iccsa-2012                                 Validating a smartphone-based                                 pedestrian naviga...
iccsa-2012            Structure       Structure                                         1.   Introduction             1   ...
iccsa-2012                                     Chapter 1 | Introduction iccsa-2012© kluge&asche·ifg·uni·potsdam·2012      ...
iccsa-2012            Chapter 1| Introduction       Pedestrian Navigation        Pedestrian traffic is an integrated part...
iccsa-2012             Chapter 1| Introduction       Augmented Reality        AR allows the user to see the image of the ...
iccsa-2012                                     Chapter 2 | Concept iccsa-2012© kluge&asche·ifg·uni·potsdam·2012           ...
iccsa-2012            Chapter 2| Concept       Conception        the central focus is the combination of reality and virt...
iccsa-2012                                 Chapter 2| Concept       Construction        the prototype has a modular const...
iccsa-2012            Chapter 2| Concept       RealityView                                            Presentation        ...
iccsa-2012                                     Chapter 3 | Eye-Tracking iccsa-2012© kluge&asche·ifg·uni·potsdam·2012      ...
iccsa-2012                                   Chapter 3| Eye-Tracking                                        Eye-Tracking T...
iccsa-2012            Chapter 3| Eye-Tracking       Eye-Tracking Setup                                     Eye camera     ...
iccsa-2012            Chapter 3| Eye-Tracking       Eye-Tracking Evaluation        the evaluation allows scientific analy...
iccsa-2012                                     Chapter 4 | Results iccsa-2012© kluge&asche·ifg·uni·potsdam·2012           ...
iccsa-2012            Chapter 4| Results       Test Run© kluge&asche·ifg·uni·potsdam·2012          15 | 20
iccsa-2012            Chapter 4| Results       Test Run Results        with one exception, all test subjects had an ident...
iccsa-2012                    Chapter 4| Results             Questionnaire                                                ...
iccsa-2012                                     Chapter 5 | Summary iccsa-2012© kluge&asche·ifg·uni·potsdam·2012           ...
iccsa-2012            Chapter 5| Summary       Summary        the paper described the conceptual structure of an AR-based...
iccsa-2012                                     Thank You                                     for your attention!          ...
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Validating a smartphone-based pedestrian navigation system prototype - An informal eye-tracking pilot test Mario Kluge, Hartmut Asche University of Potsdam

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Validating a smartphone-based pedestrian navigation system prototype - An informal eye-tracking pilot test Mario Kluge, Hartmut Asche University of Potsdam

  1. 1. iccsa-2012 Validating a smartphone-based pedestrian navigation system prototype An informal eye-tracking pilot test M. Kluge & H. Asche University of Potsdam Germany ICCSA 2012, Salvador de Bahia, 19.06.2012 iccsa-2012© kluge&asche·ifg·uni·potsdam·2012 1 | 20
  2. 2. iccsa-2012 Structure Structure 1. Introduction 1 2 2. Concept Introduction Concept 3. Eye-Tracking 4. Results 5. Summary 4 3 Results Eye-Tracking 5 Summary© kluge&asche·ifg·uni·potsdam·2012 2 | 20
  3. 3. iccsa-2012 Chapter 1 | Introduction iccsa-2012© kluge&asche·ifg·uni·potsdam·2012 3 | 20
  4. 4. iccsa-2012 Chapter 1| Introduction Pedestrian Navigation  Pedestrian traffic is an integrated part of traffic  Pedestrians are road users and passengers in public transport  existing navigation systems for pedestrians are based on 2D map representations or depict reality as a 3D model  the majority of PNS on the market are smaller versions of VNS  Navigation problems occur if the user is unable to relate the information of an instruction to the real environment  one reason is the visualization of the navigation instruction size Hypothesis: content The use of Augmented Reality corresponds to the appearance of human perception and relates the AR instructions to prominent objects and allows the implementation in the real environment. time time© kluge&asche·ifg·uni·potsdam·2012 4 | 20
  5. 5. iccsa-2012 Chapter 1| Introduction Augmented Reality  AR allows the user to see the image of the real world superimposed with virtual objects  AR is part of the virtual continuum of the mixed reality  mixed reality combines different forms of representation  AR supplements the environment with extensive information instead of recreating or replacing it Mixed Reality Real Environment Augmented Reality Augmented Virtuality Virtual Environment Source: Milgram & Kishino, 1994© kluge&asche·ifg·uni·potsdam·2012 5 | 20
  6. 6. iccsa-2012 Chapter 2 | Concept iccsa-2012© kluge&asche·ifg·uni·potsdam·2012 6 | 20
  7. 7. iccsa-2012 Chapter 2| Concept Conception  the central focus is the combination of reality and virtual reality  this common view will be extended by a virtual route representation, which follows the route course in reality  the structure is as follows:  the perspective adjustment and the calculation of the virtual image scene require a data model, which remains hidden from the viewer  the prototype is the result of a virtual route that is superimposed on the front of the camera image  the instruction is displayed on the screen and perceived by the user Map Data Virtual Camera RealityView Screen User Route Image© kluge&asche·ifg·uni·potsdam·2012 7 | 20
  8. 8. iccsa-2012 Chapter 2| Concept Construction  the prototype has a modular construction and based on an free and open source navigation platform (http://www.navit-project.org/)  the structure of the concept consists of the three processes registration, tracking and presentation  registration process: captures position and alignment from sensors  tracking process: specifies the trace of virtual objects  presentation process: describes the output on the screen User Presentation Sensor Registration Environmental conditions GPS Alignment Augmented Reality Display Tracking Acceleration Orientation Compass Graphical Virtual Video Video Overlay Reality System Route Stream Camera Hardware© kluge&asche·ifg·uni·potsdam·2012 8 | 20
  9. 9. iccsa-2012 Chapter 2| Concept RealityView Presentation  the screen can be operated in two display-modes (AR & map)  the activation or change is done by changing the alignment of the unit Virtual Cable  a virtual route will be positioned with respect to the real location  Concept is taken from vehicle navigation and called Virtual Cable  Features are described as “safe, simple and intuitive”  navigates a user along a route without a detailed description© kluge&asche·ifg·uni·potsdam·2012 9 | 20
  10. 10. iccsa-2012 Chapter 3 | Eye-Tracking iccsa-2012© kluge&asche·ifg·uni·potsdam·2012 10 | 20
  11. 11. iccsa-2012 Chapter 3| Eye-Tracking Eye-Tracking Technology Technology  Eye-Tracking records the eye Source: http://www.smivision.com/ movements and the point of gaze  is described as a non-invasive, video- based technology  the use of a mobile eye-tracker allows the recording in outdoor areas  the tracking process consists of the following steps:  calibration procedure to measure the properties of the eye  measure of the pupil center  locate the relative position of the corneal reflection  calculate the direction of gaze© kluge&asche·ifg·uni·potsdam·2012 11 | 20
  12. 12. iccsa-2012 Chapter 3| Eye-Tracking Eye-Tracking Setup Eye camera Experimental Procedure Scene camera  only a pilot test was performed Smartphone camera  test sessions divided in three parts  Introduction  Test Run  Questionnaire Experimental Setup Eye and scene  a user-centered eye camera camera captures the point of gaze Helmet Smartphone  a scene camera records the real Computer environment  both are mounted on a headgear  the recorded information is stored by a mobile computer© kluge&asche·ifg·uni·potsdam·2012 12 | 20
  13. 13. iccsa-2012 Chapter 3| Eye-Tracking Eye-Tracking Evaluation  the evaluation allows scientific analysis of eye movement and displays the duration of fixation in front of the video sequence  the following properties would be measured:  the pattern of various fixations (scan paths)  the time spent looking at display elements (growing circle)  the deployment of prominent objects in the real environment© kluge&asche·ifg·uni·potsdam·2012 13 | 20
  14. 14. iccsa-2012 Chapter 4 | Results iccsa-2012© kluge&asche·ifg·uni·potsdam·2012 14 | 20
  15. 15. iccsa-2012 Chapter 4| Results Test Run© kluge&asche·ifg·uni·potsdam·2012 15 | 20
  16. 16. iccsa-2012 Chapter 4| Results Test Run Results  with one exception, all test subjects had an identical favorite at the individual stations  most of the users tried to use the AR-mode at decision points with more than one possibility  the map display was used more often along two decision points  all of them used prominent objects to recognize the instruction in the real environment  the most common navigation strategy of a user was to follow the virtual cable in the AR-mode, and to display the target and current location in the 2D map  conclusion:  the AR display provides a detailed navigation at decision points  the map display allows a better overview© kluge&asche·ifg·uni·potsdam·2012 16 | 20
  17. 17. iccsa-2012 Chapter 4| Results Questionnaire Structure  the questionnaire based on the System Usability Scale (SUS)  had an extent of ten questions 6  the rating based on the Likert-Scale response 5 4 3  the validation results provided a 2 mean score of 75 out of 100 points 1 0  a SUS score of 75 points can be 1 Person 1 2 3 4 Person 2 5 6 7 Person 3 8 9 question 10 interpreted as a grade of B  all test subjects rate the third 70% statement, "I thought the system 75 was easy to use" with value 5  in conclusion, the requirement of intuitive use has been fulfilled© kluge&asche·ifg·uni·potsdam·2012 17 | 20
  18. 18. iccsa-2012 Chapter 5 | Summary iccsa-2012© kluge&asche·ifg·uni·potsdam·2012 18 | 20
  19. 19. iccsa-2012 Chapter 5| Summary Summary  the paper described the conceptual structure of an AR-based PNS and the validation based on eye-tracking technology  the validation of the prototype confirms the hypothesis that the use of Augmented Reality for pedestrian navigation is possible and is also accepted by the user group  the evaluation of an eye-tracking pilot study proved that the use of AR favors the selection of prominent objects in the environment Outlook  a key role in the success of future developments is located in the precision and quality of the hardware devices and especially to the accuracy of the built-in sensor components  a meaningful evaluation of the prototype requires a quantitative evaluation over a longer period and a repetition and expansion of the presented eye-tracking pilot test© kluge&asche·ifg·uni·potsdam·2012 19 | 20
  20. 20. iccsa-2012 Thank You for your attention! Mario Kluge & Hartmut Asche University of Potsdam Department of Geography mario.kluge@uni-potsdam.de hartmut.asche@uni-potsdam.de iccsa-2012© kluge&asche·ifg·uni·potsdam·2012 20 | 20

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