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wine making process and types of wine

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  1. 1. Submitted to: Submitted by: Mr. Manish Kumar Anjali Narwal Associate Professor 11083019 Deptt of Food Tech B.Tech (6 sem) G.J.US&T G.J.US&T Hisar Hisar
  2. 2. Wine is an alcoholic beverage obtain from the fermentation of juice of freshly gathered grapes. Different varieties of grapes are present : a) Vitis vinifera b) Vitis labruska c) Vitis rotundifolia The grapes are at their best when the soil is sandy, rocky and has lime in it. When the grapes are ripe, their natural acid decreases and their sugar content increases. A black grape turns from green to dark red and white grapes turn from green to yellow.
  3. 3.  MANUALLY- All the grapes are picked by the hand. This is very time consuming and costly method. But it is a traditional method. All the good wines , the grapes are plucked by this method.  BY machine- it is very time saving & work is done very fast. big Machine is used for this all the grapes are collected in big bucket downward.
  4. 4. a. Ripe and fresh grapes are selected. Blemished ones are rejected. b. After harvesting the grapes are taken to winery. Here the grapes are sorted out . The person make them separate like ripen & raw. c. Branches, leaves &unripe grapes. Then they give the grade to the grapes like A grade means very good ,B grade means medium quality grapes.
  5. 5.  The person in this process check the weight of quality grapes& make them ready for next step.  In this process the pip, stalks are removed because they contain tannin which can give the bitter taste to wine . Red wine contains more tannin but that are not to much harmful.
  6. 6.  In this method we press the grapes or extract the juice from the grapes. Crushed material is called MUST. There are various methods of crushing the grapes. They are: 1. Troddening 2. Balloon press 3. Plunger system 4. Electrically
  7. 7.  This is the most common method used in old time. In all the expensive wines this method is used. This is very safe method. This is like a ceremony in which the people of a Village come. BALOON PRESS  In this method there is a big tank made of plastic or metal. We put grapes in this tank & on upper side there is a balloon & we pump the air by pressure.  The balloon starts to increase in size but on the other hand this pressure crush the grapes & juice is collected in bucket. It is a cheap method.
  8. 8.  In this system we press the grapes in a machine . In the machine there is a handle & we have to operate the machine manually. When we move the handle round then the grapes is crushed. ELECTRICAL METHOD  This is a process like roller with a plate fitted in a machine . The grapes are crushed b/w the plate and roller . Seeds also crushed so there are chances of tannins and bitter flavour.
  9. 9.  Cane sugar is added to maintain atleast 20% TSS but not more than 24%  If the grapes are sour, 70 gm of sugar is added for each kg of grapes. Adjustment Of pH • If necessary then pH of juice is adjusted. • If it is too low then juice is diluted with water. (more sugar is added to raise TSS) • If high then tartaric acid is added to lower it.(usually 0.6 to 0.8 % of acid is added.
  10. 10.  Potassium metabisulphite (KMS) is added at the rate of 1.5 g for every 10 kg of grapes, mixed and allow to stand for 2-4 hrs.  KMS inhibits growth of wild yeasts and spoilage organisms. Addition Of Wine Yeast • Wine yeast eg. Saccharomyces ellipsoideus inoculum is added at the rate of 20 ml for 5 kg of grapes. • If yeast is not used then KMS is not added. • Yeast present in the skin of grapes can also ferment but the wine produced is not of good quality.
  11. 11.  Grapes are allowed to ferment for 2 days in a cool place.  YEAST + sugar in the absence of air produce alcohol. It is a chemical reaction which produces alcohol and CO2.  It should be done in close tanks to remove air .  C6 H 12O6 + YEAST 2C2H5OH + 2CO 2 + (sugar) (ethyl alcohol)
  12. 12.  Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is added in the juice to remove the CO2 . This process is called sulphurlization.  The fermentation should be slow .  It gives flavor to wine. We remove the CO2 after the fermentation.
  13. 13.  The contents are filtered through a muslin cloth or a filter aid on the third day.  Filterate is again allowed to ferment in a cool place for another 10 days. Racking After the fermentation there are dead yeast in the wine it is called LEES. It is yeast + skin. We remove the wine & transfer the wine in oak barrels. Oak wood have a tendency to soak the acidity, lees settle in the base. Then it is also transferred to other barrels
  14. 14.  It is done in order to remove all suspended particles in the wines. This can be done by following methods:  Betonite is added. All the colloidal material settles along with it.  Blue icing glass.It is used only after the permission of govt. They attract the particles in the wine which is settled at the bottom.  Filtered if necessary.
  15. 15.  Sometimes we add the matured wines in the young wines . It is added to given the perfection to the wines . After the blending wine is left so that they can mature itself there.
  16. 16.  Once the wine is clear then the wine is transfer in the black or white Oak barrels & leaved. The maturation is a slow process & it can take long time it depends on the wine. Champagne takes less time and some of them matured for years. The Oak barrels remove the acids from the wine. Red wine contain more tannins than white wine.
  17. 17.  In this process we kill the bacteria in the wine which are harmful for the body. First the bottle is passed through boiling water, so due to heat all the harmful bacteria is removed and suddenly the bottle is pass through from chilled water so all the bacteria are killed.  82-88 degree celsius for 1-2 min.  Bottles are pasteurized at 65 degree celcius for about 20 min, then cooled and stored.
  18. 18.  After the maturation the wine is ready to consume then it is bottled . The wines are matured in the bottles also. Then it is covered with cork. It is made by OAK WOOD BARK . It is soft in nature. The size of bottle depends on the countries. Then it is stored in coo,l place.
  19. 19. . TYPES OF WINE Red Wine: •Consumed more than white wines. •Unlike white wines , reds do not have varied degrees of sweetness. They are almost exclusive dry. •To produce red wine, grapes are crushed. •Skin is left with the juice during fermentation •Contain 9-14% alcohol, and the taste ranges from very dry to very sweet. •The service temperature of red wine is 16-18 degrees centigrade
  20. 20. Rose wines  These are produced exactly as red wines except that wine is drawn off from the fermenting red grapes after 2-3 days when enough red colour has been absorbed by the wine to give it a pink tinge.  They contain 9-14 % alcohol, and the taste ranges from very dry to very sweet.  The service temperature of rose wine is 13 – 16 degrees centigrade.
  21. 21. White Wine •Light and delicate in flavour. •The grapes are pressed and the juice is drawn off immediately without the skin. •Sweet white wines: The sugar content is very high, hence are preferred at the end of a meal. •They contain 9-14 % alcohol, and the taste ranges from very dry to very sweet. •The service temperature of white wine is 11 – 13 degrees centigrade.
  22. 22. Sparkling wine The most famous one is Champagne. Sparkling wines are made in France, Spain, Italy, America, Australia and many other countries. It contains carbon dioxide. They are made effervescent by secondary fermentation in closed containers. Still Wine Do not contain carbon dioxide.
  23. 23. ANY QUERIES ???????