1st assignment

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1st assignment

  1. 1. Introduction<br />As been mentioned in the topic of this article itself, learner-control is one of the most important elements in communicative computer assisted language learning (CALL) (Underwood, 1984). Throughout the article, the purpose that researchers tries to explore the effects of students’ locus of control and types of control over instruction on their self-efficacy and performance in web-based language learning environment.<br />In this research, the methods to facilitate the results need the writer to employed two categorical independent variables, which are learner’s locus of control (internal or external) and type of instructional control (higher learner-control or lower learner-control). And also two continuous dependent variables which are academic performance and student’s self-efficacy for learning and performance were been measured to evaluate the results. In order to answer the research question and to analyze the data collected, the researchers using T-test and ANOVA. Because the used of two categorical independent variables, this can also be said as 2 x 2 factorial experimental study. <br />Basically in literature review, the researchers focus more on learner-control because the major part of this research is how the learner-control can help with the process of learning. The process of control mostly result the findings. Amongst the topics for literature review are Learner-control and language learning, Learner-control and motivation, Learner-control and academic performance, Learner-control and self-efficacy, and the last one is Learner-control and locus control. If go through the research, all this topics relate with the study because as much it supports the findings. The keywords in this literature review is learner-control because control gives individuals the opportunity to make choices and to affect outcomes, resulting in the student feeling more competent and the activity having greater personal meaning and intrinsic interest (Lepper, 1985). <br />Procedures and Findings<br />The procedures conducted by the researcher are to look into two results; self-efficacy measure and the comprehensions. First,the students are given a set of questionnaire in the early of the semester. The function of the questionnaire is to measure students’ level of self-efficacy. They are later being divided into Class A and Class B. Students of Class A are students completed the leaner-control web-based program while students of Class B are students completed the program-control version.<br />All of the students go to a computer lab for two hours on four consecutive weeks. The students are taught how to use the course outline instruction system and some practical. And then later on, the students have to complete the web-based learning system on their own. When they finish all the programs, they must takecomprehension tests that consist of multiple choice questions.<br />The results collected from the test conducted are recorded in the form of mean. The data collected also being looked at in the aspect of the comprehension test and the self-efficacy measure (from the questionnaires). In the comprehension test, the results show that students learning from the learner-control of the instruction perform better than those learning from the program-control version of the instruction .Other than that, the results also show that students with an internal locus of control perform better on the comprehension than those with external locus of control.<br />From the measurement of self-efficacy, again the students with an internal locus of control perform better than those with an external locus of control. Same goes with the learner-control group. They perform better on the measure of self-efficacy compare to the program-control group. <br />The relations between Learner Centered Issue in CALL and Effects of Locus and Learner-Control on Web-Based Language Learning.<br />Learner centered tools has been proved in bringing constructive effects in learner performance. The outcomes of the study yielded positive findings that support previous research studies indicating that learner-control can have a positive effect on students’ academic performance (e.g Becker & Dwyer, 1994; Zimmerman, 2002). The students who learned from a learner-control web based instructional program had higher scores on a measure of self-efficacy, which suggests that they believed that they had the ability to master the task and had more confidence in their skills to perform that task, CITATION Mei09 l 1033 (Ho, 2009).<br />This study, as proposed by Mei-Mei Chang and Chiung-Mei Ho stressed on the learner-controlled web based instructional program which, can help them (the students) in enhancing their academic performance, specifically language learning. In relations to CALL (Computer Assisted Language Learning) history, learner-controlled approach is the communicative approach emphasized discovery learning where the focus was on the use of the forms rather than on the forms themselves, (CALL slides, 2011).<br />Learner-centered concepts are instructional design and teaching practices based on what we know about learning and cognition. Such practices create environments that encourage successful learning. With learning outcomes and student satisfaction increasingly important, learner-centered concepts can help institutions improve teaching and learning, whether in a traditional classroom or an online environment. These key concepts describe the conditions that lead to learning, identify teaching practices and learning activities that create such conditions, and support the design of effective learning environments. CITATION EDU11 l 1033 (EDUCAUSE- LEARNING INITIATIVE , 1999-2011)<br />Here, the students/learners are the one who controlled the web based program in language learning, in this case, the University Internet System (UIS) which includes both teacher and learner interfaces. Two version of a web-based instructional program developed by the researchers were used in this study. Both versions presented three lessons; the same reading passages were used in each version. One version allowed for learner-control over the instructional strategy while other version relied on program-control of the instructional strategy, CITATION Mei09 l 1033 (Ho, 2009). <br />In other words, to be able to compare students’ performance based on what-control, the researchers used the two versions. The first version which in this case highlights the learner centered in CALL history. The other version, however, is more to teaching-centered approach. Based on the methodology and procedures, it is highly noted that main objectives aimed to explore the effects of students’ control and types of control over instruction on their self-efficacy and performance.<br />The result indicates what pattern or types of control (learner-control or external-control) that has more positive effects in enhancing students’ performance, which correlated with the aim of the study. The obvious relation between learner centered issue in CALL history and this study is nicely portrayed in the aim, procedures and findings/results. <br />References<br /> BIBLIOGRAPHY l 1033 EDUCAUSE- LEARNING INITIATIVE . (1999-2011). Retrieved 1 18, 2011, from Learner Centered Concepts: http://www.educause.edu/ELI/Archives/LearnerCenteredConcepts/940<br />Ho, M.-M. C.-M. (2009). Effects of Locus and Learner-Control on Web-Based Language Learning. Computer Assisted Language Learning , 202.<br />

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