Polytechnic University of Bari                                   (Italy) Climate Alteration in the Metropolitan Areaof Bar...
Strategic Project ECOURB            Analysing and modelling air and thermo pollution for                        urban ecol...
Introduction     Specific                        Indentify how urban geometry can be    Objective                        r...
Outline    1. Identification of the case study    2. Factor Analysis                                 Processing of thermal...
1. Case study : Metropolitan Area of Bari    Location: 41 7’N – 16 51’E, South of Italy, Apulia Region                    ...
1. Case study : Metropolitan Area of Bari    Location: 41 7’N – 16 51’E, South of Italy, Apulia Region    Size: Area of 11...
2. Factor Analysis                  Processing of thermal data    ASTER –VNIR (Visible and Near Infrared) and TIR granules...
2. Factor Analysis                                                Processing of thermal data    ASTER thermal data over wi...
2. Factor Analysis                                                Processing of thermal data    ASTER thermal data over su...
2. Factor Analysis                  Analysis of the urban environmentIn order to characterize urban structures, a set of f...
2. Factor Analysis                                                Analysis of the urban environment                  Land ...
2. Factor Analysis                                                Analysis of the urban environment                  Land ...
2. Factor Analysis                                                Analysis of the urban environment                  Land ...
2. Factor Analysis                                                Analysis of the urban environment                  Land ...
2. Factor Analysis                                                Analysis of the urban environment                  Land ...
2. Factor Analysis                                                Analysis of the urban environment                  Land ...
2. Factor Analysis                                                Analysis of the urban environment                  Land ...
2. Factor Analysis                                                Analysis of the urban environment                  Absol...
2. Factor Analysis                                                Analysis of the urban environment                  Urban...
2. Factor Analysis                                                Analysis of the urban environment                  Urban...
2. Factor Analysis                                                Analysis of the urban environment                  Urban...
2. Factor Analysis                                                Analysis of the urban environment                  Urban...
2. Factor Analysis                                                Analysis of the urban environment                  Urban...
3. Bivariate correlation analysis      The interaction between the urban structures, as represented by the selected      v...
4. Results and comment                  Land use      The coefficients obtained between the surface temperature      and a...
4. Results and comment                  Characteristics of the built                                                      ...
4. Results and comment       The urban morphology      The compact fabric, and in particular old core around the average t...
5. Conclusion and future perspectives      The correlation analysis shows that the phenomenon of UHI is reversed      for ...
5. Conclusion and future perspectives       Develop a more complete description of the fabric is required      (within the...
Polytechnic University of Bari                              (Italy)THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION!
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Climate alteration in the metropolitan area of Bari: temperatures and relationship with characters of urban context Pierangela Loconte, Claudia Ceppi, Francesco Mancini, Giorgia Lubisco, Claudia Piscitelli, and Francesco Selicato - Polytechnic of Bari

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Climate alteration in the metropolitan area of Bari: temperatures and relationship with characters of urban context Pierangela Loconte, Claudia Ceppi, Francesco Mancini, Giorgia Lubisco, Claudia Piscitelli, and Francesco Selicato - Polytechnic of Bari

  1. 1. Polytechnic University of Bari (Italy) Climate Alteration in the Metropolitan Areaof Bari: Temperatures and Relationships with Characters of Urban Context Pierangela Loconte Claudia Ceppi Giorgia Lubisco Francesco Mancini Claudia Piscitelli Francesco Selicato
  2. 2. Strategic Project ECOURB Analysing and modelling air and thermo pollution for urban ecolabelling systems Generale To consider the urban climate aspects into Objective the planning phases Studies about relationships between Urban Heat Island Several urban featuresProvide guidelines for planners to frame urban form planning and environmental quality--------- Climate Alteration in th e Metrop olitan Area of Bari: Temp e ratu r es an d Relation sh ip with Ch aracter s of Urb an Con text --------- Pierangela Loconte – Claudia Ceppi – Giorgia Lubisco – Francesco Mancini – Claudia Piscitelli – Francesco Selicato
  3. 3. Introduction Specific Indentify how urban geometry can be Objective related with climate alterations Quantitative Analysis about Relationships betweenSurface temperature Characters of Urban Factor of urban climate alteration Context--------- Climate Alteration in th e Metrop olitan Area of Bari: Temp e ratu r es an d Relation sh ip with Ch aracter s of Urb an Con text --------- Pierangela Loconte – Claudia Ceppi – Giorgia Lubisco – Francesco Mancini – Claudia Piscitelli – Francesco Selicato
  4. 4. Outline 1. Identification of the case study 2. Factor Analysis Processing of thermal data Analysis of the urban environment 3. Analysis bivariate correlation 4. Results and comment 5. Conclusion and future perspectives--------- Climate Alteration in th e Metrop olitan Area of Bari: Temp e ratu r es an d Relation sh ip with Ch aracter s of Urb an Con text --------- Pierangela Loconte – Claudia Ceppi – Giorgia Lubisco – Francesco Mancini – Claudia Piscitelli – Francesco Selicato
  5. 5. 1. Case study : Metropolitan Area of Bari Location: 41 7’N – 16 51’E, South of Italy, Apulia Region The Province of Bari.--------- Climate Alteration in th e Metrop olitan Area of Bari: Temp e ratu r es an d Relation sh ip with Ch aracter s of Urb an Con text --------- Pierangela Loconte – Claudia Ceppi – Giorgia Lubisco – Francesco Mancini – Claudia Piscitelli – Francesco Selicato
  6. 6. 1. Case study : Metropolitan Area of Bari Location: 41 7’N – 16 51’E, South of Italy, Apulia Region Size: Area of 116 sqkm Resident Population: 326 915 inhabitants Density: 2813 ha/sqkm Climate: Mediterranean, with mild winter and hot dry summer Peculiarities: - Long coastal area (12,79 km) - Several urban morphologies - Natural elements able to link agricultural systems with the city--------- Climate Alteration in th e Metrop olitan Area of Bari: Temp e ratu r es an d Relation sh ip with Ch aracter s of Urb an Con text --------- Pierangela Loconte – Claudia Ceppi – Giorgia Lubisco – Francesco Mancini – Claudia Piscitelli – Francesco Selicato
  7. 7. 2. Factor Analysis Processing of thermal data ASTER –VNIR (Visible and Near Infrared) and TIR granules at 15 and 90 meters of ground resolution respectively Dataset of diurnal ASTER images spanning on a period from July 2001 to February 2006 Transformation from the radiance levels to temperature values by ENVI algorithm. SURFACE TEMPERATURE MAPS--------- Climate Alteration in th e Metrop olitan Area of Bari: Temp e ratu r es an d Relation sh ip with Ch aracter s of Urb an Con text --------- Pierangela Loconte – Claudia Ceppi – Giorgia Lubisco – Francesco Mancini – Claudia Piscitelli – Francesco Selicato
  8. 8. 2. Factor Analysis Processing of thermal data ASTER thermal data over wintertime (February 1th, 2006)--------- Climate Alteration in th e Metrop olitan Area of Bari: Temp e ratu r es an d Relation sh ip with Ch aracter s of Urb an Con text --------- Pierangela Loconte – Claudia Ceppi – Giorgia Lubisco – Francesco Mancini – Claudia Piscitelli – Francesco Selicato
  9. 9. 2. Factor Analysis Processing of thermal data ASTER thermal data over summertime (August 9th, 2001)--------- Climate Alteration in th e Metrop olitan Area of Bari: Temp e ratu r es an d Relation sh ip with Ch aracter s of Urb an Con text --------- Pierangela Loconte – Claudia Ceppi – Giorgia Lubisco – Francesco Mancini – Claudia Piscitelli – Francesco Selicato
  10. 10. 2. Factor Analysis Analysis of the urban environmentIn order to characterize urban structures, a set of factors able toaffects urban climate and UHI phenomenon have been recognized: Land Use Absolute Rugosity Site Coverage Urban Morphologies--------- Climate Alteration in th e Metrop olitan Area of Bari: Temp e ratu r es an d Relation sh ip with Ch aracter s of Urb an Con text --------- Pierangela Loconte – Claudia Ceppi – Giorgia Lubisco – Francesco Mancini – Claudia Piscitelli – Francesco Selicato
  11. 11. 2. Factor Analysis Analysis of the urban environment Land use Urban ecosystems provide services and perform functions that are able to regulate and balance the heat flux dynamics within the urban materials textures It’s necessary to define a system characterization of the urban ecosystems strongly related with thermal phenomenon The land use analysis factors set has been taken in consideration all the typologies of urban and peri-urban natural landscapes AGRICULTURAL AREAS GREEN URBAN AREAS--------- Climate Alteration in th e Metrop olitan Area of Bari: Temp e ratu r es an d Relation sh ip with Ch aracter s of Urb an Con text --------- Pierangela Loconte – Claudia Ceppi – Giorgia Lubisco – Francesco Mancini – Claudia Piscitelli – Francesco Selicato
  12. 12. 2. Factor Analysis Analysis of the urban environment Land use Urban Green Areas It include all the different green typologies recognized inside the city: - urban parks - sport areas The city of Bari has a lack of green spaces they are fragmented and localized--------- Climate Alteration in th e Metrop olitan Area of Bari: Temp e ratu r es an d Relation sh ip with Ch aracter s of Urb an Con text --------- Pierangela Loconte – Claudia Ceppi – Giorgia Lubisco – Francesco Mancini – Claudia Piscitelli – Francesco Selicato
  13. 13. 2. Factor Analysis Analysis of the urban environment Land use Urban Green Areas--------- Climate Alteration in th e Metrop olitan Area of Bari: Temp e ratu r es an d Relation sh ip with Ch aracter s of Urb an Con text --------- Pierangela Loconte – Claudia Ceppi – Giorgia Lubisco – Francesco Mancini – Claudia Piscitelli – Francesco Selicato
  14. 14. 2. Factor Analysis Analysis of the urban environment Land use Agricultural Areas It includes: - arable land - permanent crops - meadowlands - mixed agricultural land The main element showing features able to connect land use to thermal studies has been classified in relationship with soil coverage (i.e presence of tree canopy, predominance of herbaceous coverage). agricultural herbaceous agricultural arboreal coverage coverage--------- Climate Alteration in th e Metrop olitan Area of Bari: Temp e ratu r es an d Relation sh ip with Ch aracter s of Urb an Con text --------- Pierangela Loconte – Claudia Ceppi – Giorgia Lubisco – Francesco Mancini – Claudia Piscitelli – Francesco Selicato
  15. 15. 2. Factor Analysis Analysis of the urban environment Land use Agricultural Areas Residual natural areas have been included into the agricultural macro category In the case of study, they are essentially constitute by Mediterranean shrubs vegetation and residual Mediterranean forests. They have been characterized in order to their coverage, according to the agricultural areas--------- Climate Alteration in th e Metrop olitan Area of Bari: Temp e ratu r es an d Relation sh ip with Ch aracter s of Urb an Con text --------- Pierangela Loconte – Claudia Ceppi – Giorgia Lubisco – Francesco Mancini – Claudia Piscitelli – Francesco Selicato
  16. 16. 2. Factor Analysis Analysis of the urban environment Land use Agricultural Areas--------- Climate Alteration in th e Metrop olitan Area of Bari: Temp e ratu r es an d Relation sh ip with Ch aracter s of Urb an Con text --------- Pierangela Loconte – Claudia Ceppi – Giorgia Lubisco – Francesco Mancini – Claudia Piscitelli – Francesco Selicato
  17. 17. 2. Factor Analysis Analysis of the urban environment Land use Agricultural Areas--------- Climate Alteration in th e Metrop olitan Area of Bari: Temp e ratu r es an d Relation sh ip with Ch aracter s of Urb an Con text --------- Pierangela Loconte – Claudia Ceppi – Giorgia Lubisco – Francesco Mancini – Claudia Piscitelli – Francesco Selicato
  18. 18. 2. Factor Analysis Analysis of the urban environment Absolute Rugosity It has been introduced to take the real urban fabric into account by evaluating the three-dimensional space It explains the role of density of urban tissues on temperature and, then, the ability of air to flow within the urban volume introduced by Adolphe (2001) R = Vbuilt / A cell Site Coverage The factor has been designed To take into account the role of anthropogenic influence on temperatures It is the ratio of the total floor area of the building to the area of the cell. It is referred to the ground floor, so it also refers to impervious surfaces and represent an index of building density focused over the bi- dimensional cell--------- SC = Abuildings / A cell Climate Alteration in th e Metrop olitan Area of Bari: Temp e ratu r es an d Relation sh ip with Ch aracter s of Urb an Con text --------- Pierangela Loconte – Claudia Ceppi – Giorgia Lubisco – Francesco Mancini – Claudia Piscitelli – Francesco Selicato
  19. 19. 2. Factor Analysis Analysis of the urban environment Urban Morphologies It required the recognizing of the urban tissues by taking the 90 mt post spacing as reference spatial resolution. Each cell is related to a reference tissue representing the area with its percentage of surface occupied Classification of urban tissues of the city of Bari: - residential - industrial - mixed function--------- Climate Alteration in th e Metrop olitan Area of Bari: Temp e ratu r es an d Relation sh ip with Ch aracter s of Urb an Con text --------- Pierangela Loconte – Claudia Ceppi – Giorgia Lubisco – Francesco Mancini – Claudia Piscitelli – Francesco Selicato
  20. 20. 2. Factor Analysis Analysis of the urban environment Urban Morphologies - Classification Residential a. Old core b. Regular high compact tissue c. Medium compact tissue d. Low compact tissue e. Modern organic tissue f. Open tissue g. Detached tissue h. Industrial tissue i. Mixed Functional tissue--------- Climate Alteration in th e Metrop olitan Area of Bari: Temp e ratu r es an d Relation sh ip with Ch aracter s of Urb an Con text --------- Pierangela Loconte – Claudia Ceppi – Giorgia Lubisco – Francesco Mancini – Claudia Piscitelli – Francesco Selicato
  21. 21. 2. Factor Analysis Analysis of the urban environment Urban Morphologies - Classification Analisys of relationship between surface temperatures and urban morphologies Dual analysis of satellite data - wintertime (February 1th, 2006) - summertime (August 9th, 2001)--------- Climate Alteration in th e Metrop olitan Area of Bari: Temp e ratu r es an d Relation sh ip with Ch aracter s of Urb an Con text --------- Pierangela Loconte – Claudia Ceppi – Giorgia Lubisco – Francesco Mancini – Claudia Piscitelli – Francesco Selicato
  22. 22. 2. Factor Analysis Analysis of the urban environment Urban Morphologies - Classification Old core: historical tissue of the city, characterized by high density, irregular texture of urban block, traditional building constructed until XIX century, located in the central core of the city;--------- Climate Alteration in th e Metrop olitan Area of Bari: Temp e ratu r es an d Relation sh ip with Ch aracter s of Urb an Con text --------- Pierangela Loconte – Claudia Ceppi – Giorgia Lubisco – Francesco Mancini – Claudia Piscitelli – Francesco Selicato
  23. 23. 2. Factor Analysis Analysis of the urban environment Urban Morphologies - Classification Medium compact tissue: structured on a semi-regular grid, built during XIX century and characterized by high density and bigger block dimensions, located near some main infrastructure of the city (principal street, railway); Detached tissue: structured on isolated group of buildings, located in suburban/rural areas--------- Climate Alteration in th e Metrop olitan Area of Bari: Temp e ratu r es an d Relation sh ip with Ch aracter s of Urb an Con text --------- Pierangela Loconte – Claudia Ceppi – Giorgia Lubisco – Francesco Mancini – Claudia Piscitelli – Francesco Selicato
  24. 24. 3. Bivariate correlation analysis The interaction between the urban structures, as represented by the selected variables, and the surface temperature, has been performed by the SPSS 17.0 statistical package through a cell by cell (90 mt) correlation analysis. The bivariate correlation between surface temperature and the selected variables are expored, were estimated by Pearsons coefficient, like shown in the next table for the land use Surface temperature Surface temperature 02012006 09082001 SURFACE TEMPERATURE Number of cases 7952 7973 AGRICOLTURE Pearson Correlation ,256 ,161 HERBACEOUS COVERAGE Sig. (2-tailed) ,000 ,000 AGRICOLTURE Pearson Correlation -,070** -,009 ARBOREOUS COVERAGE Sig. (2-tailed) ,000 ,482 NATURAL HERBACEOUS Pearson Correlation -,047 ,145* COVERAGE Sig. (2-tailed) ,518 ,044 WOODLANDS Pearson Correlation ,015 ,114 Sig. (2-tailed) ,560 ,000 URBAN GREEN AREAS Pearson Correlation -,586 -,606 Sig. (2-tailed) ,036 ,022--------- Climate Alteration in th e Metrop olitan Area of Bari: Temp e ratu r es an d Relation sh ip with Ch aracter s of Urb an Con text --------- Pierangela Loconte – Claudia Ceppi – Giorgia Lubisco – Francesco Mancini – Claudia Piscitelli – Francesco Selicato
  25. 25. 4. Results and comment Land use The coefficients obtained between the surface temperature and areas with the types of land use called agriculture and natural herbaceous coverage, agriculture arborous coverage, and woodlands, don’t shows a high correlation This Kind of land use, of course, don’t characterize inner parts of the city but the suburbs or the beginning of the rural border town The coefficient that takes a significant negative value for both thermal maps, is the percentage of area covered by urban green areas--------- Climate Alteration in th e Metrop olitan Area of Bari: Temp e ratu r es an d Relation sh ip with Ch aracter s of Urb an Con text --------- Pierangela Loconte – Claudia Ceppi – Giorgia Lubisco – Francesco Mancini – Claudia Piscitelli – Francesco Selicato
  26. 26. 4. Results and comment Characteristics of the built Surface temperature Surface temperature 02012006 09082001 SITE COVERAGE Pearson Correlation -,261 -,409 Sig. (2-code) ,000 ,000 ABSOLUTE_RUGOSITY Pearson Correlation -,318 -,435 Sig. (2-code) ,000 ,000 The site coverage of the buildings shows a negative weak correlation with the surface temperature while the behavior of the absolute rugosity showed a slightly negative uncorrelated trend with respect to temperature By the analysis of thermal images, this trend is reinforced by the fact that areas outside the city and the open spaces in general, show a higher temperature than the densely urbanized areas--------- Climate Alteration in th e Metrop olitan Area of Bari: Temp e ratu r es an d Relation sh ip with Ch aracter s of Urb an Con text --------- Pierangela Loconte – Claudia Ceppi – Giorgia Lubisco – Francesco Mancini – Claudia Piscitelli – Francesco Selicato
  27. 27. 4. Results and comment The urban morphology The compact fabric, and in particular old core around the average temperatures lower, is characterized by a narrower range than other types. It reads like the decrease of the compactness of the urban surface temperatures are higher. In this regard, compare the behavior of Old core, for example, and the types of open tissue and detached tissue, such as the evidently are concerned have both broader range of temperatures, which temperatures average higher The behavior of the temperature decrease with increasing dispersion of the buildings, is quite closely and confirmed in a quantitative way, by the correlations between two variables as temperature and site coverage and absolute rugosity.--------- Climate Alteration in th e Metrop olitan Area of Bari: Temp e ratu r es an d Relation sh ip with Ch aracter s of Urb an Con text --------- Pierangela Loconte – Claudia Ceppi – Giorgia Lubisco – Francesco Mancini – Claudia Piscitelli – Francesco Selicato
  28. 28. 5. Conclusion and future perspectives The correlation analysis shows that the phenomenon of UHI is reversed for the city of Bari Densely urbanized zones reveal lower temperatures than the peripherals areas. The analysis of urban morphology provides an explanation about the spatial temperature trend even though the use of vegetation indices (such as the NDVI) The urban morphology summarize the behavior of the remain variables. The quantitative relationship between urban morphology and surface temperatures have been highlighted. In the case of study, materials and surfaces with higher thermal capacity values didn’t have enough time to accumulate and release after being illuminated by the Sun’s radiation. Shaded areas were not warmed up by the solar radiation in the early morning period. Open areas are more exposed to solar radiations and exhibits a more pronounced heating of the ground surface--------- Climate Alteration in th e Metrop olitan Area of Bari: Temp e ratu r es an d Relation sh ip with Ch aracter s of Urb an Con text --------- Pierangela Loconte – Claudia Ceppi – Giorgia Lubisco – Francesco Mancini – Claudia Piscitelli – Francesco Selicato
  29. 29. 5. Conclusion and future perspectives Develop a more complete description of the fabric is required (within the index of roughness) to better summarize the range of possible morphologies and rates of porosities of the fabric Taking in account the difference in the elevation of buildings to investigate the relationships between shaded/sunny areas and surface temperatures Study the phenomenon using other satellite data in a different period and time of day (around 10.00 am for this study).--------- Climate Alteration in th e Metrop olitan Area of Bari: Temp e ratu r es an d Relation sh ip with Ch aracter s of Urb an Con text --------- Pierangela Loconte – Claudia Ceppi – Giorgia Lubisco – Francesco Mancini – Claudia Piscitelli – Francesco Selicato
  30. 30. Polytechnic University of Bari (Italy)THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION!

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