Mei Wang & Sharon Hu's Institutional Repository and Academic Library


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Mei Wang & Sharon Hu's presentation at CALA Midwest Chapter 2011 Annual Conference on May 21, 2011 at Indiana University Southeast (IUS) Library

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Mei Wang & Sharon Hu's Institutional Repository and Academic Library

  1. 1. Institutional Digital Repository (IR) and Academic Libraries (AL)<br />Sharon Hu & Mei Wang<br />Chicago State University <br />University of Michigan, Asia Library<br />Chinese-American Librarians Association<br />Midwest Chapter (CALA MW)<br />2011 Annual Conference<br />May 21, 2011<br />0<br />
  2. 2. Contents<br />Introduction (Background and Purpose)<br />Concepts, Contents and Functions <br />III. History, Present and Development <br />IV.Academic Libraries (AL) and Institutional Digital Repositories (IR)<br /> - Impacts, Challenges, Changes and Concerns<br />V.Conclusion<br />1<br />
  3. 3. Introduction (I-1)<br />21st Century - Digital Age<br />(Background of Institutional Digital Repository)<br />E-Resources of Library Collections <br />E-Journals/Articles <br />E-Books <br />Data Set in Digital Format <br />D-Audio/Video Materials<br /> Digital Library (DL) <br /> E-Publishing: as the base for IR set-up <br />2<br />
  4. 4. Introduction (I-2)<br /> Purpose of IR from Academic Libraries <br />Improve scholarly communications <br />Enhance library services and support faculty, staff and<br /> students for teaching , learning and research<br />3<br />
  5. 5. 4<br />IR: Concepts, Contents, Functions (II-1)<br />IR vs. Digital Library (DL) <br />Information Technology Base <br />Digital Resources Format <br />
  6. 6. IR: Concepts, Contents, Functions(II-2)<br />What is IR? <br />The intellectual information resource databases which are created, collected, stored, and distributed by the students, faculty and researchers from one or more academic institutions. <br /> All information resources in IR are openly accessible and sharable in an academic environment. It is one type of approach for academic community to an OPEN ACCESS of a scholarly communication network .<br />Two unique features: <br />Digital Intellectual output as information resourcesfor one or more institutions.<br />Open Network Access by the academic institutional community for scholarly communication through network (internet/intranet)<br />5<br />
  7. 7. IR: Concepts, Contents, Functions (II-3)<br />Contents (1): Digital Intellectual output :<br />Institutional Scholarly Publications <br />Official / Formal Publications <br />Research Data Set <br />Thesis and Dissertations <br />Research Reports, Articles <br />Audio/Video Publications <br />Gray Literature*<br />Other Scholarly Communications <br />Library Resources (Teaching/Research) <br />*Gray Literature:Informal publications, such as pre-publications, presentation slides, research reports, technical documents or research data.<br />6<br />
  8. 8. IR: Concepts, Contents, Functions (II-4)<br />Contents (2): Institutional Academic Information Resources<br />Institutional Management Information <br />Institutional Administration Data Set <br />Teaching Management Information <br />Institutional Archives Information <br />Departmental Management Information <br />Other Institutional Information<br />7<br />
  9. 9. IR: Concepts, Contents, Functions (II-5)<br />Functions (1): Open Network Access for Scholarly Communication <br />Scholarly Communication <br />E-Publishing<br />Open Access<br />Real-Time Communication<br />Users Group Management<br />E-Scholarship <br />E-Scholarship Environment<br />Open Scholarly Activities<br />E-Scholarship Standards, Principles, <br /> Methodologies<br />8<br />
  10. 10. IR: Concepts, Contents, Functions (II-6)<br />Function (2): Preserve and Archive <br />Institutional Academic Information (Intellectual Repository)<br />Institutional Management Information<br />(Administrative Repository ) <br />Current<br />Historical<br />Short Term<br />Long Term<br />9<br />
  11. 11. IR: Concepts, Contents, Functions (II-7)<br />IR Systems / Platforms (1) <br />Open Sources <br />DSpace[1]<br />Eprints[2]<br />Fedora[3]<br />Institutional Sources <br />Univ. of California eScholarship[4] <br />Univ. of Illinois IDEALS [5]<br />ARL SPARC (Includes nearly 800 libraries) [6]<br />(Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition <br />DRIVER (European Federation IR) [7]<br /> (Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research)<br />MIT DSpace<br />University of Michigan Deep Blue[8]<br />10<br />
  12. 12. IR: Concepts, Contents, Functions (II-8)<br />IR Systems / Platforms (2)<br />Commercial Products <br />Digital Commons [9]<br />University of Nebraska-Lincoln <br />Cornell University<br />DigiTool[10]<br />Colorado State University <br />Open Repository (UK) [11] <br />Google Scholar / Search Appliance (GSA) [12]<br />11<br />
  13. 13. IR: Concepts, Contents, Functions (II-9)<br />Building Up an IR (Key Elements )<br />Identify Resources Involved<br />Organization structure and staffing <br />Systems Selection(hardware and software)<br />Contributors / Partners (scholarly community/ academic administrators, Provost / IT administrator and relevant technical staff )<br />Policies and Plans <br />*Institutional related Policies<br />Finance / Budget<br />How does an IR serve an academic community ?<br />12<br />
  14. 14. Deep Blue (University of Michigan Library) [8] <br />Visibility<br />Making your work accessible via Deep Blue will ensure more of your peers can find it (in Google Scholar, for example) and will cite it.<br />Permanence<br />Deep Blue uses special technology that assures the stability of your work's location online, making the citation to it as reliable as a scholarly journal, while as accessible as any website. No broken links!<br />Comprehensiveness<br />Deep Blue supports a variety of formats, and we encourage you to deposit not just the finished work but related materials (including data, images, audio and video files, etc.) to create a "director's cut" that gives context to that work and promotes further scholarship.<br />Safe storage<br />This goes hand-in-hand with permanence. Deep Blue ensures that you only have to deposit the work once. From then on the Library takes care of backups, compatibility, and format issues. There are some technical limitations to the formats we can support indefinitely, but our commitment to preserving the integrity of your work exactly as you deposit it is 100%.<br />Control over access<br />Deep Blue allows you to limit who can see various aspects of your work for a given time, if you need to. This is difficult to do on a personal website without hiding the work completely.<br />Context<br />Beyond what is described above, Deep Blue provides context in two additional ways. First, UM is a destination for the best researchers and scholars, and Deep Blue places you in the larger context of the UM environment, side-by-side with the scholarly and artistic contributions of your colleagues and students. Second, as other universities, institutions, and organizations begin to provide this service for their work as well, we will collaborate with them to create discipline-specific services.<br />
  15. 15.
  16. 16. Deep Blue Services<br />Deposit Services<br />Deep Blue offers contributors a flexible, easy-to-use deposit process. A contributor completes a brief deposit form and grants non-exclusive permission to distribute and preserve the work.<br />Access Services<br />Deep Blue's Access Services give users the ability to browse, search, and discover items of interest, request one or more items from the system, and take delivery of the requested items.<br />Repository Services and Quotas<br />Deep Blue provides storage and preservation services to ensure the longevity of deposited materials. Users should be assured that content deposited in many formats will be accessible even when the original application in which it was created is obsolete and the means to access it are inoperable. <br />Community Management Services<br />Deep Blue's Community Management Services are a set of consultative and applied services designed to meet the needs of individual communities. Library staff will provide guidance in developing a community or collection's workflow process, metadata requirements.<br />
  17. 17. Deep Blue (Services (cont.)<br />End-User Support Services<br />The Library will provide both web-based and telephone support to all Deep Blue users. Support will be provided Monday through Friday, 9:00am to 5:00pm. Inquiries will typically receive a return response via e-mail or telephone within one business day.<br />System Management Services<br />System Management Services are the back-office support for Deep Blue, working to ensure optimal system performance and high availability.<br />Premium Services<br /> Deep Blue was designed as a distributed system that allows communities to manage their own collections, and the areas listed above include all necessary functionality to achieve that. As with any new service, though, it is difficult to determine how users will employ specific features of the system and the resulting services they will demand. The Library anticipates that some Deep Blue communities may want to outsource certain activities to the Library or may put demands on the system that require additional resources for support. The Library introduces a set of Premium Services to meet the exceptional resource requirements of Deep Blue communities.<br />Your work: cited more, safe forever. Deep Blue makes it simple.<br />
  18. 18. IR History, Present, Development (III-1)<br />IR Developing History (-1)<br />ARL 2006Survey Report (1) <br />(123 memberships,Effect Reponses: 87)<br />43%with IRs, 35%planned ;till 2007 will be 89%;<br />IRexisted time: (0.5 – 1 yr) 30%; (1- 6 months) 24%;<br />IR staff number: 92% (have 2 – 26 staff)<br />System Used: 70% DSpace; 94% OAI-PMH<br />Policies and Standards: 75%have setup policies and standards<br />17<br />
  19. 19. IR History, Present, Development (III-2)<br />IR Developing History (-2)<br />ARL 2006Survey Report (2)<br /><ul><li>Metadata: 50% Dublin Core</li></ul>Open Access: 44%with Restrict Access<br />Electronic Dissertations and Theses : 79%<br />Types of Documents: Articles (pre- publications and post-publications),Books, Technical Reports, Technical Documents, Research Data, Yearbooks, Catalogs, Alumni Publications, etc.<br />18<br />
  20. 20. IR History, Present, Development (III-3)<br />Present <br />Primary Research Group (PRG) Survey Reports [13]<br />The International Survey of Institutional Digital Repositories(2007)<br />The Survey of Higher Education Faculty: Use of Digital Repositories and Views on Open Access (2009) <br /> (Survey includes 11countries and 56institutionsfor IR<br /> Reports includes 121 pages with over 300data tables)<br />19<br />
  21. 21. IR History, Present, Development (III-4)<br />PRG reports -- IR Contents (12% Pre-existing)<br />39% faculty publications<br />78% journal articles<br />54% academic presentations’ documents<br />48% digital images (18.52% rare books images), <br />72% dissertations and theses (60% USA institutions)<br />14.81% course syllabus<br />14.81% institutional recorded documents<br /> 2% patents (USA)<br />18.52% archival records and personnel documents<br />20<br />
  22. 22. IR History, Present, Development (III-5)<br />PRG reports: -- IR system financial issues<br />$78,802 (mean) to develop IRs <br />500-3600hours/ yearly($9,000-$145,000)<br />73.04%staff from Libraries<br />USA: 86%<br />Other developed countries:65.68% <br />Other developing countries:60%<br />21<br />
  23. 23. IR History, Present, Development (III-6)<br />PRG reports: -- IRApplication Software<br />41% use IRCommercial Systems<br /> (28% Digital Commons; 1.85% DigiTools)<br /> USA based much more than elsewhere<br />Open Source System: <br />37.4% with DSpace (83% developing countries)<br />13% GNU Eprints (USA, etc.); <br />16.67% Fedora (outside US)<br />Over 50%preferIRcommercial systems<br />40% prefer combine commercial systems with Open Sources systems<br />22<br />
  24. 24. IR History, Present, Development (III-7)<br />PRG reports: --Open Access<br /> 74%have Open Access with some policies<br />11.11% have restricted Access<br />14.81% have ONLY for consortium Access<br />1/3 developing countries have restricted Access<br />Less than20% US/Developed Countries restricted Open Access <br />PRG reports: -- IR existed time<br />2.85 years “old” (0-10 yrs)<br />23<br />
  25. 25. IR History, Present, Development (III-8)<br />PRG reports: --IR Usage<br />Users<br />Ave. 247,013 yr<br />45.47% are owners’ users<br />Download resources<br />19 inst: mean 30,000 yr<br />USA: mean 75,000 yr<br />IRusageincrease rate<br />75.67% (mean)<br />71% USA<br />95.17%developed countries<br />24<br />
  26. 26. 25<br />IR History, Present, Development (III-9)<br />IR Development(-1)<br />IR Expansion <br />Digital Libraries changed to be IR <br />More research institutions develop IR <br />Other agencies develop IR, e.g. Government Agencies and Cooperates<br />Open Access vs. Restricted Access<br />Two Open Access Models<br /><ul><li>University of Nebraska–Lincoln Model
  27. 27. Harvard University Model</li></ul>Open Access more than Restricted Access<br />Security Control<br />Copyright Claim<br />
  28. 28. IR History, Present, Development (III-10)<br />IR Development (-2) <br />Gray publications increase<br />Pre-/Post-Publications<br />Course Materials<br />Research Data, tech reports<br />Presentations <br />Scholarly Communication <br />Cooperation/Collaboration Management<br />IT / Libraries / Departments.<br />Academic Community<br />Quality Control <br />Policies<br />Standards<br />26<br />
  29. 29. 27<br />Academic Libraries and IR (IV-1)<br />IR to Academic Libraries (AL)<br />Impact on Academic Library <br />Visible Resources Management<br />Process Digital Resources <br />Enhanced Services to Faculty <br /> (E-Publishing) <br />Management changes due to IR <br />Organization Structure <br />Staffing <br />Acquisitions Budgeting <br />
  30. 30. Academic Libraries and IR (IV-2)<br />IR to Academic Libraries<br />Challenges<br />Collaboration <br />IT <br />Institutional Administration <br />Institutional Scholar Community <br />Disciplines/Principles<br />Lib Mission – support/services <br />Lib Discipline – IT <br />Librarian’s Knowledge & Skills<br />28<br />
  31. 31. Academic Libraries and IR (IV-3)<br />OCLC 2005 Survey Report: <br />Users: <br />96% used libraries<br />57% often use libraries<br />69% use libraries frequently<br />Users will look for information resources from:<br />Search Engine (such as Google): 58%<br />Library: 43%<br />Library Websites: 17%<br />Book Store: 38%<br />Book Store Website: 26%<br />29<br />
  32. 32. Academic Libraries and IR (IV-4)<br />OCLC 2005 Survey Report:<br /><ul><li>Libraries are not visible to many users on the Web</li></ul>Where do you typically begin your search for information on a particular topic?<br /> Search Engines: 84%<br /> Library Websites: 2%<br />30<br />
  33. 33. Academic Libraries and IR (IV-5)<br />AL Responsibilities for IR<br /> Academic Libraries Should be: <br />IR Designer <br />IR Builder <br />IR Contributor <br />IR Manager <br />IR Maintainer <br />31<br />
  34. 34. Academic Libraries and IR (IV-6)<br />AL Changes responding to IR (-1)<br />Collaborative Services <br />Support e-Publishing <br />Support e-Scholarship <br />Management <br />IR management <br />Organization Structure <br />Liaison with Departments for IR <br />32<br />
  35. 35. Academic Libraries and IR (IV-7)<br />AL Changes responding to IR (-2)<br />Staff Competence <br />Metadata cataloging (RDA) <br />Network knowledge/skills <br />Web knowledge/skills <br />E-publishing knowledge/skills <br />Liaison for subjects capability <br />Instructional skills for providing training to the students/faculty to use information resources <br />33<br />
  36. 36. Academic Libraries and IR (IV-8)<br />Concerns and Issues <br />Cooperation and Collaboration <br /> (developing & managing)<br />Faculty’s Participation/Contribution (marketing)<br />Cost / Budget (funding)<br />Copyright issues<br />34<br />
  37. 37. Conclusion <br />IR and AL:<br />IR is expanding because of the needs from academic scholarly communications<br />Open Access is the trend in the information age<br />Faculty ‘s engagement in IR is essential in developing IR<br />IR challenges and changes academic libraries<br />Academic libraries must take initiative to participate in and be the pioneers of developing IR<br />35<br />
  38. 38. Reference : (All URL links were accessed on May 18, 2011)<br />Dspace<br />Eprints<br />Fedora<br />eScholoship<br />IDEALS<br />ARL SPARC<br />DRIVER<br />Deep Blue<br />Digital Commons<br />DigiTool<br />Open Repository<br />Google Search Appliance<br />Primary Research Group (PRC) Survey Reports <br />36<br />
  39. 39. 37<br />The End<br />Thank you !<br />