Submitted to: Submitted by:
Mr. Manish Kumar Anjali Narwal
Associate Professor 11083019
Deptt of Food Tech B.Tech (6 sem)
Wine is an alcoholic beverage obtain from the fermentation of
juice of freshly gathered grapes.
Different varieties of grapes are present :
a) Vitis vinifera
b) Vitis labruska
c) Vitis rotundifolia
The grapes are at their best when the soil is sandy, rocky and has
lime in it.
When the grapes are ripe, their natural acid decreases and their
sugar content increases.
A black grape turns from green to dark red and white grapes turn
from green to yellow.
MANUALLY- All the grapes
are picked by the hand. This is
very time consuming and
costly method. But it is a
traditional method. All the
good wines , the grapes are
plucked by this method.
BY machine- it is very time
saving & work is done very
fast. big Machine is used for
this all the grapes are
collected in big bucket
a. Ripe and fresh grapes are
selected. Blemished ones are
b. After harvesting the grapes are
taken to winery. Here the grapes
are sorted out . The person make
them separate like ripen & raw.
c. Branches, leaves &unripe grapes.
Then they give the grade to the
grapes like A grade means very
good ,B grade means medium
The person in this process
check the weight of quality
grapes& make them ready for
In this process the pip, stalks
are removed because they
contain tannin which can give
the bitter taste to wine . Red
wine contains more tannin but
that are not to much harmful.
In this method we press the grapes or extract the juice
from the grapes. Crushed material is called MUST.
There are various methods of crushing the grapes.
2. Balloon press
3. Plunger system
This is the most common method used in old
time. In all the expensive wines this method is
used. This is very safe method. This is like a
ceremony in which the people of a Village
In this method there is a big tank made of
plastic or metal. We put grapes in this tank &
on upper side there is a balloon & we pump the
air by pressure.
The balloon starts to increase in size but on the
other hand this pressure crush the grapes &
juice is collected in bucket. It is a cheap
In this system we press the grapes in a
machine . In the machine there is a
handle & we have to operate the
machine manually. When we move
the handle round then the grapes is
This is a process like roller with a plate
fitted in a machine . The grapes are
crushed b/w the plate and roller . Seeds
also crushed so there are chances of
tannins and bitter flavour.
Cane sugar is added to maintain atleast 20%
TSS but not more than 24%
If the grapes are sour, 70 gm of sugar is added
for each kg of grapes.
Adjustment Of pH
• If necessary then pH of juice is adjusted.
• If it is too low then juice is diluted with water. (more
sugar is added to raise TSS)
• If high then tartaric acid is added to lower it.(usually
0.6 to 0.8 % of acid is added.
Potassium metabisulphite (KMS) is added at the rate of 1.5
g for every 10 kg of grapes, mixed and allow to stand for 2-4
KMS inhibits growth of wild yeasts and spoilage organisms.
Addition Of Wine Yeast
• Wine yeast eg. Saccharomyces ellipsoideus inoculum is
added at the rate of 20 ml for 5 kg of grapes.
• If yeast is not used then KMS is not added.
• Yeast present in the skin of grapes can also ferment but the
wine produced is not of good quality.
Grapes are allowed to ferment for 2 days in a cool
YEAST + sugar in the absence of air produce alcohol.
It is a chemical reaction which produces alcohol and
It should be done in close tanks to remove air .
C6 H 12O6 + YEAST 2C2H5OH + 2CO 2 +
(sugar) (ethyl alcohol)
Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is added in the juice to remove
the CO2 . This process is called sulphurlization.
The fermentation should be slow .
It gives flavor to wine. We remove the CO2 after the
The contents are filtered through a muslin cloth or a
filter aid on the third day.
Filterate is again allowed to ferment in a cool place for
another 10 days.
After the fermentation there are dead
yeast in the wine it is called LEES. It is
yeast + skin. We remove the wine &
transfer the wine in oak barrels. Oak
wood have a tendency to soak the acidity,
lees settle in the base.
Then it is also transferred to other barrels
It is done in order to remove all suspended particles in
the wines. This can be done by following methods:
Betonite is added. All the colloidal material settles
along with it.
Blue icing glass.It is used only after the permission of
govt. They attract the particles in the wine which is
settled at the bottom.
Filtered if necessary.
Sometimes we add the
matured wines in the young
wines . It is added to given the
perfection to the wines . After
the blending wine is left so
that they can mature itself
Once the wine is clear then the
wine is transfer in the black or
white Oak barrels & leaved. The
maturation is a slow process & it
can take long time it depends on
the wine. Champagne takes less
time and some of them matured
for years. The Oak barrels remove
the acids from the wine. Red wine
contain more tannins than white
In this process we kill the bacteria in the wine which
are harmful for the body. First the bottle is passed
through boiling water, so due to heat all the harmful
bacteria is removed and suddenly the bottle is pass
through from chilled water so all the bacteria are
82-88 degree celsius for 1-2 min.
Bottles are pasteurized at 65 degree celcius for about
20 min, then cooled and stored.
After the maturation the wine is ready to consume
then it is bottled . The wines are matured in the
bottles also. Then it is covered with cork. It is made by
OAK WOOD BARK . It is soft in nature. The size of
bottle depends on the countries. Then it is stored in
TYPES OF WINE
•Consumed more than white wines.
•Unlike white wines , reds do not have varied degrees of sweetness.
They are almost exclusive dry.
•To produce red wine, grapes are crushed.
•Skin is left with the juice during fermentation
•Contain 9-14% alcohol, and the taste ranges from very dry to very
•The service temperature of red wine is 16-18 degrees centigrade
These are produced exactly as red wines except that wine is
drawn off from the fermenting red grapes after 2-3 days when
enough red colour has been absorbed by the wine to give it a pink
They contain 9-14 % alcohol, and the taste ranges from very dry
to very sweet.
The service temperature of rose wine is 13 – 16 degrees
•Light and delicate in flavour.
•The grapes are pressed and the juice is drawn off immediately
without the skin.
•Sweet white wines: The sugar content is very high, hence are
preferred at the end of a meal.
•They contain 9-14 % alcohol, and the taste ranges from very dry
to very sweet.
•The service temperature of white wine is 11 – 13 degrees
The most famous one is Champagne.
Sparkling wines are made in France, Spain, Italy, America,
Australia and many other countries.
It contains carbon dioxide.
They are made effervescent by secondary fermentation in
Do not contain carbon dioxide.