Module 10 Crime Scene Preservation


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basic crime scene preservation protocols for private security professionals

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Module 10 Crime Scene Preservation

  1. 1. CRIME SCENE PRESERVATION An Introduction to Forensic Scence
  2. 2. <ul><li>At the end of the session, the trainees are expected to: </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the meaning of crime scene and its importance in solving the crime; </li></ul><ul><li>Enumerate the crime scene protocols </li></ul><ul><li>This subject will tackle all the duties and responsibilities of a private security guard in handling / preserving a crime scene. </li></ul>TERMINAL OBJECTIVE
  3. 3. <ul><li>CRIME SCENE – Any physical location in which a crime has occurred or is suspected of having occurred. </li></ul><ul><li>PRIMARY CRIME SCENE – The original location of a crime or accident. </li></ul><ul><li>SECONDARY CRIME SCENE – An alternate location where additional evidence may be found. </li></ul><ul><li>SUSPECT : Person thought to be capable of committing a crime. </li></ul><ul><li>ACCOMPLICE – Person associated with someone suspected of committing a crime. </li></ul><ul><li>ALIBI – Statement of where a suspect was at the time of a crime. </li></ul>CRIME SCENE VOCABULARIES
  4. 4. <ul><li>Testimonial evidence includes oral or written statements given to police as well as court testimony by people who witnessed an event. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical evidence refers to any material items that would be present at the crime scene, on the victims, or found in a suspect’s possession. </li></ul><ul><li>Trace evidence refers to physical evidence that is found in small but measurable amounts, such as strands of hair, fibers, or skin cells. </li></ul>TYPES OF EVIDENCES
  5. 5. <ul><li>Step 1: Interview </li></ul><ul><li>The first step in investigating a crime scene is to interview the first officer at the scene or the victim to determine what allegedly happened, what crime took place, and how was the crime committed. This information may not be factual information but it will give the investigators a place to start. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2: Examine </li></ul><ul><li>The second step in the investigation of a crime scene, which will help identify possible evidence, identify the point of entry and point of exit, and outline the general layout of the crime scene. </li></ul>CRIME SCENE PROTOCOL
  6. 6. <ul><li>Step 3: Document </li></ul><ul><li>The third step in the protocol involves creating a pictorial record of the scene as well as a rough sketch to demonstrate the layout of the crime scene and to identify the exact position of the deceased victim or other evidence within the crime scene. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 4: Process </li></ul><ul><li>This is the last step in the protocol. The crime scene technician will process the crime scene for evidence, both physical and testimonial evidence. It is the crime scene technicians responsibility to identify, evaluate and collect physical evidence from the crime scene for further analysis by a crime laboratory. </li></ul>CRIME SCENE PROTOCOL
  7. 7. <ul><li>Drug Chemistry – Determines the presence of controlled substances and the identification of marijuana </li></ul><ul><li>Trace Chemistry - Identification and comparison of materials from fires, explosions, paints, and glass. </li></ul><ul><li>Microscopy – Microscopic identification and comparison of evidence, such as hairs, fibers, woods, soils, building materials, insulation and other materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Biology/DNA – Analysis of body fluids and dried stains such as blood, semen, and saliva. </li></ul><ul><li>Toxicology – Tests body fluids and tissues to determine the presence of drugs and poisons. </li></ul>INVESTIGATING THE EVIDENCE
  8. 8. <ul><li>Latent Prints – Identification and comparison of fingerprints or other hidden impressions from sources like feet, shoes, ears, lips or the tread on vehicle tires . </li></ul><ul><li>Ballistics (Firearms) – Study of bullets and ammunition through the comparison of fired bullets, cartridges, guns, and gunpowder patterns on people and objects. </li></ul><ul><li>Tool marks – Examines marks left by tools on objects at a crime scene or on a victim, such as a hammer used to break a door or a screwdriver used to pick a lock. </li></ul><ul><li>Questioned Documents – Examination of documents to compare handwriting, ink, paper, writing instruments, printers, and other characteristics that would help to identify its origin. </li></ul>CONTINUATION…
  10. 10. <ul><li>The first Security Officer to arrive at the crime scene has the critical task of securing the crime scene: </li></ul><ul><li>Protect the crime scene to preserve its physical aspects. </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent unauthorized intrusions and protect the scene from change. </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent unneeded movement of physical evidence </li></ul>SECURING THE CRIME SCENE
  11. 11. <ul><li>Rope off / cord the entrances and exits. </li></ul><ul><li>Post guards to control the spectators. </li></ul><ul><li>Reroute the traffice. </li></ul><ul><li>Cover the fragile evidences and areas </li></ul>CONTINUATION
  12. 12. <ul><li>The steps needed to protect the scene should begin as you: </li></ul><ul><li>Give aid to the injured or examine the dean. </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent unneeded walking about. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid touching door, door knobs, light switches, floors and windows. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid using telephone or smoking at the scene. </li></ul>PRESERVING THE SCENE
  13. 13. <ul><li>Do not use the toilet, turn on the water, or use towels at the crime scene. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not move or disturb the body of the deceased person. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually, you cover the body only after it has been fully processed for evidences. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not touch items or surface that are likely to yield latent ( hidden ) fingerprints. </li></ul>PRESERVING THE SCENE
  14. 14. <ul><li>Do not allow any item to be removed from the scene without specific permission from the crime scene inverstigator. </li></ul><ul><li>Helping victims, apprehending suspects, detaining witnesses, and requesting needed assistance. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure that the victimes and witnesses are treated with dignity and consideration. </li></ul>PRESERVING THE SCENE
  15. 15. <ul><li>Keep the suspects and witnesses separated if possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not discuss the crime with witnesses and bystanders. </li></ul><ul><li>Set up a briefing area for officials who arrive at the scene. </li></ul><ul><li>Make note of certain details... </li></ul>PRESERVING THE SCENE
  16. 16. <ul><li>Time of the crime committed </li></ul><ul><li>Time when the Security were first called </li></ul><ul><li>Time when the Security arrived at the scene </li></ul><ul><li>Note the weather condition, e.g. Rain, snow, fog and wind. </li></ul><ul><li>Note the humidity (wetness or moisture) factor, visible air pollution. </li></ul><ul><li>Note the temperature inside or outside </li></ul><ul><li>Note wheather the ground is wet or dry </li></ul>SOMETHINGS TO TAKE NOTE
  17. 17. <ul><li>Think of the crime as highly dynamic. It is underdoing changes. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually there is only one chance to search a scene properly. </li></ul><ul><li>Pay attention to apparent physical focal point or points of the crime scene in this information change. </li></ul><ul><li>Your key action on this stage of the search are to observe abd record . </li></ul>SEARCHING THE SCENE
  18. 18. <ul><li>Obtain statement from the witnesses. </li></ul><ul><li>If the search is to be lenghty, set aside the area. </li></ul><ul><li>Note the obvious items of evidence to be collected. </li></ul><ul><li>Searchers must be breifed thoroughly. </li></ul><ul><li>Everybody must refrain from touching or moving any item. </li></ul>SEARCHING THE SCENE
  19. 19. <ul><li>The person finding the evidence, must immediately tell the person in charge of the search about the find. </li></ul><ul><li>The person finding the evidence must protect the area until an investigator arrives. </li></ul><ul><li>A competent search of a crime scene demands close attention to detail. </li></ul>SEARCHING THE SCENE
  20. 20. <ul><li>A successful crime scene search produces a comprehensive and non destructive accumulation of all available physical evidence within a reasonable period of time. </li></ul><ul><li>You can search a scene using one or more of the four methods; the spiral search, grid search, strip search, and the zone search or quadrant search. </li></ul>SEARCHING THE SCENE
  22. 22. <ul><ul><li>Searches can be conducted under four circumstances in the absence of a court – approved search warrant: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In the existence of emergency circumstances </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The need to prevent immediate loss or destruction of evidence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A search of a person or property within the immediate control of the person during a lawful arrest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The involved parties give consent </li></ul></ul></ul>PROTECTION AGAINST ILLEGAL SEARCH AND SEIZURE