 to build part of the first transcontinental rail line. Today, it is one of North America's largest railroads, providing freight transportation over 32,000 route miles of track across the western two-thirds of the US. It links every major West Coast and Gulf Coast port and provides service to the east through major gateways in Chicago, St. Louis, Memphis, and New Orleans. Union Pacific Railroad is the nation's largest hauler of chemicals and one of the largest intermodal carriers. It also serves all six major gateways to Mexico and connects with Canada's rail systems. In 1865 construction of the Union Pacific begun. from Omaha westward Central Pacific, to NW of Ogden, Utah, thus connecting the Missouri River and the Pacific Ocean by rail
  • 25. Vigilante Created By: Matthew Martinez 25 V Colonial era in America - Formally-defined vigilantism arose in the early American colonies. Established the mid-18th century, for instance, the Regulator movement of American colonial times was composed of citizen volunteers of the frontier who opposed official misconduct and extrajudicially punished banditry. 19th century - A lynching carried out by the San Francisco Committee of Vigilance of 1856. Later in the United States, vigilante groups arose in poorly governed frontier areas where criminals preyed upon the citizenry with impunity For generations, the figures have been associated with the vaunted vigilantes who cleaned up the gold camps in 1864 and earned a place in history as great heroes. Thomas Dimsdale’s The Vigilantes of Montana, praised and defended the hangmen’s work and heralded them as founding fathers, a portrait that endures
  • 26. Wounded Knee Created By: Matthew Martinez 26 W Hamlet and creek in southwestern South Dakota, the site of two conflicts between the Sioux Indians and the U.S. government. In 1890 the Sioux had been inspired by the Ghost Dance movement to take up arms and reclaim their heritage, but federal military intervention quelled the rebellion. On December 29 a young brave became involved in a scuffle while surrendering, and a trooper was killed. Soldiers fired at the Indians, killing more than 200 men, women, and children. Thirty soldiers also died. The so-called Battle of Wounded Knee is regarded as the final episode in the conquest of the North American Indian. Events claims that during the process of disarming the Lakota, a deaf tribesman named Black Coyote was reluctant to give up his rifle claiming he had paid a lot for it.
  • 27. Pony eXpress Created By: Matthew Martinez 27 X The Pony Express was a fast mail service crossing the Great Plains, the Rocky Mountains, and the High Sierra from St. Joseph, Missouri, to Sacramento, California, from April 3, 1860 to October 1861. It became the west's most direct means of east-west communication before the telegraph and was vital for tying California closely with the Union just before the American Civil War. Although a financial failure, the Pony Express successfully filled the communication gap before the completion of the telegraph, provided westerners with speedier access to family and friends in the East, improved contact between western military outposts, proved the Central Route was passable year round, and paved the way for permanent transportation systems along its route. In 1860 there were about 157 Pony Express stations that were about 10 miles (16 km) apart along the Pony Express route. This was roughly the distance a horse could travel at a gallop before tiring. At each station stop the express rider would change horses to a fresh horse
  • 28. York(black slave on the Lewis & Clark Expedition) Created By: Matthew Martinez 28 Y An African American slave best known for his participation with the Lewis and Clark Expedition. As William Clark's slave, he performed hard manual labor without pay,but participated as a full member of the expedition. Like many other expedition members, his ultimate fate is unclear. There is evidence that after the expedition's return, Clark had difficulty compelling York to resume his former status, and York may have later escaped or been freed, but nothing is entirely clear on this.York was William Clark's servant from boyhood, and was left to William in his father's will. The journals record that the assignments given him attest to his skill in scouting, hunting and field medicine, but included manual labor in extreme weather conditions. York used a firearm to hunt game such as buffalo, as well as for "protection." The native nations treated York with respect, and he “played a key role in diplomatic relations" because of his appearance
  • 29. Zebulon Pike Created By: Matthew Martinez 29 Z As a United States (US) Army captain in 1806-1807, he led the Pike Expedition to explore and document the southern portion of the Louisiana Purchase and to find the headwaters of the Red River, during which he recorded the discovery of what later was called Pikes Peak. Captured by the Spanish while wintering in present-day Colorado after his party got confused in its travels, Pike and his men were taken to Chihuahua, present-day Mexico and questioned by the governor. They were released later in 1807 at the border of Louisiana. As a prisoner, Pike was treated very well by the Spaniards. However, they confiscated most of his papers. (He managed to conceal some notes in his men's rifle barrels.) Finally, after a year's absence, he was returned to the United States at Natchitoches, La., by a Spanish escort. After the outbreak of the War of 1812 he was promoted to brigadier general (1813)