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Semana Santa In Guatemala

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Semana Santa In Guatemala

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This presentation outlines the Semana Santa (Holy Week) celebration of Guatemala in detail. Useful for class presentation, teachers, self-education, homeschooling, research.

This presentation outlines the Semana Santa (Holy Week) celebration of Guatemala in detail. Useful for class presentation, teachers, self-education, homeschooling, research.

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Semana Santa In Guatemala

  1. 1. Semana Santa in Guatemala(Holy Week in Guatemala)<br />
  2. 2. What is Semana Santa?<br />“Semana Santa” is the Spanish name for “Holy Week”, the week before Easter Sunday<br />In 2011, Semana Santa is from Sunday, April 17, until Sunday, April 24<br />Runs from Palm Sunday (Domingo de Ramos) until Holy Saturday (Sábado de Gloria)<br />
  3. 3. Origins of Semana Santa<br />Brought to Guatemala by the Spaniards in colonial times<br />Shares some traditions with Spain<br />Guatemala and other Central American countries have added their own flavor to the celebrations<br />First Semana Santa celebrations held in Santiago de los Caballeros (old name for Antigua Guatemala)<br />2008 – Guatemala declared the Semana Santa celebrations in Antigua Guatemala a National Heritage site<br />
  4. 4. Preparation for Semana Santa<br />Cobblestone streets are repaired <br />Entire city of Antigua cleaned<br />Homeowners give houses a fresh coat of paint<br />Extra police are brought in to ensure safety<br />
  5. 5. Churches and Their Participation<br />Every Catholic church holds Mass (Misa) every night during Semana Santa<br />Churches host the processions<br />Figures of the saints are loaned to the hermandades to use in the processions<br />Large alfombra is often made in front of the altar of the church<br />
  6. 6. Churches and Their Participation<br />
  7. 7. Hermandades (Brotherhoods)<br />Groups (male and female) that belong to specific church<br />Create elaborate floats (andas) and processions<br />Responsible for all aspects of the Semana Santa processions<br />Participate in fundraising, float preparation, recruit cucuruchos, and organize details<br />
  8. 8. Where To See Processions<br />You can see processions in any large town in Guatemala, and in many small towns<br />Antigua, Guatemala is by far the major center for Semana Santa processions<br />Foreigners and Guatemalans alike flock to Antigua to see the festivities<br />Guatemala City also has very impressive processions, though not as well-known<br />
  9. 9. Andas (Floats)<br />Floats for the Semana Santa procession usually very large <br />Many times weigh 7,000 lbs or more<br />Built of wood, with handles on either side for the cucuruchos to lift<br />Have detailed carvings of flowers and birds as well as detailed scrollwork along the edges<br />
  10. 10. Andas (floats)<br />Float designs change every year<br />Figures of Jesus and Mary stay the same, but with new clothing<br />Scenes can be very several feet tall on top of the float, with fake boulders, cellophane waterfalls, even bushes and trees around the figures<br />Bright lights often used, as well<br />
  11. 11. Figures<br />Statues of Jesus and Mary<br />Loaned to the hermandades by the churches for their processions<br />Many figures are hundreds of years old<br />Range from Christ, resplendent in robes, to a battered Jesus on a cross with pained expression<br />Some are quite graphic and bloody<br />Mary sometimes portrayed as radiant mother, other times as sorrowful<br />
  12. 12. Float Pictures – Antigua Guatemala<br />
  13. 13. Float Pictures – Antigua Guatemala<br />
  14. 14. Saints (Santos)<br />Various saints make an appearance in the processions<br />Can be on the same float as Jesus, or on smaller floats carried by 4-6 people<br />St. John and Mary Magdalena always accompany Mary, carried on a separate float behind her<br />The number of saints depends on the size of the town and how many figures are available<br />
  15. 15. Cucuruchos<br />“Cucurucho” now refers to the men when carry a float<br />Originally referred to the type of hat that the men wore<br />Cucuruchos pay for the privilege of carrying the floats<br />Considered to be a form of penance<br />Cucuruchos are measured at the shoulders and assigned a “turno” or shift<br />
  16. 16. Cucuruchos<br />The shifts last one block – floats can weight 7,000 lbs each<br />Floats can have anywhere between 40-140 men carrying them<br />Carriers have to be balanced and replaced frequently<br />Clothing was influenced by St. Francis of Assisi <br />Very similar to those of 500 years ago<br />
  17. 17. Cucurucho clothing<br />Normal garb is purple robed<br />Good Friday clothing is white<br />
  18. 18. Las Dolorosas<br />Groups of women who carry floats<br />No specific dress code, though they typically dress in white or black, depending on the day<br />Las Dolorosas carry Mary, who is behind the main float<br />
  19. 19. Romanos<br />These men are dressed as Roman centurions<br />Wear helmets, swords, and armor, as well as short leather skirts<br />Costume depends on the area and church<br />Walk with the processions, moving people from blocking the way<br />Members of the hermandades that do not carry the floats<br />
  20. 20. Romanos<br />
  21. 21. Esquadrones de Palestinos<br />The Palestine Squad also accompanies some of the processions<br />Dressed in red capes and pointed hoods<br />Carry palm branches or crests on poles<br />Do not carry the float<br />
  22. 22. Incense<br />Used in all processions through Cuaresma and Semana Santa<br />Amount used increases the closer Holy Week gets<br />Children walk ahead of the procession with incense burners<br />Scent stays in the air for months<br />
  23. 23. Funeral Marches<br />Marchasfunebras/funeral marches are unique to Guatemala<br />Nearly all are written by Guatemalans<br />Bring a solemn air to the proceedings<br />Santiago Coronado is considered the father of the funeral march in Guatemala<br />There are hundreds of songs in existence <br />The processions can go 12-18 hours without ever repeating songs<br />
  24. 24. Alfombras<br />Alfombras(carpets) are abundant in the streets of Antigua during Cuaresma and Holy Week<br />Originally, in the 1500’s, made from flowers and feathers of birds like the quetzal, parrots, guacamayas, and hummingbirds<br />Traditions is a mixture of customs from Tenerife and the Canary Islands, as well as Mayan traditions<br />Alfombras are a form of welcoming Jesus into the town, just like people did with palm branches during His time<br />
  25. 25. Alfombras<br />
  26. 26. Alfombras<br />Before the procession, people create elaborate alfombras from colored sawdust, plants, food, flowers, etc<br />Block traffic for hours on end<br />Mayan influence can be seen in the geometric patterns<br />Most alfombras long and rectangular<br />Some L-shaped alfombras go around corners, covering two blocks<br />
  27. 27. Alfombras<br />With multiple processions passing over the same streets, multiple processions are made<br />Cleanup is immediate in order to make room for the next alfombra<br />No one walks on the alfombras<br />This is one unwritten rule that is well-heeded<br />Alfombras can cost anywhere from Q5,000-Q10,000 ($600-1200 USD) depending on the materials<br />
  28. 28. Alfombras<br />Aserrin (sawdust) is the main ingredient in alfombras<br />Sawdust is tinted with brightly colored dyes and sold in the market<br />Simple alfombras take a couple of hours, and more elaborate ones can take up to 12 hours to complete, with many people working on them<br />Stencils are used to form the perfect design, then carefully laid on top of the sawdust to properly layer the design (see next slide)<br />
  29. 29. Alfombras<br />
  30. 30. Alfombras<br />
  31. 31. Alfombras<br />
  32. 32. Alfombras<br />
  33. 33. Alfombras<br />
  34. 34. Ventas<br />Ventas (sales) refer to the salespeople who wait in the plazas in front of the churches<br />When the procession enters the church, there are usually thousands of hungry and thirsty partcipants<br />Common food – cotton candy, chupetes (suckers), empanadas, churros, molletes, ice cream, and any number of drinks<br />Some people that live on the streets where processions take place will charge a small fee to let desperate participants use the bathroom in their house<br />
  35. 35. Cuaresma<br />Cuaresma (Lent) refers to the 40 days leading up to Holy Week, finishing with Easter Sunday<br />The common practice of giving something up for Lent is not popular in Guatemala<br />Instead people will sign up to be a cucurucho or to design an alfombra as an act of penance<br />
  36. 36. Traditions<br />Cuaresma has its own processions<br />Usually every Sunday, but often during the week, as well<br />It can be hard to know where the processions are if you are not from Guatemala, but the locals always seem to know<br />
  37. 37. Miércoles de Ceniza<br />Ash Wednesday is a big deal in Guatemala<br />Churches open all day<br />Some schools even take their students to church to have them blessed by the priest<br />The ashes that form the cross on a believer’s forehead are from the palm branches used in the previous year’s Palm Sunday<br />
  38. 38. Cuaresma Processions<br />There are several processions type of Lent, but the main processions in the capital are the following:<br />Jesús de Consuelo – the Saturday before Palm Sunday<br />Jesús de los Milagros y de las Palmas – Palm Sunday<br />Jesús de las Tres Potencias – HolyMonday<br />La Reseña y Jesús de las 3 Gracias – HolyTuesday<br />Jesús del Rescate – Holy Wednesday<br />Jesúsde Candelaria – Maundy Thursday<br />Jesús de la Merced – Good Friday (early morning)<br />Santos Entierros – Good Friday (afternoon)<br />
  39. 39. Viacrucis<br />The Viacrucis are the Stations of the Cross<br />People set up stations with visual representations and the processions visit each one. There are fourteen stations of the cross in all:<br />Jesus in the Garden of Gethsemane,<br />Jesus is betrayed by Judas and arrested,<br />Jesus is condemned by the Sanhedrin,<br />Jesus is denied by Peter,<br />Jesus is judged by Pilate,<br />Jesus is scourged and crowned with thorns,<br />Jesus takes up His cross,<br />
  40. 40. Viacrucis, cont.<br />Jesus is helped by Simon to carry His cross,<br />Jesus meets the women of Jerusalem,<br />Jesusiscrucified,<br />Jesus promises His kingdom to the repentant thief,<br />Jesus entrusts Mary and John to each other,<br />Jesus dies on the cross,<br />Jesus is laid in the tomb.<br />
  41. 41. Misas<br />During Cuaresma, special Misas, or Masses, are held<br />Usually related to the viacrucis<br />
  42. 42. Velaciones<br />Velaciones, or vigils, are held through Lent, each one at a different influential church<br />Biblical scenes are set up at the front of the church<br />An alfombra is made in front of the altar<br />A Misa is held in the afternoon<br />Usually a concert of funeral marches, as well<br />
  43. 43. Semana Santa<br />Semana Santa, or Holy Week, start the Friday before Palm Sunday and goes through Good Saturday<br />There are many processions and significant events that make up this tradition time<br />
  44. 44. Jueves Santo<br />“Maundy Thursday”, as it is known in English, has many special processions<br />Themes vary, depending on church and hermandad<br />“Jesus esEncarcelado” – in select churches, Jesus is put in jail (behind any barred door), representing his arrest and incarceration<br />
  45. 45. Viernes Santo (Good Friday)<br />One of the most famous processions in Antigua is “La Sentencia”<br />At 3 a.m., Roman centurions ride out of the church on horseback to proclaim Christ’s sentence<br />They read the sentence at every street corner<br />
  46. 46. La sentencia<br />
  47. 47. Viernes Santo (Good Friday)<br />Jesús en Su Camino al Calvario<br />At 4 a.m., after “La Sentencia”, the procession leaves following the Romanos<br />Theme: Christ’s journey to Calvary<br />The figure of Christ carries His cross, which is usually quite heavily adorned<br />
  48. 48. Jesús en sucamino al calvario<br />
  49. 49. Jesús en sucamino al calvario<br />
  50. 50. Viernes Santo (Good Friday)<br />“Jesús Sepultado”<br />Final Procession with Jesus during Semana Santa<br />The floats show the body of Jesus in a glass coffin<br />Each station of the cross is represented on the float<br />
  51. 51. Sábado de Gloria (Good Saturday)<br />La Virgen de Soledad<br />In this procession, the Virgin Mary is dressed in dark or black clothes<br />A knife through her heart shows her pain at losing her son<br />Only female carriers carry her float (Las Dolorosas) and are dressed all in black<br />
  52. 52. Other Processions<br />Procesión de Niños (Children’s Procession)<br />Date depend on the town<br />Wednesday of Semana Santa in Antigua<br />Children carry a smaller float <br />Have all the same roles as adults in the other processions, such as Romans<br />All the figures are smaller<br />
  53. 53. The Resurrection<br />Interestingly, Semana Santa in Guatemala focuses almost entirely on the death of Christ<br />Easter Sunday is very low key<br />Some say that this is because the resurrection had no parallel in Mayan culture, so it never really caught on when Christianity was introduced<br />
  54. 54. Peregrinaje a Antigua<br />It is customary for people in small towns around Guatemala to make a Pilgrimage to Antigua – Peregrinaje a Antigua – during Holy Week<br />Traffic is very slow during Holy Week, due to so many travelers<br />
  55. 55. Mayan Traditions<br />In some areas of Guatemala, an effigy of Judas, called “San Simón” or “Maximón” isdisplayedduringLent<br />Itislaterdismembered and burned<br />Maximón rules over the church while Jesus is “dead” then leaves the church when Jesus is resurrected<br />
  56. 56. Semana Santa 101<br />Buy your own copy at:<br />All-About-Guatemala/semana-santa-101.html<br />Free e-courses at:<br />All-About-Guatemala.com/semana-santa-guatemala-ecourse.html<br />

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