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Semantic Blockchain
A primer on Blockchain, Semantic Web and Ricardian Contracts
Ben Gardner
Semantic
Web
blockchain Ricar...
Overview
• Why is Semantic Blockchain important
• What is the Blockchain
• What are Ricardian Contracts
• What is the Sema...
The Semantic Web : A new form of Web content that is meaningful to computers will
unleash a revolution of new possibilitie...
But what about the contract?
• So far only a schedule has been agreed between Lucy, Pete and the
treatment provider
• Who ...
Introducing the Semantic blockchain
blockchain
Semantic
Web
Semantic
blockchain
Unambiguous data
Connected
Trust
Proof of ...
A primer on
blockchain - PWC
Ricardian Contract
“A Ricardian contract places the defining elements of a legal agreement in a
format that can be express...
Smart Contract
“A smart contract is a computerized transaction protocol that executes the terms
of a contract. The general...
Weather Insurance
I, Alex Batlin, authorise the transfer from address 'abcdwerr' to address
'24dsfrg3434' using smart cont...
Weather Insurance
I, Alex Batlin, authorise the transfer from address 'abcdwerr' to address
'24dsfrg3434' using smart cont...
Linked Data= the internet + http + rdf
Tim Berners-Lee outlined four principles of linked data in his Design Issues:
Linke...
Subject
<John>
Predicate
<Knows>
Object
<Sarah>
RDF Triple
<John>
<L-123456>
<New York>
<Tax>
<Sarah>
hasWorkedOn
hasLocat...
<John>
<L-123456>
<New York>
<Tax>
<Sarah>
hasWorkedOn
hasLocation
hasPractice
Knows
<L-123456>
<California>
<Acme Inc>
<I...
<John>
<L-123456>
<New York>
<Tax>
<Sarah>
hasWorkedOn
hasLocation
hasPractice
Knows
<L-123456>
<California>
<IPO>
hasJuri...
What did those rules mean?
http://biglynx.co.uk/people/matt-briggs http://biglynx.co.uk/people/scott-miller
http://xmlns.c...
RDF Serialisation
RDF/XML & RDFa – W3C standardised serialisation formats
Turtle, N-Triples, JSON – non-standardised seria...
RDF Serialisation
RDF/XML & RDFa – W3C standardised serialisation formats
Turtle, N-Triples, JSON – non-standardised seria...
Linked Open Data as of September 2011
Weather Insurance
I, Alex Batlin, authorise the transfer from address 'abcdwerr' to address
'24dsfrg3434' using smart cont...
Weather Insurance
@prefix rc: <http://batlin.com/ricardian#> .
[a rc:RicardianContract;
rc:hasTransferAuthorisation [ a rc...
Weather Insurance
@prefix rc: <http://batlin.com/ricardian#> .
[a rc:RicardianContract;
rc:hasTransferAuthorisation [ a rc...
Ricardian contracts on the Semantic blockchain
blockchain
Semantic
Web
Semantic
blockchain
Unambiguous data
Connected
Trus...
Realising the Semantic Web vision
Block Chain Technologies & The Semantic Web – Matthew English et al
Back to Pete & Lucy
• So far only a schedule has been agreed between Lucy, Pete and the
treatment provider
• Who is paying...
Could Blockchain fill in the missing layers of the
Semantic Web Architecture?
Semantic
Web
blockchain
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Semantic blockchain

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A primer on Blockchain, Semantic Web and Ricardian Contracts.
Semantic Blockchain is a proposal where the Semantic Web meets the Blockchain. Combining these two technologies could provide the Semantic web with a transparent proof of work and trust mechanism while conversely disambiguating data stored on the blockchain, solving one of the key challenges with Riccardian/Smart contracts. This presentation will explore how these two technologies might be combine using the example of a smart contract. However the potential application is much bigger and could provide a key back bone underlying the Internet of Things.

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  • interesting!
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  • Hi there! Essay Help For Students | Discount 10% for your first order! - Check our website! https://vk.cc/80SakO
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  • An realistic pattern is to combine off chain RDF graphs synced across all parties with a scalable proof mechanism with minimal on-chain rooting, like Chainpoint does. Talk to us if you are interested in that. Executing legal contracts as smart contracts has a lot of pitfalls and is anything but straight forward. E.g. parties need a mechanism to breach a contract.
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  • Claims on page 16 are wrong. There are a lot more standardized serialization formats incl. e.g. Turtle, TriG, JSON-LD, N-TRIPLE, N-QUAD. All part of RDF 1.1 recommendations from 2014. See e.g. https://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-primer/ and cited docs. Non W3C standardized are binary RDF formats like e.g. RDF-HDT or RDF Thrift.
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Semantic blockchain

  1. 1. Semantic Blockchain A primer on Blockchain, Semantic Web and Ricardian Contracts Ben Gardner Semantic Web blockchain Ricardian Contracts
  2. 2. Overview • Why is Semantic Blockchain important • What is the Blockchain • What are Ricardian Contracts • What is the Semantic Web • Ricardian Contracts on the Semantic Blockchain • Implications
  3. 3. The Semantic Web : A new form of Web content that is meaningful to computers will unleash a revolution of new possibilities by Tim Berners-Lee, James Hendler and Ora Lassila (2001) The entertainment system was belting out the Beatles' "We Can Work It Out" when the phone rang. When Pete answered, his phone turned the sound down by sending a message to all the other local devices that had a volume control. His sister, Lucy, was on the line from the doctor's office: "Mom needs to see a specialist and then has to have a series of physical therapy sessions. Biweekly or something. I'm going to have my agent set up the appointments." Pete immediately agreed to share the chauffeuring. At the doctor's office, Lucy instructed her Semantic Web agent through her handheld Web browser. The agent promptly retrieved information about Mom's prescribed treatment from the doctor's agent, looked up several lists of providers, and checked for the ones in-plan for Mom's insurance within a 20-mile radius of her home and with a rating of excellent or very good on trusted rating services. It then began trying to find a match between available appointment times (supplied by the agents of individual providers through their Web sites) and Pete's and Lucy's busy schedules. (The emphasized keywords indicate terms whose semantics, or meaning, were defined for the agent through the Semantic Web.) In a few minutes the agent presented them with a plan. Pete didn't like it—University Hospital was all the way across town from Mom's place, and he'd be driving back in the middle of rush hour. He set his own agent to redo the search with stricter preferences about location and time. Lucy's agent, having complete trust in Pete's agent in the context of the present task, automatically assisted by supplying access certificates and shortcuts to the data it had already sorted through. Almost instantly the new plan was presented: a much closer clinic and earlier times—but there were two warning notes. First, Pete would have to reschedule a couple of his less important appointments. He checked what they were—not a problem. The other was something about the insurance company's list failing to include this provider under physical therapists: "Service type and insurance plan status securely verified by other means," the agent reassured him. "(Details?)" Lucy registered her assent at about the same moment Pete was muttering, "Spare me the details," and it was all set. (Of course, Pete couldn't resist the details and later that night had his agent explain how it had found that provider even though it wasn't on the proper list.)
  4. 4. But what about the contract? • So far only a schedule has been agreed between Lucy, Pete and the treatment provider • Who is paying? – Identity of actors • How do they know the service has been delivered? • What are the terms around treatment provision? • What if a appointment is cancelled? Payment? But this isn’t just about monetary contracts it is also about the transactions between IoT • How does Lucy or Pete know when/if mum was picked up/dropped off?
  5. 5. Introducing the Semantic blockchain blockchain Semantic Web Semantic blockchain Unambiguous data Connected Trust Proof of work Unambiguous data Connected Trust Proof of work
  6. 6. A primer on blockchain - PWC
  7. 7. Ricardian Contract “A Ricardian contract places the defining elements of a legal agreement in a format that can be expressed and executed in software. The key is to make the format both machine readable such that they can easily be extracted for computational purposes, and readable as an ordinary prose document such that lawyers and contracting parties may read the essentials of the contract without undue inconvenience.” - Wikipedia
  8. 8. Smart Contract “A smart contract is a computerized transaction protocol that executes the terms of a contract. The general objectives are to satisfy common contractual conditions (such as payment terms, liens, confidentiality, and even enforcement), minimize exceptions both malicious and accidental, and minimize the need for trusted intermediaries.” - Nick Sazabo Bitcoin is an implementation of blockchain technology limited to transfer of funds from A to B Ethereum expands the concept of transactions to arbitrary complex contracts
  9. 9. Weather Insurance I, Alex Batlin, authorise the transfer from address 'abcdwerr' to address '24dsfrg3434' using smart contract agent address '24dsfrg3434' of '10' unit(s) of GBP pounds held by smart contract address '4854398578934' on the condition that website 'Weather.com' confirms that '0.5' cumulative inches of rain did indeed fall between start date '9:00AM UTC 10th of March, 2015' and finish date '9:00AM UTC 11th of March, 2015' in country 'GB' and postcode 'EC2Y 0RT’. Readable by humans Crypto 2.0 Musings - Combining Ricardian and Smart Contracts - Alex Batlin
  10. 10. Weather Insurance I, Alex Batlin, authorise the transfer from address 'abcdwerr' to address '24dsfrg3434' using smart contract agent address '24dsfrg3434' of '10' unit(s) of GBP pounds held by smart contract address '4854398578934' on the condition that website 'Weather.com' confirms that '0.5' cumulative inches of rain did indeed fall between start date '9:00AM UTC 10th of March, 2015' and finish date '9:00AM UTC 11th of March, 2015' in country 'GB' and postcode 'EC2Y 0RT’. What needs to be defined so a computer can execute the contract
  11. 11. Linked Data= the internet + http + rdf Tim Berners-Lee outlined four principles of linked data in his Design Issues: Linked Data note, paraphrased along the following lines: 1. Use URIs to identify things. 2. Use HTTP URIs so that these things can be referred to and looked up ("dereferenced") by people and user agents. 3. Provide useful information about the thing when its URI is dereferenced, using standard formats such as RDF/XML. 4. Include links to other, related URIs in the exposed data to improve discovery of other related information on the Web. The second attempt at the semantic web http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linked_data
  12. 12. Subject <John> Predicate <Knows> Object <Sarah> RDF Triple <John> <L-123456> <New York> <Tax> <Sarah> hasWorkedOn hasLocation hasPractice knows Graph Combining Triples creates a directed, labelled graph Resource Description Framework (RDF) Inspired by J Phil Brooks, Eli Lilly Note – RDF is a data model not a data format
  13. 13. <John> <L-123456> <New York> <Tax> <Sarah> hasWorkedOn hasLocation hasPractice Knows <L-123456> <California> <Acme Inc> <IPO> hasJurisdiction hasClient hasTransactionType Graphs can be joined together …… Inspired by J Phil Brooks, Eli Lilly
  14. 14. <John> <L-123456> <New York> <Tax> <Sarah> hasWorkedOn hasLocation hasPractice Knows <L-123456> <California> <IPO> hasJuristdction hasClient hasTransactionType <Acme Inc> <San Deigo> <Nexus Corp> <Energy> hasLocation HasSector hasParent …... to traverse the knowledge space Inspired by J Phil Brooks, Eli Lilly
  15. 15. What did those rules mean? http://biglynx.co.uk/people/matt-briggs http://biglynx.co.uk/people/scott-miller http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/knows Subject <Matt Briggs> Predicate <Knows> Object <Scott Miller> 1. Use URIs to identify things. 2. Use HTTP URIs so that these things can be referred to and looked up ("dereferenced") by people and user agents. Linked Data: Evolving the Web into a Global Data Space- Tom Heath & Christian Bizer
  16. 16. RDF Serialisation RDF/XML & RDFa – W3C standardised serialisation formats Turtle, N-Triples, JSON – non-standardised serialisation formats Turtle – Plain text serialisation, mainly used for reading RDF triples or writing them by hand. @prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> . @prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> . <http://biglynx.co.uk/people/matt-briggs> rdf:type foaf:Person ; foaf:name “Matt Briggs” ; foaf:based_near “Birmingham”; foaf:topic_interest “Wildlife photography” ; foaf:knows “David Attenborough” . 3. Provide useful information about the thing when its URI is dereferenced, using standard formats such as RDF/XML.
  17. 17. RDF Serialisation RDF/XML & RDFa – W3C standardised serialisation formats Turtle, N-Triples, JSON – non-standardised serialisation formats Turtle – Plain text serialisation, mainly used for reading RDF triples or writing them by hand. @prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> . @prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> . <http://biglynx.co.uk/people/matt-briggs> rdf:type foaf:Person ; foaf:name “Matt Briggs” ; foaf:based_near <http://sws.geonames.org/3333125/> ; foaf:based_near <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Birmingham> ; foaf:topic_interest <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Wildlife_photography> ; foaf:knows <http://dbpedia.org/resource/David_Attenborough> . 4. Include links to other, related URIs in the exposed data to improve discovery of other related information on the Web.
  18. 18. Linked Open Data as of September 2011
  19. 19. Weather Insurance I, Alex Batlin, authorise the transfer from address 'abcdwerr' to address '24dsfrg3434' using smart contract agent address '24dsfrg3434' of '10' unit(s) of GBP pounds held by smart contract address '4854398578934' on the condition that website 'Weather.com' confirms that '0.5' cumulative inches of rain did indeed fall between start date '9:00AM UTC 10th of March, 2015' and finish date '9:00AM UTC 11th of March, 2015' in country 'GB' and postcode 'EC2Y 0RT’. Linked Data can unambiguously define the things and the relationships between things
  20. 20. Weather Insurance @prefix rc: <http://batlin.com/ricardian#> . [a rc:RicardianContract; rc:hasTransferAuthorisation [ a rc:TransferAuthorisation; rc:hasAgentAddress "24dsfrg3434"; rc:hasFromAddress "abcdwerr"; rc:hasInstrumentAddress "4854398578934"; rc:hasInstrumentUnits "10"; rc:hasToAddress "24dsfrg3434" ]; rc:hasTransferCondition [ a rc:TransferCondition; rc:hasCountryCode "GB"; rc:hasCumulativeInchesOfRainDetected "0.5"; rc:hasFinishDate "2016-03-11T09:00:00<"; rc:hasOracleUrl <https://www.weather.com>; rc:hasPostCode "EC2Y 0RT"; rc:hasStartDate "2016-03-10T09:00:00<" ]]. RDF representation provides an unambiguously defined contract 3. Provide useful information about the thing when its URI is dereferenced, using standard formats such as RDF/XML.
  21. 21. Weather Insurance @prefix rc: <http://batlin.com/ricardian#> . [a rc:RicardianContract; rc:hasTransferAuthorisation [ a rc:TransferAuthorisation; rc:hasAgentAddress "24dsfrg3434"; rc:hasFromAddress "abcdwerr"; rc:hasInstrumentAddress "4854398578934"; rc:hasInstrumentUnits "10"; rc:hasToAddress "24dsfrg3434" ]; rc:hasTransferCondition [ a rc:TransferCondition; rc:hasCountryCode <http://www.geonames.org/2635167/united-kingdom.html>; rc:hasCumulativeInchesOfRainDetected "0.5"; rc:hasFinishDate "2016-03-11T09:00:00<"; rc:hasOracleUrl <https://www.weather.com>; rc:hasPostCode <http://www.geonames.org/maps/google_51.52_-0.092.html>; rc:hasStartDate "2016-03-10T09:00:00<" ]]. 4. Include links to other, related URIs in the exposed data to improve discovery of other related information on the Web. Linked Data unambiguously connects the contract to Oracles (Linked Open Data)
  22. 22. Ricardian contracts on the Semantic blockchain blockchain Semantic Web Semantic blockchain Unambiguous data Connected Trust Proof of work Further reading – Hector Ugarte https://semanticblocks.wordpress.com/
  23. 23. Realising the Semantic Web vision Block Chain Technologies & The Semantic Web – Matthew English et al
  24. 24. Back to Pete & Lucy • So far only a schedule has been agreed between Lucy, Pete and the treatment provider • Who is paying – Identity of actors • How do they know the service has been delivered? • What are the terms around treatment provision? • What if a appointment is cancelled? Payment? But this isn’t just about monetary contracts it is also about the transactions between IoT • How does Lucy or Pete know when/if mum was picked up/dropped off?
  25. 25. Could Blockchain fill in the missing layers of the Semantic Web Architecture? Semantic Web blockchain

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