Accounting for Spatial Heterogeneity in Educational Outcomes and International Migration in Mexico<br />Edith Gutierrez <b...
Educational Outcomes and International Migration in Mexico: A Brief Review<br />To have in mind:<br />Educational attainme...
Testing Spatial Heterogeneity Hypothesis: Classical versus Spatial approaches<br />Classical definition for migratory regi...
Testing Spatial Heterogeneity Hypothesis: Classical versus Spatial approaches<br />Spatial approach<br />Based on spatial ...
Testing Spatial Heterogeneity Hypothesis: Methodological Issues<br />Both Classical and Spatial Hypothesis imply spatial p...
General Methodological strategy<br /> Both hypothesis require spatial analysis techniques and suggest a spatial dependence...
Variables<br />
Educational Outcomes<br />Moran’s I 0.3713<br />International Migration <br />Moran’s I 0.6239<br />Results: Significant s...
International Migration <br />Female Labor <br />Low-income Workers<br />Industrialization level<br />
Traditional Regions <br />Spatially Defined Regions<br />
OLS Results: Dependence and heteroskedasticity tests<br />Traditional Regions<br />						Spatially Defined Regions<br />He...
Results Spatial Model with Structural Change and GroupwiseHeteroskedasticity<br />
Spatially defined regions Results Spatial error Model with Structural Change and GroupwiseHeteroskedasticity<br />
Spatially defined regions Results Spatial lag Model with Structural Change and GroupwiseHeteroskedasticity<br />
Conclusions<br />Negative effects of international migration on educational outcomes<br />Results support hypothesis raise...
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Accounting for Spatial Heterogeneity in Educational Outcomes and International Migration in Mexico

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Accounting for Spatial Heterogeneity in Educational Outcomes and International Migration in Mexico
Edith Yolanda Gutierrez-Vazquez,Landy Lizbeth Sanchez-Peña, Silvia Elena Giorguli-Saucedo - El Colegio de Mexico

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Accounting for Spatial Heterogeneity in Educational Outcomes and International Migration in Mexico

  1. 1. Accounting for Spatial Heterogeneity in Educational Outcomes and International Migration in Mexico<br />Edith Gutierrez <br />Landy Sanchez <br />Silvia Giorguli <br />El Colegio de Mexico<br />
  2. 2. Educational Outcomes and International Migration in Mexico: A Brief Review<br />To have in mind:<br />Educational attainment and international migration<br />Positive effects: remittances improve chances of school to work transition<br />Negative effects: the “culture of migration”: migration as a better social mobility mechanism than education<br />Mexico-US Migration is characterized by:<br />Strong regional component due to historical trajectories<br />since the 90’s the stream spread diversified across the country<br />Educational achievement is also strongly diverse across México<br />How these two spatial patterns relates? <br />How can be captured regional differences?<br />
  3. 3. Testing Spatial Heterogeneity Hypothesis: Classical versus Spatial approaches<br />Classical definition for migratory regions (Durand & Massey, 2003):<br />Based on the historical intensity of Mexico-US flows and on migration prevalence ratio <br />Hypothesis: <br /> International migration disincentives educational achievement, regional variations depending on historic experience: stronger effects in traditional and border regions and smaller in regions where outflow started recently<br />Regions defined by migration prevalence at a given point in time<br />
  4. 4. Testing Spatial Heterogeneity Hypothesis: Classical versus Spatial approaches<br />Spatial approach<br />Based on spatial heterogeneity in the relationship between education, international migration and labor market.<br />Hypothesis:<br />International Migration will have negative effect on educational outcomes but the variations will be due to historical migratory trajectories and to employment and educational infrastructure: strong effects of historical migration experience regions will decrease in regions with a good labor market performance and vice versa <br />Regions are defined based on Geographically Weighted Regression results, not solely by migration prevalence<br />
  5. 5. Testing Spatial Heterogeneity Hypothesis: Methodological Issues<br />Both Classical and Spatial Hypothesis imply spatial processes of:<br />Dependence:<br />Autocorrelation within regions between local educational outcomes and education, migration and employment trade offs <br />Heterogeneity:<br />Significant differences in the effects of migration or labor on educational attainment across regions<br />Need a dependence and structural heterogeneity spatial model to decide which is the best approach to define regions<br />
  6. 6. General Methodological strategy<br /> Both hypothesis require spatial analysis techniques and suggest a spatial dependence process:<br />Corroborating spatial effects:<br />OLS regression <br />Moran’s I<br />Local Indicators of Spatial Association<br />Proving differences across regions:<br />Spatial Regimes model with a spatial dependence term and a heteroskedasticity correction<br />Migration parameter significance <br />Chow-Wald Test<br />Coefficients Stability Test<br />
  7. 7. Variables<br />
  8. 8. Educational Outcomes<br />Moran’s I 0.3713<br />International Migration <br />Moran’s I 0.6239<br />Results: Significant spatial dependence, heteroskedasticity issues and significant clusters across the country<br />
  9. 9. International Migration <br />Female Labor <br />Low-income Workers<br />Industrialization level<br />
  10. 10. Traditional Regions <br />Spatially Defined Regions<br />
  11. 11. OLS Results: Dependence and heteroskedasticity tests<br />Traditional Regions<br /> Spatially Defined Regions<br />Heteroskedasticity test, both regional definitions:<br />The Koenker-Bassett has a 1% significance level<br />
  12. 12. Results Spatial Model with Structural Change and GroupwiseHeteroskedasticity<br />
  13. 13. Spatially defined regions Results Spatial error Model with Structural Change and GroupwiseHeteroskedasticity<br />
  14. 14. Spatially defined regions Results Spatial lag Model with Structural Change and GroupwiseHeteroskedasticity<br />
  15. 15. Conclusions<br />Negative effects of international migration on educational outcomes<br />Results support hypothesis raised from an interaction between education, migration and labor market<br />Regions based on spatial-varying links between dimensions studied are more appropriate to capture heterogeneity and diffusion processes than those defined previously by migration historicity<br />Need to use proper geostatistical methods to test and develop hypotheses that imply spatial effects <br />Regions are essential to consider how the relationships between sociodemographic variables shape geographical disparities<br />

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