Social Time: Come
join in the fun @ North
Bowl on Friday, May 29th
from 7-9 pm for Tri
Fusion’s Night Out!
Aging & RR: Running Fresh
Performance, Bloomsday, Technique, Recipe,
page 2 page 5 page 7 page 11
Question Biking: To Running BoD,
Sit or To Sponsors,
Yourself, Stand? , Shoe Guide, Calendars,
pages 3-4 page 6 page 8-10 page 12
The Natural Anti-Inﬂammatory Drug AA is the molecular building block for the pro-
by Barry Sears, Ph.D. inflammatory eicosanoids. Reduce AA by the diet and you
automatically reduce inflammation induced by training.
To be a triathlete often means that inflammation is your
constant companion due to over-training. As a result, the The foundation of an anti-inflammatory diet is one that is
use of anti-inflammatory drugs (Aspirin, Motrin, and based on a diet rich in fruits and vegetables. The reason
Aleve) is exceptionally common. These drugs reduce is that the color found in fruits and vegetables is a result
inflammation by inhibiting pro-inflammatory hormones of compounds known as polyphenols. Polyphenols not only
known as eicosanoids. act as anti-oxidants to reduce oxidative stress (i.e. free
radicals), but they also have anti-inflammatory properties
Unfortunately, they also inhibit the formation of anti- as they inhibit the same enzymes that are blocked by
inflammatory eicosanoids which results in the collateral anti-inflammatory drugs. Now combine the consumption of
damage that comes with long-term use. Even in short- fruits and vegetables with adequate intake of protein and
term use in ultra marathoners, it was demonstrated that high levels of omega-3 fatty acids, and you have a true
taking anti-inflammatory drugs prior to and during a race “drug” that not only reduces inflammation, but improves
actually produced more oxidative stress (1) and performance.
inflammation without improving the muscle damage and
soreness in a matched group of runners who were not 1) McAnulty SR, Owens JT, McAnulty LS, Nieman DC, Morrow
taking any such drugs (2). JD, Dumke CL, Milne GL. Ibuprofen use during extreme
exercise: effects on oxidative stress and PGE2. Med Sci Sports
So what is a triathlete to do, simply live with constant Exerc. 2007 Jul;39(7):1075-9.
2) Nieman DC, Henson DA, Dumke CL, Oley K, McAnulty SR,
Davis JM, Murphy EA, Utter AC, Lind RH, McAnulty LS, Morrow
JD. Ibuprofen use, endotoxemia, inflammation, and plasma
Actually it turns out that following an anti-inflammatory
cytokines during ultramarathon competition. Brain Behav
diet will dramatically reduce the need for such anti- Immun. 2006 Nov;20(6):578-84.
inflammatory drugs.An anti-inflammatory diet is one that
reduces the production of arachidonic acid (AA).
Aging and Performance Both used the same data gathered from nine athletes
averaging 24 years of age and nine athletes averaging 45 years.
from Joe Friel’s blog
They each did three, 30-minute, cycling time trials on three
subsequent days. Their performances were measured and they
When I was in college 40-some years ago the track coach had recorded subjective perceptions of muscle soreness, fatigue
all the runners do the same workout every day. It was a killer. and recovery before each time trial. Interestingly, there was no
What I would today call “anaerobic endurance” training. After difference in performance declines between the younger and
we warmed up he would blow his whistle and all of us would older groups over the three-day period. However, the older
report to the start line on the cinder track. We knew what was athletes reported significantly more soreness and fatigue, and
next. He’d blow his whistle again and we’d take off running 440 lower levels of recovery compared with the younger riders. I
yards (1 lap) as fast as we could go. As we crossed the finish suspect that had they gone beyond three days of hard workouts
line he’d call out our times from his handheld stopwatch. they would have soon found a performance decline in the older
athletes before it showed up in the younger ones. And had they
We’d all stand there with our hands on our knees panting
used even older athletes they may have seen performance
while he told us how slow we were and that we needed to get
declines within three days. But that is just conjecture on my
faster. Then, when he felt like it, he’d blow the whistle again
and off we’d go on the second interval. This could go on for 6 or
Again, with limited research on the topic there is not much
10 or 15 of these. Whatever he felt like having us do that day.
to go on when trying to determine a cause. A study of aging rats
There was never any talk about pacing, how long the recoveries
found that protein synthesis in type I muscle set them apart
would be, or how many we were going to do. When people
from young rats who recovered much more quickly from
started throwing up the workout usually ended. So I came to
consecutive days of endurance exercise. A review of the limited
call this Intervals Til You Puke. It was a killer workout and
literature on the topic confirmed this conclusion about protein
wasn’t any fun. I didn't run again for 11 years after I graduated
because of this workout. And we’d do this four or five times a
So what does all of this mean for you as an aging athlete?
week. The only break would be the day before a track meet,
Should you be eating more protein as you get older? The answer
and, of course, on the weekends. Nobody trained on the
to that question is not certain. I know of only one study that
weekends back then. And this sort of “training” (I use the word
found taking in protein soon after exercise stimulated protein
loosely) went on for the entire track season.
synthesis in aging subjects. It might help.
At age 20 I could bounce back and do this workout day,
Most of the research relative to eating protein has to do
after day, after day. Now I might be able to occasionally do two
with moderately active or inactive, older subjects needing to
of these sessions in a week. One is more likely. I simply couldn't
maintain muscle mass rather than recover from highly stressful
spring back. There’s no question that aging impacts recovery.
workouts. This may have little or nothing to do with an athlete’s
And, of course, recovery has to do with performance. The
need for protein but is more food for thought.
faster one recovers, the more challenging workouts that can be
The real key for aging endurance athletes is frequent
done in a given period of time. The harder the training is, the
recovery time. All athletes need down time on a regular basis.
greater the resulting performance.
Older athletes simply need it more often than their younger
What we find in the real world of sport is that as we get
counterparts. I’ve found that most of the 50-and-older
older performance drops. There is a steady decline from one’s
athletes I’ve coached over the years need two to three days of
mid-30s through the seventh decade of life. Then at about age
easy training following a highly stressful workout. A young
70 there is a rapid decline in performance. This is evident when
athlete may do two of these sessions back to back and then
looking at age group bests in marathon running. And it appears
require only one or two days to fully recover. But not the older
to happen in a wide range of endurance sports.
athlete. How great the stress is that triggers this long
Again, there is very little in the way of scientific research
recovery block is an individual matter. Every athlete should
to support this, but there was one such study of swimmers that
have a good idea of what different types of workouts demand in
came out of the University of Colorado a few years ago. This
the way of recovery.
research showed exactly what I described above: A steady
In the same manner, all athletes need extended recovery
decline in performance until age 70 when there was a
periods every few weeks during periods of heavy training.
significantly greater decrement.
Younger athletes can go perhaps three to five weeks before
Why does this happen and what can be done about it?
needing to take a break for three to five days. For the 50-plus
There is very little research on aging athletes. That will change
athlete it is seldom more than two weeks before down time is
in the next few years, I’m certain, since the Baby Boomers are
necessary in order to prevent over-training. Extending the
now becoming seniors in large numbers.
period of heavy training beyond this or skipping these rest
The only studies I can find on the topic of recovery in aging
blocks is likely to result in unrelenting fatigue and greatly
athletes come out of Australia.
A Question for You Triathletes:
Why Do You “Really” Do Triathlons?
by Ben Greenﬁeld, MS, CPT, CSCS, CISSN
President of Pacific Elite Fitness,
Director of Sports Performance,
Champions Sports Medicine
I am going to be frank with you. In return, I ask you to be frank with me.
I have been in the triathlon world, teaching triathlon classes and clinics, coaching
triathletes from all ages and abilities, eating and selling triathlon nutrition
products and doing triathlons myself for more than five years, so
I’ve asked (literally) thousands of endurance athletes about why they do this
So my radar is fully dialed in to sniff out any "cookie-cutter" answers. Be
completely honest. Ready? What motivates you to do triathlons? Why in the world do you bother riding your bike for 2
or 3 or 4 hours? Why would any person bother going to a pool and swimming back and forth in the middle of the day?
If you said anything to the extent of improve my blood pressure relieve stress, or set a good example, I’m not buying it. I
call these logical motivators. There is nothing wrong with those motivators and I agree they are excellent benefits - but
let’s get real. I asked you to be frank with me. You don’t swim, bike and run multiple hours a week for the sole purpose of
improving your health profile.
You do triathlons for emotional and irrational wants and fears. You do triathlons so you can prove something to yourself.
What is your worth? Do you have what it takes? Can you conquer your personal Mt. Everest? Can you show everybody who
was better at you in sports growing up that you're just as good, maybe better?
You do triathlons to prove something to other people. I am really that good, that fit, that motivated, that focused. If my
neighbor did it, I can do. I'm better than them. I'll beat them this year.
You do triathlons because you did just one, this one time, and then you got sucked into the vortex and you had to keep
coming back and trying to beat your performance from the previous year. In other words, you want to prove to yourself
that your body is getting better, not worse.
You do triathlons because all your friends are doing it and who will provide your social support if it's not the triathlon
club? You do triathlons because running is boring and you don't have that kind of attention span. Dare I say, some of you
do triathlons because you want to look good naked?
What are some types of irrational and emotional motivators for triathlon? Here are some examples:
• Being able to wear your Ironman or triathlon race t-shirt in public to impress people.
• Wanting to be able to eat whatever you want, but not having the control, so finding a sport where working out too
much is OK.
• Being able to fit into whatever style of clothes you wish.
• Having nice legs and feeling confident when you put on spandex.
• Telling people at parties that you're an athlete, maybe even an Ironman.
• Comments like, “You're really slim. Do you workout?”
• Not dying early so you can travel with your grandchildren.
• Having an honorable excuse for not doing yard work on the weekends because of your "training".
Contrast these with logical motivators for doing triathlon:
• Improve your health.
• Less stress.
• Good role model.
• Balanced lifestyle.
• Clothes fit better.
• More energy.
You see the difference? Sure, the irrational wants (compared to fears) are conceited and superficial. I get it. But guess
which individual gets better results? The person motivated by irrational motivators or logical motivators? Irrational,
hands down every time. The secret to achieving success in these type of sports is to figure out the true WHY - which is
always an irrational desire, fear or want.
Here’s how to figure out your irrational want:
1. Ask yourself, “Why do I do triathlons?” If you said, “To feel better,” then ask the same question to your
2. Ask yourself, “Why do I want to feel better?” If you said, “To be more productive at work,” then ask the same
question to your answer.
3. Ask yourself again, “Why do I want to be more productive? So that I get a job promotion and earn a bigger
salary.” Continue the pattern.
4. “Why do I want to get a bigger salary? So that I can provide for my child’s education so they can have a future.”
Notice how your reason for swimming, biking and running went from a very logical to emotional fear and want the more
you asked why? The more honest you are with yourself, the faster you’ll get to your true reason why you work out.
Your "why" will be the difference between success and failure. This is a topic rarely discussed in the triathlon world and
can create unstoppable motivation by uncovering the truth about yourself. There is no right or wrong answer. I only ask
that you be honest with yourself. Now it’s your turn.
I want you to ask yourself, “Why do I really do triathlons?” until you discover your irrational and emotional want or fear.
You might be very surprised to discover the real reason and what you really want. This exercise might take you a few
If you’re comfortable with sharing, just go here: www.bengreenfieldfitness.com/2009/05/why
...and state the emotional and irrational “why” behind your motivation for doing triathlons. What do you really want or
what is your greatest nightmare?
I look forward to your comments...you'll be amazed, intrigued, and perhaps even offended when you read some of the
comments that are already there.
Race Report: Bloomsday 12k We learned a bit of lesson with that Bloomsday really does attract the whole
At the Back of the Pack one…just because the trail seems flat, community, athlete or not.
byAndrea Swanson doesn’t necessarily mean it is flat for
the riders in the stroller…even with Apparently people with strollers don’t
Ever since we moved to Spokane in 2003 shocks. It’s a good thing Elise and Katie feel the need to get near the front as in
we have participated in Bloomsday as didn’t eat before the walk. other corrals, so it was pretty easy to
runners or volunteers. So what would weave our way up near the front. Every
make 2009 any different? 5-10 minutes they would allow us to walk
up a block. Just after 10am, we got a
During the summer of 2008 we were call from Tim, who had finished his run
thrilled to find out I was pregnant. in a shade over 56 minutes. Tim and his
Elise was born April 1, 2009, friend from work came and found us up
approximately one month before by the STA plaza, with the start line
Bloomsday. Nothing like throwing our finally in sight! They upset a few people
daughter in to racing before she can in the corral by showing off what the
crawl! I cleared it with my doctors, and finisher shirts looked like, but I said
they said that if I was feeling up to it, “Oh well”…in fact, I had already seen a
there would be no issues with me walking few people walking back to their cars
Bloomsday. So, we signed our little with the shirts anyway. By the time we
family of three up for the race. made it to the start line it was 10:22
and we had already logged 1.7 miles.
This was going to be a completely new
Bloomsday experience for us. In the During our training walks we averaged
past we have run the course, starting about 20 minute miles, so taking the
somewhere up in the green or yellow crowd in to consideration, I figured our
groups. This year, with the stroller, we finish time would be around 2 hours 45
were going to be all the way at the back minutes. Imagine my surprise to see
with the red group. This group doesn’t that for our first 3 miles we averaged
even start until after 10:00 am! Many For some race practice, we signed up to 17:48’s! I was feeling good as we went
of the runners will have finished their do Race for the Cure two weeks before by SFCC, and we were catching up to and
race before we even make it across the Bloomsday. This was a good chance to passing Lilac, Blue, and even some
start line. The elite runners would be see what a real race would be like with Orange numbers! Even though it was
showered and having a second breakfast the stroller. I quickly learned that I am crowded the entire way with walkers, we
when we started. Even stranger, this is not a casual stroller racer. I’m used to continued to pick up the pace the rest
the first race we have done where we looking for those open holes and trying of the race (our 2 fastest miles were
could be disqualified if we finished too to get past all the walkers. For going up Doomsday and the last mile)
quickly! Bloomsday I would have to line up as and finished with a time of 2:08:52. I
close to the front of the stroller group know we weren’t the first stroller, but
As with any other race, we had to start as possible. we were definitely close to the front of
training. We started with a walk around the group. Next year our goal will be
the neighborhood the weekend after we The packing list was a bit different this sub 2 hours! Elise finally got her
got home from the hospital. That was a time around. The nice thing about coveted finisher’s shirt, although she
bit much for mom. Later that week we walking with a stroller is you can bring a won’t be able to wear it for another few
cut it back to a walk around the block. lot of extra things and don’t need to years.
Training is always easier with training worry about how to carry it all.
partners. We hooked up with Kim and While walking Bloomsday with a stroller
Katie Montecucco for some longer We arrived at the arena around 8:30. is definitely a different experience than
distance training…in the 2-3 mile range. After making sure Elise was ready to go running, it was still a fun day. Seeing
One day we even tried a bit of off- in her race gear, we loaded up the the whole community come out and push
roading on the trail, just in case we had stroller. We started making the trek to through their own individual barriers to
to leave the road and venture in to the the red corral just after 9am. Although get to the finish line is inspirational.
grass to get around other walkers the race had already started for the We can’t wait for Bloomsday 2010!
during the race. runners, there were still many people
just pulling in to the parking lot…
Should You Sit or Stand When Riding Uphill? They found that gross efficiency and economy were similar in
by Matt Fitzgerald, Triathlete Magazine the two climbing positions, but peak power was significantly
greater when cyclists stood on the pedals. Just as you must
Unless you're Jan Ullrich, the oversized 1997 Tour de France stand on the pedals to sprint on level ground, you must also get
champion from Germany, there are some hills—or at least some out of the saddle to maximize your power on climbs.
stretches of some hills—that all but demand you stand on the
pedals to get up and over them. But unless you're like the late The most recent study comparing seated versus standing
Marco Pantani, the whippet-like Italian winner of the 1998 Tour, climbing on the bike looked at the all-important matter of
you probably feel more comfortable when seated than when performance. Researchers from the Norwegian School of Sport
standing on most climbs. Sciences had 10 cyclists perform rides to exhaustion at various
percentages of their individual VO2max power (Wmax) on a 10-
How do you know whether the climbing position that feels right percent grade.
at any given time actually is the most effective position? Simple:
You look at the many studies on this issue, whose results Based on the results they concluded that, "In general, cyclists
collectively suggest that cyclists typically make the right may choose either the standing or seated position for
decision, and that in some cases both options are equally maximization of performance at a submaximal intensity of 86
effective, leaving room for personal preference. percent of Wmax, while the standing position should be used at
intensities above 94 percent of Wmax and approaching 165
Studying Positions on the Bike percent of Wmax." (Note that Wmax corresponds roughly to the
One of the earliest studies was performed by researchers at maximum power output sustainable for six minutes.)
the University of Colorado and published in 1996. Seven
competitive cyclists completed graded exercise tests in both Taken as a whole, the research on seated versus standing
seated and standing positions to determine their VO2max in climbing suggests that neither climbing position is strictly
each. Various measurements were also taken in both positions at preferable to the other. Standing on the pedals requires a little
a speed of 20 kph on a four-percent gradient and at a speed of more energy and produces a little more power, so it's a faster
12.3 kph on a 10-percent gradient. way to climb for shorter stretches. And because it uses more of
the body to generate force, the standing position provides a way
They found that heart rate and oxygen uptake were significantly to give the thigh muscles a brief relative rest during longer
higher when cyclists pedaled out of the saddle at the higher climbs.
speed on the shallower gradient, but that there were no
differences between the two positions at the lower speed on the You can trust your sense of body awareness to tell you whether
steeper gradient. However, the cyclists did rate the perceived remaining in the saddle or standing is the best way to climb a
exertion of their legs as lower when standing on the pedals on given hill. Your body's "message" telling you to stand or sit is not
the steeper climb. much different from your internal feel for pacing—those
sensory messages telling you to slow down, speed up or hold
The study's results suggest that cyclists can work just as hard steady. The more climbing experience you gather, the more
in either climbing position, but are more efficient when climbing reliable these messages will become.
in the saddle on shallower hills. On steeper hills, climbing feels
easier in the standing position. I believe there is a place for staying in the saddle when your
body tells you to stand and remaining out of the saddle when
This last result confirms the experience of everyone who rides a your body tells you to sit in the course of your training. When
bike: You start a climb in the saddle and stay there as the strain you climb hills in your everyday rides and perform climbing
in your legs increases, until it becomes too uncomfortable and intervals, choose some occasions to stay seated from bottom to
you then stand on the pedals, which, thanks to the added top, even when pushing big watts; and use other occasions to
gravitational force of your full body weight on the pedals, takes keep your butt off the saddle the whole way, even on sustained
some of the strain off your poor quads. climbs lasting several minutes.
Pedaling for Peak Power and Performance Testing the limits of your ability to climb in both positions will
A 2002 study by French scientists approached the matter from make you a stronger all-around climber.
a different angle. They compared the gross efficiency (the
energy cost of turning the pedals) and economy (the ratio of
metabolic energy expenditure to power output) of eight cyclists
climbing in both seated and standing positions at 75 percent of
peak power output and also measured peak power output in both
positions in 30-second sprints.
Running Technique Tips
by A. Barnett Arm Swing
A Running Gait Analysis Training Manual
• Hands move from hip-to-heart
Foot Strike • Arms swing freely at the shoulders with limited
movement at the elbow (averages about 90
• Under or just in front of the body on a slightly degrees)
bent knee • Drive elbows back and limit forward arm swing
• In most cases it is most effective to strike more • Although the arms should swing forward a little
around the mid-foot, slightly heel first. toward the middle of the body, the hands should
not cross the mid-line of the torso
Push-off • Hands should be relaxed but supported (imagine
• As you get faster, the stride will lengthen behind
the body. (***Need sufficient flexibility for the Cadence
leg to be able to extend behind the torso)
• Use the foot at push-off, do not just pick-up the • Quicker, shorter steps for the same pace tends
foot. to be most effective to a certain extent (like
riding a bike)
Swing • In most cases runners should aim to keep a
cadence of about 180 steps/min = 15 steps/10
• During slow runs the knee of the swing leg should seconds (NOTE: Runners with shorter or longer
be bent enough that a person standing behind you legs will deviate slightly from this, shorter =
could see the full sole of your shoe. (Knee should faster, longer = slower)
bend to about 90 degrees in faster running). • As speed increases, cadence should remain the
• The swing leg foot should swing through above the same (only the legs will be pushing off harder and
level of the opposite foot ankle. (foot should farther back)
never drag) • REMEMBER: Change takes time! Think about only
• Think about kicking your feet up by giving a push one thing at a time and give your body time to
with the foot at push off adjust. Try a 1 min. period at a time of changing
stride, then rest for a few minutes with your
Posture (Note: These are good tips for everyday activity!) regular stride.
• Imagine a string pulling you up from the top of ✦ Listen to your body: If a certain change causes pain
your head into a more up-right position (avoid then do not maintain that change. Some of us have
leaning forward at the waist) structural factors or muscle imbalances that prevent us
• The pelvis should be in a neutral position with the from performing certain motions.
spine (not tilted too far
forward or too far back) ✦In many cases inefficiencies in our
• Lower spine should maintain stride come about due to muscle
a slight curve imbalances or off-set muscle firing
• Shoulders back to open patterns, in which case it’s
chest recommended to fix the imbalance
• Pull head and chin back so before changing the stride.
that it is in line with the
• Avoid excessive torso
by A. Barnett
Research in the area of running shoe construction and design has increased significantly over the past century as we have realized
their potential role in injury prevention and performance. As a result there is now a significant amount of technological choices
available to the runner. What has been established at this point is that there is no “best” shoe for all runners. Every individual has a
different foot shape and independent biomechanical needs and thus require certain knowledge about their body before they can
make an appropriate choice. In the end, an ideal shoe would both provide the appropriate amount of shock absorption and support for
Shoes are thought to protect against potential damaging forces in three ways:
1. Shock absorption at initial contact – reducing the initial spike of reaction force and protecting against joint cartilage damage
2. Protection of the foot against possible damage from the rough ground surface
3. Aligning the rearfoot and forefoot to achieve a uniform force distribution at the major chronic injury sites
Typically, shoes are either designed with the goal of cushioning, stability, or some compromise between the two. It is
impossible to create a shoe with both the maximum amount of cushioning and the maximum amount of stability, as the two require
opposite design features. Thus, when assessing an individual for a pair of running shoes it is important to take note of individual
factors such as the degree of pronation, flexibility of the foot, and body weight.
Stability and motion control are addressed with:
• Stiffer heel counters
• Specialized lacing systems
• Fiberglass midsole plates
• Material combinations of varying density in the shoe’s midsole
When first entering a running-specific store the shoe choices can be over-whelming. Some stores can carry over 100 different shoe
models for running alone! Of those choices, however, many runners may find only a few that fit right and meet their biomechanical
needs. It is thus important for running specialists to know basics about running shoes so that they can aid their clients in choosing
suitable shoes for their specific needs.
Each shoe manufacturer uses different technology for cushioning and motion control, however, the goal and effect of the combined
components is similar amongst the various brands. Differences between brands are usually most noticeable with fit and feel. Many
runners find that they prefer specific brands as they conform best to the shape of their foot, and thus work better to both stabilize
and cushion that individual more effectively.
Despite the many differences between brands and models there are various aspects of shoe structure that is similar to all running
shoes. These various parts are described below:
• Describes the shape of the shoe or the foot shape that the shoe is built around
• May be curved (C-shaped), semicurved, or straight
• Also known as the “foam” part of the sole
• Can be dual density and composed of a variety of materials with different durability, firmnesses and other characteristics
• Can vary in how stiff it is
• Contributes to rear foot control
• The “sleeve” of the shoe
• Can be made from a variety of materials oriented in a manner to resist the stresses that are associated with normal or
abnormal gait mechanics
Insole (“sock liner”):
• Lines the inside bottom of a shoe
• Often removable (allowing for other orthotics or inserts to replace it)
Upper attachment to mid-sole:
• Slip lasting – midsole is stitched to the upper and allows a stiffer foot to move more freely (often used in cushion-based shoes)
• Board lasting – firm fibrous board situated between the midsole and the upper. Provides a more stable base for an overly
• Combination lasting – some combination of both board and slip lasted.
TYPES OF RUNNING SHOES
Typically, manufacturers will design shoes to fit within three broad categories. Features and fit may overlap between categories and
from brand to brand with the goal that the combined features and fit will work toward a certain purpose. With such variety, runners
are allowed the luxury of choice enabling them to find just the right shoe:
1. Cushion Shoes:
These shoes are designed for runners who display either an insufficient or normal amount of maximum pronation (< 12º maximum rear-
foot eversion) or excessive supination. These individuals lack an important means in which the body can naturally cushion the impact of
landing. They require a shoe that can facilitate more pronation to occur and that can provide a significant amount of shock absorption.
Runners who display a biomechanically efficient (“neutral”) gait may also prefer a more cushion-based shoe.
Many supinators have a more C-shaped foot with a high arch, a wide forefoot and, often, clawing of the toes which necessitates a high
and wide toe box. As a result the shape of cushion based shoes will tend to reflect this shape with a more curved last and a higher
• Curved or semicurved last
• Slip lasted or combination lasted (with board-lasted rearfoot and slip-lasted forefoot)
• Absence of a dual-density midsole
• Narrower mid-foot region with less reinforcing materials
(increases torsional flexibility)
2. Moderate Level Stability Shoes:
These shoes are designed for the mild to moderate overpronator (> 12º of rear-foot eversion during running) who would benefit from a
compromise between motion control and cushioning. Stability shoes are typically made with materials that assist in shock attenuation,
but also incorporate some motion control feature.
• Semi-curved or straight lasted
• Usually combination lasted
• Will incorporate a few of the various means to create motion control such as: a firm heel counter, dual-density midsole, more
rigid material imbedded into the midfoot region of the midsole
• Should not be possible to deform the shoe along the longitudinal axis (in torsion) when grasping the front of the shoe with one
• hand and back of the shoe with the other (shoe should only flex upward in a plane through the “ball of the foot”)
METHODS FOR ANALYZING OLD SHOES
You can indeed tell a lot about a runner by their shoes. Most shoe stores will actually encourage their clients to bring in their old
shoes for this reason. In closely analyzing the way in which shoes have worn/broken down, one can make some fairly accurate
generalizations about their biomechanics as well as their needs for future pairs.
Following are some good pointers on what to look for:
1. The shoe should be observed from behind to confirm that the heel counter and shoe upper is vertical and does not lean to one side
• If either the heel counter or the mid-foot section of the upper leans medially than the individual is likely over-pronating
• If either the heel counter or the mid-foot section of the upper leans laterally than the individual is likely under-pronating or
2. Check the condition of the midsole. Is it more compressed in specific regions?
• If the mid-sole is compressed more around the medial or inside aspect of the shoe than the individual is likely over-pronating
• If the midsole is compressed more around the lateral or outside aspect of the shoe than the individual is likely under-
3. Analyze the outsole wear patterns or the areas where the shoe is “scuffed”:
• It is typical to see some wear on the lateral portion of the heel, however, if this heel wear is quite significant it indicates
that the individual is likely either dragging their feet as they run or over-striding in front of the body and thus creating
extensive friction against the ground.
• There should be no wear on the medial aspect of the heel – any wear here would indicate that the runner is likely a severe
Normal forefoot wear should be seen to occur more down the middle of the forefoot region of the shoe.
• If there is wear along the lateral (outside) region of the shoe this indicates that the runner is likely lacking a sufficient
amount of pronation.
• If there is excessive wear along the medial aspect of the forefoot than the runner is likely over-pronating.
4. Analyze the insole compression patterns (the insole can be removed in most shoes):
• Is there significant compression under the 1st digit (“big toe”) or around the region of the “big toe” joint? This indicates that
there is an excessive amount of pressure occurring under this region of the foot and is often associated with over-pronating.
• Is there a significant amount of compression under the “ball” (transverse arch) of the foot? This is associated with a
collapsed transverse. This indicates that there is an excessive amount of pressure under the metatarsal heads (around the
joints in the “ball” of the foot)
• Is there an excessive amount of compression along the outside (lateral) aspect of the insole? This will indicate that the
individual is under-pronating or supinating.
WHEN TO REPLACE SHOES
Here are some general guidelines to go off of when deciding if a shoe is finished:
By typical industry standards, if a runner has put on more than 300 miles or 500km on a shoe they should start thinking about a new
• If any portion of the outsole (rubber on the bottom of the shoe) is worn down to the mid-sole than a new pair of shoes is
• If any portion of the mid-sole material has become noticeably softer and will “crinkle” when squished between your fingers.
Here is another good test: While holding the shoe, push upward with your thumb on the sole of the shoe around the area
where the ball of the foot sits. Slip your other hand into the shoe and try to feel your thumb pushing through the bottom
with the tips of your fingers. If you can feel your thumb through the shoe, it’s time for a change.
• If the heel counter has become noticeably “softer” than when originally purchased
• If a sudden injury or muscle soreness has come on with no other plausible explanation such as significant changes to a running
program or changes in running terrain.
Recipe for Incredible Summer Salad!!!
by Jessi Thompson
Mandarin Salad (modified by me, original from Colorado Cache)
1/2 c sliced almonds
3 T sugar
1/2 head lettuce
1/2 head romaine
1 c chopped celery
2 whole green onions, chopped
1 11 ounce can of mandarin oranges, drained
1/2 t salt
dash of pepper
1/4 c olive oil
1 T chopped fresh parsley
2 T sugar
2 T apple cider vinegar
dash of Tabasco sauce
In small pan over med heat, cook almonds with sugar, stirring constantly until almonds are coated and sugar
dissolved. Don't leave these unattended... I've burned them more than once! Cool and store in airtight
container. Mix all dressing ingredients and chill. Mix lettuces, celery, and onions. Just before serving add
almonds and oranges. Toss with dressing.
The Board of Directors, Sponsors
and The Calendar of Upcoming Events...
Board of Directors We would like to extend a
• Steve Anderson - Membership Director generous thank you to our
• Tiffany Byrd - Uniform Director truly amazing sponsors!
• Trish Cudney - Social Director
• Greg Gallagher - Event Director
• Natalie Gallagher - Newsletter Director
• Ben Greenfield - Website Director
• Mark Hodgson - Mentor Director
• Jim Powers - Vice President
• Tim Swanson - Treasurer
• Jessi Thompson - Secretary
• Roger Thompson - President
• Kathy Worden & Jen Polello - Kids Club
May/June Calendar Races/Runs: Upcoming Events:
• May 24th: Coeur d’ Alene 1/2 & Full Next Social:
Marathon, at NIC, Cd’A, Idaho
Training Opportunities: • Coming this month=> Tri Fusion
• May 24th: Onion Man Olympic Bowling Night at North Bowl
• Masters Swims @ Northside OZ on Triathlon at Walla Walla, WA
Tues @ 6-7:30 pm, Fri. @ 4-5:30 pm & @ 7-9 pm!!! Contact Trish @
Sun @ 8-9:30 am • May 31st: Iron Eagle Sprint Tri at email@example.com
EWU, Cheney, WA
• Masters Swims @ Valley OZ on Thurs • HOT SUMMER NIGHTS at Twigs!!! A
@6-7:30 pm, & Sun @ 8-9:30 am. • June 6th: Moses Lake Family 5k run series on Tuesday
Triathlon at Moses Lake, WA
• Whitworth Masters swimming has nights in August, all races
started again! Times: Mon-Fri @ • June 13-14th: Blue Lake Du, Sprint & start @ 6:00 pm from the
5:30-7:00 am. Contact Kevin Wang @ Olympic Triathlons at Fairview, OR Northside Twigs. Watch the
firstname.lastname@example.org • June 20th: Paciﬁc Crest Long Course Forum for more details and
Triathlon at Sunriver, OR race registration.
• Saturday am or early pm outdoor
group rides posted weekly on the • June 20th: Trailblazer Sprint
forum! Triathlon at Medical Lake, WA Next Membership Meeting:
• Starting June 1st: Liberty Lake • June 21st: IRONMAN Cd’A at Coeur • Wednesday, June 17th, 2009 @ 6:30
Swims at 5:30 pm! Watch the Forum d’ Alene, ID!!! p.m.: General membership meeting at
for more details soon! Twigs on the northside at