Smarter Urban Planning: Match Land Use with Citizen Needs and Financial Constraints

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Smarter Urban Planning: Match Land Use with Citizen Needs and Financial Constraints
Maria-Lluïsa Marsal-Llacuna - Department of Architecture and Building Engineering, Urban Planning Area, Girona University
Ying Tat Leung, Guang-Jie Ren - IBM Almaden Research Centre

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  • Urban planning tools we are using today are the same as 30 years before (law and masterplan) and wiht the same srtucutre and contnent but ciites’ are –by far- more complex
  • How is the law is both styles
  • How are the masterplans
  • In romans style Law is more detailed and precise, and consequently masterplans out of this style of law. We could think that romans style planning is more informed and documented due To it’s detailed nature. It is not like this, in both cases it is only ruled planning competences. The complexity of the city is not represented.
  • Danger is that public and private stratgey can go in the private’s direction.
  • To have public realm completed municipality will have to pay for faciliities’ construction
  • Because public lands mean costs to administration (maintenance for public space and roads+ facilities construction) administration can be not really intrested in recieving big amounts of public lands
  • Public realm as a part of open segment will really suffer this cuts
  • A large number of kinds of facilities are in daner
  • To integrate faciliites and services it is more effcient and also a cost saving measure
  • Smarter Urban Planning: Match Land Use with Citizen Needs and Financial Constraints

    1. 1. Smarter Urban Planning Match Land Use with Citizen Needs and Financial Constraints ICCSA-CTP 2011_International Conference Santander, Spain, June 20th.-23rd. Maria-Lluïsa Marsal-Llacuna, Professor Architecture and Building Engineering Department Universitat de Girona [email_address] Ying Tat Leung Guang-Jie Ren Almaden Services Research IBM Research [email_address] [email_address] Sponsors: IBM ES, IBM US
    2. 2. OPENING
    3. 3. Cities are complex ecosystems; they rely on multiple stakeholders and core systems to meet the needs of citizens and local businesses <ul><li>Observations </li></ul><ul><li>Local government does not necessarily own all the resources; it has a need to collaborate with other stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Citizens often hold the local government accountable for the various services they receive, regardless of providers </li></ul><ul><li>Public policies tend to be made in isolation; opportunities to address cross-system challenges are often overlooked </li></ul>Federal/National State/Province Citizens and Businesses Core Systems Transportation, Public Safety, Water, Utilities, Healthcare, Education, Social Services, Culture, Economic Dev, Urban Planning, Environment, etc. County City Government Manage and Support Business Areas: Vision, Policy, Planning, Budgeting, Revenue Collection, Finance, HR, Legal, IT, Admin, Procurement, Facilities, etc. Fund & Administrate via agencies & programs Create and deliver front-line services Private/Non-profit organizations Participate in, influence and evaluate the core systems Fund, elect, influence and evaluate the government at all levels Direct or Indirect influence through policies and funding Client Challenge: How can we represent the city ecosystem in ways that encourage collaboration and help resolve challenges?
    4. 4. IBM Response: Actionable Business Architecture for Smarter Cities as an integrated approach to manage city’s transformation journey Component Business Model Actionable Business Architecture Operating Models City Ecosystem Transportation Water Social Services … Local Government <ul><li>Core Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Public Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Citizen Health </li></ul><ul><li>Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Urban planning </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Development </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Culture and Recreation </li></ul><ul><li>Judicial and Justice </li></ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul>Business of IT Finance Human Capital Payment … <ul><li>Shared Services </li></ul><ul><li>Procurement </li></ul><ul><li>Asset Management </li></ul><ul><li>Tax Collection </li></ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul>Process Models IT Models Solutions and Projects <ul><li>Aligned with Strategy Models </li></ul><ul><li>Driven by Business Scenarios </li></ul>IBM Approach Overall Design
    5. 5. Urban Planning is one of the domains we have chosen for deep dive in 2011 Direct Control Execute City Vision and Strategy City Performance Management City Governance Operations Public Safety Strategy Crime, Fire and Emergency Management Public Safety Operations City Transportation Strategy Transportation Service Management Transportation Infrastructure Operations Citizen Health Strategy Health Service Management Health Service Operations City Utilities Strategy Utilities Service Management Utilities Infrastructure Operations Eco-City Strategy Sustainability Programs Management Sustainability Programs Delivery Urban Planning Strategy Development Permit Management Land and Buildings Operations City Economic Policies Economic Programs Management Economic Development Operations Social Services Strategy Social Programs Management Social Services Delivery Education and Culture Policies Education and Culture Programs Management Education and Culture Operations Government-wide Administration Strategy Administration Services Management Administration Services Delivery City Strategy & Governance Public Safety Transportation Citizen Health Energy & Water Environmental Sustainability Urban Planning & Building Management Economic Development Social Services Education, Culture & Recreation Municipal Administration
    6. 6. PROBLEMS IN URBAN PLANNING
    7. 7. Our cities are having problems due to an unsuccessful planning Problem #1 Cities -as urban planning product- are not covering citizen needs Problem # 2 Urban planning activity is lacking the objectivity that is needed to balance public and private interests. Problem # 3 In moments of economic crisis, cities’ public realm is in danger
    8. 8. Problem #1 Cities -as urban planning product- are not covering citizens’ needs [Capsule/Parenthesis]: Countries’ Administrative Style, Legal Tradition, Power System and Jurisdictional Structure
    9. 9. Problem #1 Cities -as urban planning product- are not covering citizen needs How is urban planning done today? Main instrument is the law, Urban Planning Acts . Master plans are normative graphical representation and Cities are the living result of master plans Today’s cities complexity asks for a better informed and more documented planning activity
    10. 10. Problem #1 Cities -as urban planning product- are not covering citizen needs Administrative Model of countries explains countries' Legal Tradition election as Power System explains countries' Jurisdictional Structure . Two Styles of Law exist, Romans or Traditional (mainly Unitarian C) and Anglo-Saxon (mainly Federations) Spain is an example of Romans Style in Unitarian Country while the US is an exception. UK is the obvious exception of Anglo-Saxon Style of Law attachment in an Unitarian Country Styles of Law main’s difference : Law’s consideration Romans Style , Law is equivalent to a contract Anglo-Saxon model , contract is a consequence of the Law therefore it is possible to generate as many contracts as required by different situations, using the Law only as a starting point.
    11. 11. Problem #1 Cities -as urban planning product- are not covering citizen needs Urbanism out of both models is opposed: Continental (based in Romans Style of Law) leaves not much space for uncertainty, all urban parameters are ruled Anglo-Saxon promotes it (model born in 1960), only zoning areas’ constructability and land uses are ruled >>opposed role and Administration’s behavior: writ of tutelage in the first model vs discretional and active role in the second (initiating urban planning activity) Continental Master Plans’ are not much flexible tools, without uncertainties . based on property rights , Master plans consolidate existing Land Uses ones and project new ones. Master Plans draw all future projects with absolute detail, main root cause of speculation in countries attached to this model . “ Plan-Law”: relationship between Master Plan, Urban Project and Building is established according to the Law Master Plans out of the New Model , in line of “action plans”, they do not constitute rights or obligations Land Use is a right of the State . State and Local Governments will discretionally take Urban decisions according to the strategic lines drafted by Master Plans . Master Plans are a model for the future but not capacitated to legally impose urban planning parameters
    12. 12. Problem #1 Cities -as urban planning product- are not covering citizen needs Urban planning normative, in any style of Law, rules what is strictly a planning competence from zoning land uses (Anglo-Saxon Style) to constructability parameters and public/private lands distribution (Romans Style) Under this frame of responsibilities it is not possible to state that plans are concerned about population needs and, cities –overall- must be a comfortable place to live where needs are covered. Population data is only taken into account when forecasting city’s growth for the next 20 years [Masteplans standard forecasting timeline] No information about culture, wealth distribution, age structure, towns and cities geographical isolation, etc…only in urban planners’ subjective thinking.
    13. 13. Not knowing about citizens’ needs it would be really a sort of chance that only by applying Urban Planning Acts’ mandatory principles, the city -as it’s product- fulfills residents’ expectations. After this, it is possible to affirm that urban planning’s social target is not accomplished Urban Planning tools and processes must be more documented and informed by considering social, economical and geographical profiles. Problem #2 Urban planning activity is lacking objectivity when balancing public and private interests. [Capsule/Parenthesis]: how urban development’s plan deployment is paid
    14. 14. Problem #2 Urban planning activity is lacking objectivity when balancing public and private interests A fair balance of public and private interests goes in the direction of social target’s accomplishment Urban Planners are a sort of moderators in this big deal between private actors (developers) and the public party (local administration). Private actors will try to get the maximum profit of their private lands by squeezing the law (there are some margins; urban parameters are not fixed values). Administration, although it could seem the opposite, will not squeeze the law to get the maximum of public lands (also values within a range)
    15. 15. Problem #2 Urban planning activity is lacking objectivity when balancing public and private interests Proportions between public and private lands are ruled by law (some margins for adjustments exist) For instance, Catalan Urban Planning Act (DL 1/2005) 55% public in regards of new settlement’s total area, distributed as the following (some margins for combination exist) *for each 100m2 constructed, 20 m2. will be for public space , between 10 and 20% of the total *similar for facilities , between 5% and 20% of the total *the remaining, around 25% will be for roads 55% public are “cessions” or “surrenders”: lands given free of cost to the Municipality from the investor as a counterpart to the city for it’s private profit. Cessions are given in the following status: *Public Space urbanized. *Empty plots for facilities . *Roads fully finished (with all technical infrastructure ready: water pipes, sewers, electricity and telecommunications nets) Thus to have the public realm completed, municipality will have to pay for facilities’ construction. roads facilities green housing retail parking offices industry [Capsule/Parenthesis]: how urban development’s plan deployment is paid public private
    16. 16. Problem #2 Urban planning activity is lacking objectivity when balancing public and private interests Although urban planning has the described mechanisms to compensate citizens for the private profit that developer will obtain out of the new developed area, here, urban planner has the additional role of watchman to ensure that public and private purposes do not prioritize the private direction and public lands out of these compensation mechanisms are the maximum possible. Sometimes urban planners are the only ones in this game of public and private lands distribution that defend the public portion.
    17. 17. Problem #3 In moments of economic crisis, cities’ public realm is in danger Although the existence of planning standards, margins are too wide to guarantee enough lands stock for public purposes. An objective tool to measure citizens’ public needs would help in this –today subjective- deal of public and private lands distribution. [Capsule/Parenthesis]: infrastructure as a “container” of services and the problem of the unmeet planning and programming: INTEGRATE TO INNOVATE
    18. 18. Problem #3 In moments of economic crisis, cities’ public realm is in danger When Administration sees reduced its public budget a 30% (case of Catalonia) means that “open segment” had bigger cuts to keep the overall budgeted reduction. Public realm, as a part of this “open segment” will suffer these bigger reductions.
    19. 19. Problem #3 In moments of economic crisis, cities’ public realm is in danger 2.technical infrastructure (or “networks”): roads/ general transport network Transport networks and supply networks are used to share the same area to provide population’s: water, electricity, telecommunications and transport network. Public realm (roads/transport network, public space and facilities) can be “packaged” as it follows: 1.social (or “nodal”) infrastructure : all kind of facilities and public space 9 categories/kinds of facilities: education, sports, health, social assistance, culture, commercial, cult, transportation stations, administration and protection. Public space, beside to be considered social infrastructure, plays multiple roles: city lungs, city density reduction, etc.
    20. 20. Problem #3 In moments of economic crisis, cities’ public realm is in danger In the public realm, what is in real danger is the facility (and its services) thus Municipality will only get for free plots that later will need to be constructed (facility building) and urbanized (outdoor/ complimentary facility’s area). Technical networks are not really in danger although budget reductions thus are paid by private parties at the moment to develop the plan. A weak budget can lead to unconstructed facilities’ plots for a long time. Alternative solutions to new buildings’ construction must be found.
    21. 21. Problem #3 In moments of economic crisis, cities’ public realm is in danger Recent investigations have demonstrated that there is no match: while towns have an expecting surplus of plots for facilities (in regards of the services provided to inhabitants); cities experience the opposite: Municipalities have to spend budget buying plots to allocate the necessary services in the corresponding facility. There is a strong need of an integrated planning and programming of facilities and services [Capsule/Parenthesis]: infrastructure as a “container” of services and the problem of the unmeet planning and programming: INTEGRATE TO INNOVATE Infrastructures must be understood as services’ “container” and these services their “content” Focusing on the facility (“container”) , we have schools buildings, hospitals buildings, swimming pools, etc.; their correspondence to services (“content”) would be, education, health care and sports. Amounts and types of services are programmed by responsible Ministries, Education, Health, and Sports, etc. according to their targets of service’s coverage. It is nearly impossible that plots for facilities, obtained by applying mandatory urban planning parameters, match with services to be provided according to specific data of coverage.
    22. 22. PROPOSED SOLUTIONS
    23. 23. Toward a citizen-centric, systematic and analytical approach to urban planning, enabled by software tools for data collection and decision support Problem #1: Cities, as urban planning product, they are not covering citizens’ needs Urban Planning is not accomplishing it’s main social target due to the non consideration of citizens needs. Urban Planning tools and processes must be more documented and more informed by considering social, economical and geographical profiles. Problem #2: Urban planning activity is lacking objectivity when balancing public and private interests. Although the existence of planning standards margins are too wide to guarantee enough lands stock for public purposes. An objective tool to measure citizens’ public needs would help in this –today subjective- deal of public and private lands distribution. Problem # 3: In moments of economic crisis, cities’ public realm is in danger. A weak budget can lead to unconstructed plots for facilities for a long time. Alternative solutions to the construction of new buildings must be found. Solution/Target # 1: To know population needs by taking into account citizen’s opinion (surveys) and comparing these results with the existing offer. Existing offer allows to obtain values per capita that, later, on can be used as primary indicators for gaps and critical points of coverage. Solution/Target # 2: To synchronize facilities planning (legal values for surrenders contained in urban planning acts) with services programming (official targets of service designed by competent administrations) and, introducing –the same- geographical, economical and social correction and modeling factors to legal standards and official targets Solution/target # 3: To find alternative ways to new facilities’ construction that –mainly- go trough consolidation of existing facilities’ stock by adding compatible services (“multiservice facilities”). Minor solutions are: “stationary facilities” and “mobile facilities”. Multiservice, stationary and mobile facilities are cost saving comparing to same services in single and/or permanent facilities.
    24. 24. Solution/Target # 1: To know population needs by taking into account citizen’s opinion (surveys) and comparing these results with the existing offer. Existing offer allows to obtain values per capita that, later, on can be used as primary indicators for gaps and critical points of coverage. [from SERVICES PROGRAMMING] 1. Service & facilities demand (base perception): 1.1. Definition of a public service and facilities general catalog for health and social assistance categories. Skeleton for all data systematization .._pilotcriteris planifiacació_health services and facilities.xls 1.2. Elaboration of a complete inventory/census of the existing facilities and their general and detailed services. Obtaining square meters per capita .._pilotexcels i cadssaluttot_defin_inventari complert.xls 1.3 Comparison between cataloged and systematized surveys /(sensors) and square meters per capita of existing service offer . Finding gaps and critical points of coverage form users’ point of view. IBM Next 5 in 5 -- 2010.flv Methodology
    25. 25. Solution/Target # 2: To synchronize facilities planning (legal values for surrenders contained in urban planning acts) with services programming (official targets of service designed by competent administrations) and, introducing –the same- geographical, economical and social correction and modeling factors to legal standards and official targets [from SERVICES PROGRAMMING] 2. Service & facilities needs (base requirement): 2.1 Amount’s calculation of facilities and services needed for the next years (2020 horizon) according to official targets designed by competent administration (Ministry of Health, Ministry of Social Wealth and Family; Catalan Government) .._pilotcriteris planifiacació_health services and facilities.xls 2.2 To recalculate previous resulting amounts (2.1 results) by applying official ‘correction factors’ proclaimed by the same competent administrations. .._pilotindicadors6.2.1 AP (RE, US)AP_increments i reduccions.xls 3. To summarize current gaps with future needs Methodology
    26. 26. Solution/Target # 3: To find alternative ways to new facilities’ construction that –mainly- go trough consolidation of existing facilities’ stock by adding compatible services (“multiservice facilities”). Minor solutions are: “stationary facilities” and “mobile facilities”. Multiservice, stationary and mobile facilities are cost saving comparing to same services in single and/or permanent facilities. [from SERVICES PROGRAMMING to FACILITIES PLANNING] 4. Services’ pair rules and Services pairs (existing pairing rules and potential new rules) 4.1 Pairing rules based on existing combinations and logical requirements. 4.2 Relationship matrix to identify potential positive and negative synergies between health and social assistance general services .._pilotexcels i cadssaluttot_SA.xls 5. Planning Facilities’ consolidations and new facilities proposal’s according to paired services (existing pairing and potential new pairs) Pending! Methodology
    27. 27. Support Tooling for Proposed Solutions: A Solution Framework for Decision Support Provided by Commercial Partner or Existing Open-Source Software Proprietary Open Source to Universities Other Analysis Performance Reporting Services Database Facilities Database Map Database Map Access Layer Data Access Layer Analytics Access Layer User Interface Multi-Purpose Facility Analysis Other Analysis
    28. 28. Support Tooling for Proposed Solutions: Key Features of the Software Architecture <ul><li>The solution framework, in the same spirit as many of the IBM industry solution frameworks, consists of </li></ul><ul><li>A software architecture design that can be used as a template for developing a custom-built software solution for a client </li></ul><ul><li>Defined objects and interfaces in and between different components of the software architecture, so that additional or custom functions can be accommodated easily </li></ul><ul><li>Logical database design for services and facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Data for one particular analysis scenario in a sample database </li></ul><ul><li>Map-related interfaces compliant with existing open-source or industry standards </li></ul><ul><li>Basic user interface functions </li></ul><ul><li>Basic performance reporting functions in a sample analytic module </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-purpose facility analysis functions in a proprietary analytic module </li></ul><ul><li>The basic design of the framework is open-source to enable </li></ul><ul><li>Extensions developed by third parties </li></ul><ul><li>University research and teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis modules are self-contained so that new or custom modules can be accommodated easily </li></ul><ul><li>One open-source analytic module will be provided to illustrate application of the framework </li></ul><ul><li>IBM proprietary modules will be developed for commercial use </li></ul>
    29. 29. Business Model <ul><li>Framework usage scenarios </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-commercial use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Open source portions used by universities for research & teaching </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Framework used as a “standard” for other open-source contributors to develop additional functions and/or analytic modules </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appliance-level instantiation of the entire framework to be sold by IBM as a turn-key solution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Open source + proprietary portions used to develop custom versions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As an internal-use tool for management consulting by UdG / IBM </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>for specific clients in a custom development engagement & ongoing support by IBM </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Additional proprietary analytic modules developed and sold by IBM to be used by clients in their own development of a custom system using the open source portions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Potential customers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local Public Administrations (Municipalities); Regional and National Governments (Ministries with thematic competences such as Health, Education, etc.) in a commercial-use custom version development scenario </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. THANK YOU

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