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85th Annual WAD Conference 2010 – 24th September 2010<br />Integrating spatial and thematic data: the CRISOLA case for Mal...
The Context<br />The Theme: Crime<br />The Future<br />The Conveyor<br />CRIME<br />SOCIAL<br />LANDUSE<br />
The Situation and the Thematic Reality<br /><ul><li> A data dearth: most social data is in analogue format
 Access and limitations/moratoria to social data
 Cleaning the data where available is done mostly manually
 Spatial issues:
 Projections and conversions of whole state has proven a ‘nightmare’
Geocoding is based on street centre points which does not allow for real locational analysis
 Streets are non-networked
 Address point database does not exist…
However, major steps have been made to create an NSDI based on the requirements from the INSPIRE Directive, together with ...
Study uses the initial work on data specifications as based on the Plan4All and INSPIRE specifications
  Techno-Centric or Socio-Technic Approach?</li></li></ul><li>Why use INSPIRE as the base for Social Data?<br />Environmen...
The INSPIRE Annexes: the social themes…<br />Annex I<br />	Coordinate reference systems<br />	Geographical grid systems<br...
Zooming In: The State of Play<br /> Population: 413,609<br />(Demographic Review, 2008)<br />Plenty of opportunities <br /...
Environmental Criminology – Urban Ecology<br />The relationship between crime and the urban environment:	Chicago to UK to ...
CRIME<br />SOCIAL<br />LANDUSE<br />CRISOLA<br />Theories<br />Opportunity Theory<br />Routine Activity Theory<br />Broken...
Phase 1 - Conceptual Model Logical Matrix<br />
Phase 2 – Identifying the linkages<br />
Phase 3 – Identifying the datasets and attributes<br />
Demographic Landscapes: Population Density<br />
Social Landscapes: Unemployment Rates<br />
Offender basedata in 1990s<br />
Offender clusters in 1990s<br />
Offender densities by EAs: popdens-offender correlation<br />
Offender densities vs National densities: EAs<br />
Offender - poverty hotspots<br />
Offence analysis: pin it to a wall? Or easy digital process?<br />Error Generation<br />Manual imposition<br />Dark Figure...
85th Annual WAD Conference 2010 – 24th September 2010<br />Offence Incidences: spatio-temporal - Migration<br />
85th Annual WAD Conference 2010 – 24th September 2010<br />Leisure & <br />Recreation<br />Residential<br />Parking<br />L...
St. Luke’s Hospital<br />	      Detox<br />Bus Terminus<br />Parking Space<br />Marina<br />Bus Stop<br />Traffic Lights<b...
Offence constructs: Zoning<br />
Offences: Zoning Categories<br />
Offence constructs: Residential offences<br />
Offence Hotspots: spatial – Retail Crime<br />
Offence Hotspots: spatial – Retail Crime<br />
Buffer Analysis: Retail Impacts on the Neighbourhoods<br /> San Giljan Case Study<br /> Inner Zones<br />   Serious Crimes...
Socio-Physical Models: The Conchin et al case study<br />Crime Constructs: a modelling perspective<br />
Offence constructs: The Conchin et al case study - extended<br />Crime Constructs: a planning perspective<br />Illegal dev...
Offence constructs: The Conchin et al case study - extended<br />Crime Constructs: a temporal perspective<br />Shadow impa...
Offence constructs: The Conchin et al case study - extended<br />Crime Constructs: a trigger perspective<br />Offender loc...
The Conveyors: Early Mapservers<br />
Map service: Malta CrimeMaps<br />
Map service: Malta CrimeMaps<br />
Map service: Census 2005 – Population and Housing<br />
The Plan4All Project<br />What is Plan4all<br />Plan4all is a European project co-funded by the Community programme eConte...
The Plan4All Objectives<br />To encompass the definition of standards for spatial planning data harmonisation according to...
The Plan4All work<br />Plan4all Spatial Data Interest Communities registration <br />INSPIRE Requirements Analysis<br />An...
The Plan4All work<br />Spatial transformation process<br />The spatial transformation was more complex due to the fact tha...
Reprojecting to WGS84: EPSG: 36233;
 Conversion to shp format from .tab format;
 Colour schemes are lost in the transition and need to be recreated in the geoserver.</li></ul>The services offered by the...
The Plan4All work – UML<br />
The Plan4All work: CLC Case Study<br />Metadata Services<br />
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Integrating spatial and thematic data: the CRISOLA case for Malta and the European project Plan4all

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Integrating spatial and thematic data: the CRISOLA case for Malta and the European project Plan4all
Saviour Formosa - Institute of Criminology, University of Malta
Vincent Magri - Fondazzjoni Temi Zammit, University of Malta
Julia Neuschmid, Manfred Schrenk - Department for Urbanism, Transport, Environment and Information Society, Central European Institute of Technology, Austria

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Integrating spatial and thematic data: the CRISOLA case for Malta and the European project Plan4all

  1. 1. 85th Annual WAD Conference 2010 – 24th September 2010<br />Integrating spatial and thematic data: the CRISOLA case for Malta and the European project Plan4all<br />www.um.edu.mt<br />ICCSA 2011 - International Conference on Computational Science and its Applications<br />22 June 2011<br />Saviour Formosa<br />Vincent Magri<br />Julia Neuschmid<br />Manfred Schrenk<br />
  2. 2. The Context<br />The Theme: Crime<br />The Future<br />The Conveyor<br />CRIME<br />SOCIAL<br />LANDUSE<br />
  3. 3. The Situation and the Thematic Reality<br /><ul><li> A data dearth: most social data is in analogue format
  4. 4. Access and limitations/moratoria to social data
  5. 5. Cleaning the data where available is done mostly manually
  6. 6. Spatial issues:
  7. 7. Projections and conversions of whole state has proven a ‘nightmare’
  8. 8. Geocoding is based on street centre points which does not allow for real locational analysis
  9. 9. Streets are non-networked
  10. 10. Address point database does not exist…
  11. 11. However, major steps have been made to create an NSDI based on the requirements from the INSPIRE Directive, together with a pivot from the Aarhus Convention and other data-related legislation
  12. 12. Study uses the initial work on data specifications as based on the Plan4All and INSPIRE specifications
  13. 13. Techno-Centric or Socio-Technic Approach?</li></li></ul><li>Why use INSPIRE as the base for Social Data?<br />Environmental Needs<br />Better information needed to support policies <br />Improvement of existing information flows<br />Revision of approach to reporting and monitoring, moving to concept of sharing of information<br />Situation <br />Lack of co-ordination across borders and between levels of government <br />Lack of standards incompatible information and information systems<br />Existing data not re-usable fragmentation of information, redundancy, inability to integrate<br />Environmental data<br />90% is linked to geography<br />INSPIRE<br />Environment:<br />Natural<br />Physical<br />Social<br />Social data<br />`<br />? % is linked to geography<br />
  14. 14. The INSPIRE Annexes: the social themes…<br />Annex I<br /> Coordinate reference systems<br /> Geographical grid systems<br /> Geographical names<br /> Administrative units<br /> Transport networks<br />Hydrography<br /> Protected sites<br />Annex I I<br /> Elevation<br /> Addresses of properties<br /> Cadastral parcels<br />Land cover<br />Orthoimagery<br />Annex III <br />Statistical units census<br />Buildings<br />Soil<br />Geology<br />Landuse<br />Human health and safety<br />Governmental services and environmental monitoring facilities <br />Classified sites (industry and agriculture)<br />Populationdistribution – demography<br />Area management and …. zones<br />Natural risk zones<br />Atmospheric conditions <br />Meteorological geographical features<br />Oceanographic geographical features<br />Sea regions<br />Bio-geographical regions<br />
  15. 15. Zooming In: The State of Play<br /> Population: 413,609<br />(Demographic Review, 2008)<br />Plenty of opportunities <br />for predators <br />to operate in<br /> Households: 140,000<br />(Census, 2005)<br /> Land area: 316 Km2<br />(MEPA, 2010)<br /> Land cover: 27% - 85 Km2<br />(MEPA, 2005)<br /> Dwellings: 192,000<br />(Census, 2005)<br /> Vacant Dwellings: 53,000<br />(Census, 2005)<br /> Enterprises: 50,000<br />(NSO, 2008)<br />
  16. 16. Environmental Criminology – Urban Ecology<br />The relationship between crime and the urban environment: Chicago to UK to Malta<br />
  17. 17. CRIME<br />SOCIAL<br />LANDUSE<br />CRISOLA<br />Theories<br />Opportunity Theory<br />Routine Activity Theory<br />Broken Windows Theory<br />Structuration Theory<br />Cognitive landscape mindmaps<br />W6H<br />
  18. 18. Phase 1 - Conceptual Model Logical Matrix<br />
  19. 19. Phase 2 – Identifying the linkages<br />
  20. 20. Phase 3 – Identifying the datasets and attributes<br />
  21. 21. Demographic Landscapes: Population Density<br />
  22. 22. Social Landscapes: Unemployment Rates<br />
  23. 23. Offender basedata in 1990s<br />
  24. 24. Offender clusters in 1990s<br />
  25. 25. Offender densities by EAs: popdens-offender correlation<br />
  26. 26. Offender densities vs National densities: EAs<br />
  27. 27. Offender - poverty hotspots<br />
  28. 28. Offence analysis: pin it to a wall? Or easy digital process?<br />Error Generation<br />Manual imposition<br />Dark Figure<br />
  29. 29. 85th Annual WAD Conference 2010 – 24th September 2010<br />Offence Incidences: spatio-temporal - Migration<br />
  30. 30. 85th Annual WAD Conference 2010 – 24th September 2010<br />Leisure & <br />Recreation<br />Residential<br />Parking<br />Leisure & <br />Recreation<br />Residential<br />Retail<br />Health<br />Residential<br />Retail<br />Parking<br />Recreation<br />Residential<br />Retail - Offices<br />Parking<br />Offence NNA: spatial – Type by spread – Most effected<br />
  31. 31. St. Luke’s Hospital<br /> Detox<br />Bus Terminus<br />Parking Space<br />Marina<br />Bus Stop<br />Traffic Lights<br />Retail<br />Housing Estate<br />Political Party HQs<br />Schools<br />Sports & Retail<br />Offence NNA: spatial – Type by spread – Pieta Detailed<br />
  32. 32. Offence constructs: Zoning<br />
  33. 33. Offences: Zoning Categories<br />
  34. 34. Offence constructs: Residential offences<br />
  35. 35. Offence Hotspots: spatial – Retail Crime<br />
  36. 36. Offence Hotspots: spatial – Retail Crime<br />
  37. 37. Buffer Analysis: Retail Impacts on the Neighbourhoods<br /> San Giljan Case Study<br /> Inner Zones<br /> Serious Crimes,<br /> Theft and Damage<br /> Middle Zones<br /> Damage & Vehicle Crime<br /> Outer Zones <br />Vehicle, Damage<br /> Residential Burglaries<br /> Mitigation: Requires effective <br /> policing and SIAs<br /> Success: reduction of >10%<br /> In Dragonara Road:<br /> Simple installation of lighting/CCTV<br />
  38. 38. Socio-Physical Models: The Conchin et al case study<br />Crime Constructs: a modelling perspective<br />
  39. 39. Offence constructs: The Conchin et al case study - extended<br />Crime Constructs: a planning perspective<br />Illegal development<br />
  40. 40. Offence constructs: The Conchin et al case study - extended<br />Crime Constructs: a temporal perspective<br />Shadow impact<br />
  41. 41. Offence constructs: The Conchin et al case study - extended<br />Crime Constructs: a trigger perspective<br />Offender locations responsible for crimes psychologically induced<br />by stress-triggered factors caused by prolonged sunlight deprivation<br />
  42. 42. The Conveyors: Early Mapservers<br />
  43. 43. Map service: Malta CrimeMaps<br />
  44. 44. Map service: Malta CrimeMaps<br />
  45. 45. Map service: Census 2005 – Population and Housing<br />
  46. 46. The Plan4All Project<br />What is Plan4all<br />Plan4all is a European project co-funded by the Community programme eContentplus. The main aim of the project is to harmonise spatial planning data and related metadata according to the INSPIRE principles.<br />The Plan4all consortium is composed of <br />24 partners from 15 European countries.<br />
  47. 47. The Plan4All Objectives<br />To encompass the definition of standards for spatial planning data harmonisation according to INSPIRE<br />To implement the Plan4all geoportal that consists of harmonised spatial planning data that can be shared<br />To contribute to a European spatial data infrastructure<br />
  48. 48. The Plan4All work<br />Plan4all Spatial Data Interest Communities registration <br />INSPIRE Requirements Analysis<br />Analysis of National Requirements on Spatial Planning Metadata<br />Analysis of Conceptual Data Models for Selected Schemes <br />Analysis of Demand on European Spatial Planning Data Sharing<br />Plan4all Metadata Profile <br />Conceptual Data Models for Selected Themes <br />
  49. 49. The Plan4All work<br />Spatial transformation process<br />The spatial transformation was more complex due to the fact that Malta holds all its data in a truncated ED50 format which required the following steps in order to be converted to the final required projection:<br /><ul><li> Restoration of the truncated 4 in Northings and 39 in Eastings;
  50. 50. Reprojecting to WGS84: EPSG: 36233;
  51. 51. Conversion to shp format from .tab format;
  52. 52. Colour schemes are lost in the transition and need to be recreated in the geoserver.</li></ul>The services offered by the system are WMS, WFS, whilst metadata services are provided through a link to the Plan4All metadata service where these files were stored in both xml and xls formats.<br /> <br />The main data layers are made available through OpenLayers format incorporating WMS and WFS services.<br />Metadata of the spatial planning data was created and compiled by INSPIRE Metadata Editor (XML Creator). The INSPIRE Metadata editor makes it possible to create INSPIRE compliant metadata and to download it as an xml file.<br />
  53. 53. The Plan4All work – UML<br />
  54. 54. The Plan4All work: CLC Case Study<br />Metadata Services<br />
  55. 55. The Plan4All work: CLC Case Study<br />
  56. 56. The Plan4All work: CLC Case Study<br />Transformation Services<br />Schemas<br />The schema used for Land Cover was that identified by the Plan4All guidelines and the Application Schema was the “Land Cover” Schema. <br />
  57. 57. The Plan4All work: CLC Case Study<br />Feature Catalogue<br />Map viewer<br />The webmap client used was geo server: (http://ftzgeo.org:8080/geoserver/web) <br />
  58. 58. What outputs willINSPIRE deliver?<br />INSPIRE Directive Deliverables<br />Implementation rules – standardisation<br />Base for National Data Infrastructure<br />Metadata<br />Spatial structures<br />Data Services<br />Discovery Services<br />View Services<br />
  59. 59. The Next Steps: – The FUTURE<br />THE NEXT STEP FOR INTEGRATION OF CRISOLA<br />IN THE MALTESE ISLANDS<br />WHERE SHALL WE GO FROM HERE?<br />
  60. 60. The Next Steps: ERDF 156<br />Developing National Environmental Monitoring Infrastructure and Capacity<br />Structural Funds Projectunder the Operational Programme I Priority Axis 6ERDF 156<br />
  61. 61. Some Outputs: Serving as the base for social and spatial analysis<br />Air Strategy and Data Acquisition<br />Water Strategy and Baseline Study<br />Noise and Radiation Strategy<br />Chemicals in Soil Strategy<br />Full LIDAR Scan: Terrestrial and Bathymetric<br />Ground truthing for sea substrate type <br />Oblique aerial imagery & satellite imagery<br />Online information service<br />Online mapservice - SEIS<br /> Statistical backing for experts – inc. spatial stats<br /> ALL Data is to be disseminated for FREE<br />
  62. 62. The Area under Study<br />Maltese Islands coast inclusive of 1 nautical mile boundary from the baseline coastline<br />
  63. 63. The Tools to enhance Analysis<br />LIDAR Scan: Terrestrial(Topographic Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR))Digital Surface Model (DSM) and Digital Terrain Model (DTM)<br />LIDAR Scan: Bathymetric<br />Bathymetric Scan: Acoustic(interferometer swath and side scan sonar)Digital Surface Model and an acoustic information map of sea bed<br />Oblique aerial imagery & orthophotos<br />Satellite imagery<br />Remote GPS Cameras (Remote capture GPS receiver)<br />3D scanner and GIS Handhelds<br />Global Navigation Satellite System Station and geodetic receivers<br /> Link to the iphone app pollution data porting to social domains from the environmental domains<br />
  64. 64. Revisiting INSPIRE<br />Annex I<br /> Coordinate reference systems<br /> Geographical grid systems<br /> Geographical names<br /> Administrative units<br /> Transport networks<br />Hydrography<br /> Protected sites<br />Annex II<br /> Elevation<br /> Addresses of properties<br /> Cadastral parcels<br />Land cover<br />Orthoimagery<br />Annex III <br />Statistical units census<br />Buildings<br />Soil<br />Geology<br />Landuse<br />Human health and safety<br />Governmental services and environmental monitoring facilities <br />Classified sites (industry and agriculture)<br />Populationdistribution – demography<br />Area management and …. zones<br />Natural risk zones<br />Atmospheric conditions <br />Meteorological geographical features<br />Oceanographic geographical features<br />Sea regions<br />Bio-geographical regions<br />Annex IV<br />Social Themes<br />
  65. 65. The Information Social Dilemma <br />Tower of Babel or Valhalla?<br />Today we are facing a period unprecedented in history: information is available, it is easy <br />to decipher and is accessible to all…<br />Or is it?<br />Are we going down the Babel way?<br />The most brilliant architects got together <br />with the brightest inventions and plans.. <br />But there were too many languages and they couldn’t communicate. That killed <br />the tower not the technology<br />If Techno-Centric Approaches appear difficult to understand imagine what it is like for the non-Technics thus socio-technic approaches are the way forward.<br />
  66. 66. Thank You<br />Saviour Formosa - saviour.formosa@um.edu.mtVincent Magri - vincent@ascendconsulting.eu Julia Neuschmid - j.neuschmid@ceit.at Manfred Schrenk - m.schrenk@ceit.at<br />

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