Marketing Mobile Games and Apps in India


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Marketing Mobile Games and Apps in India

  1. 1. RUNNING HEAD: MOBILE GAMES AND APPLICATIONS IN INDIA Marketing Mobile Games and Applications in India Benjamin S. Cheeks International School of Management, Paris Author Note This paper was submitted to fulfill the requirements of Marketing in India, MKTG 7018. I would like to thank all of the faculty and staff at Amity University, Noida, for their support and dedication to make the first ISM – Amity Seminar a success. Correspondence concerning this paper should be addressed to Benjamin S. Cheeks. Email:
  2. 2. MOBILE GAMES AND APPLICATIONS IN INDIA 2 Abstract Daga, Manual, & Narasimhan (2010) believe that India is poised to become a truly mobile-Internet society as new users leapfrog personal computers altogether and move straight to mobile devices. This is especially true in rural India where mobile Internet use has increased 720% to 3.6 million over the past two years alone. Mobile handsets (smartphones) are becoming more affordable and feature rich. This explosive growth in mobile-Internet penetration has the potential to improve the effectiveness of reaching India’s rural community. In order to realize this opportunity, there is a need for simpler and more intuitive mobile applications designed specifically with the rural Indian user in mind. This need offers a potential opportunity for entrepreneurs. This paper explores how a company can design and market mobile games and applications to the rural consumer. It also provides a blue print as to how such a company should build its brand. Keywords: mobile games, mobile applications, rural India
  3. 3. MOBILE GAMES AND APPLICATIONS IN INDIA 3 Marketing with Mobile Games and Applications in India Internet Use in India The Internet and Mobile Association of India (IAMAI) and Indian Market Research Bureau International (IMRB) (2012) reported that as of the end of December 2012, there were 122 million active Internet users in India. Active users are defined as those that have accessed the Internet within the past month. At 122 million users, India trails only the United States and China in terms of total Internet users. However, with a total population in excess of 1.25 billion, this penetration rate of less than 10% is far lower than the global average of 43%. Rural Internet Use in India The same report shows that the growth rate of Internet users in rural India is outpacing that of urban India. As the urban market becomes more saturated, this trend is expected to continue. According to the report, rural Internet users increased from 24 million in December 2011 to 38 million at the end of December 2012; an increase in rural Internet users of 58%. During the same time frame, Internet users in urban India increased from 72 million to 84 million, an increase of only 17%.
  4. 4. MOBILE GAMES AND APPLICATIONS IN INDIA 4 140 120 100 80 31 38 24 17 60 72 80 84 67 Jun 2011 40 Dec 2011 Jun 2012 Dec 2012 20 0 Urban Figure 1: Active Internet Users in India, June 2011 to December 2012 in millions. The Internet and Mobile Association of India (IAMAI) and Indian Market Research Bureau International (IMRB) (2012). Many of these new Internet users are accessing the Internet through their mobile devices. The Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) and KPMG International (2012) projected that Internet connections will shift from fixed to mobile over the next four years. It is projected that mobile Internet connections will exceed 392 million connections in 2016, dwarfing the 51 million fixed Internet connections in that year. Rural India is seeing a huge growth in mobile Internet. As per The Internet and Mobile Association of India (IAMAI) and Indian Market Research Bureau International (IMRB), (2012), at the end of June 2012, there were 3.6 million rural mobile Internet users. This is an increase of 720% in the last two years. This huge increase in Internet use in rural India is credited to cheaper data plans offered by the wireless carriers as well as the increased prevalence of low cost smartphones. The rural increase of mobile users combined with continued urban growth, will result in
  5. 5. MOBILE GAMES AND APPLICATIONS IN INDIA 5 mobile devices replacing personal computers as the primary means of accessing the Internet. Smartphone ownership will grow significantly over the coming years. According to The Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) and KPMG International (2012) the number of Internet-enabled smartphones in India will reach 58 million in 2013, more than double the level of 2012 with rapid growth projected to continue through 2016. Other industry experts agree with this assessment. Menezes (2012) quoted Praveen Rajpal, CEO of Handygo Technologies, a mobile value-added service provider, when he said, The demand for mobile Internet via smartphones is rapidly catching up in rural areas. Whereas earlier people in B and C towns would take a year to adapt to a new technology, today, because of the abundance of low-cost data packs, local language content and informative apps like Mandi Bhav1, etc, rural people are having their first Internet experience on the mobile, as handsets are more accessible than cyber cafes in smaller towns. 1 Mandi Bhav is a mobile application that provides access to current rates for various commodities.
  6. 6. MOBILE GAMES AND APPLICATIONS IN INDIA 6 In a report from the global consulting firm McKinsey, Daga, Manual, & Narasimhan (2010) stated, We believe that it’s poised to become a truly mobile-Internet society as new users leapfrog PCs altogether. We project that by 2015, the number of Internet users will increase almost fivefold, to more than 350 million—28% of the population—with more than half of those accessing the Web via mobile phones. Daga, et al (2010) stress that to capture this opportunity, companies will need to roll out wired and wireless broadband networks aggressively, to make smartphones and network access more affordable, and to develop new content types. The Government of India is doing its part. The Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012), set targets for the Telecommunications Sector to provide mobile access to all villages and increase rural teledensity to 70 per cent by 2017. It also targets the creation of a National Optical Fibre Network (NOFN) that would connect the 250,000 Gram Panchayats2 (GPs) in the country through Optical Cable (OFC). This initiative aims to add nearly 100 million broadband connections by 2014. This explosive growth in mobile Internet penetration has the potential to improve the effectiveness of reaching India’s rural community. This is especially true for such sectors as banking, healthcare, education, entertainment, and specific government programs. In order for businesses that profit from mobile activity to take advantage of the opportunity in the rural market that mobile Internet provides, a number of challenges other than network infrastructure will need to be addressed. Merely providing the access and an inexpensive phone is not a guarantee of a comparable increase in usage. Daga, et al (2010) highlights an example of rural Hungary. In Hungary, over 90% of the population can afford 2 Gram Panchayat. (2013, June 16).is a local self-government at the village or small-town level in India, and the Sarpanch governs.
  7. 7. MOBILE GAMES AND APPLICATIONS IN INDIA 7 broadband Internet. However, only about half actually use it due to the limited availability of local digital content and low digital literacy. There is also a need for simpler and more intuitive mobile applications designed specifically with the rural user in mind. These applications must be designed to work with a basic mobile device as those in the rural population are unlikely to be able to afford a sophisticated smartphone. They will require simple graphical interfaces and strong local language support. Related Work Several studies have been conducted on designing mobile games and applications specifically for the market in rural India. Kam, Rudraraju, Tewari, & Canny (2007) evaluated whether or not games designed with game design patterns or without game design patterns were more engaging for children living in rural areas. However, there was an unexpected finding: “the failure to apply patterns in a manner that is contextually and culturally appropriately is likely to bring about poor gameplay experiences”. In other words, more importantly than as to how the game is designed is the culture of the user. Games enjoyed by children in one culture may not necessarily be enjoyed by those in another. Other interesting findings from the study were the following: • Games with brighter colors were preferred; perhaps due to colors having a dominate role in Indian culture and festivals. • A game containing crocodiles was poorly received. The researchers later understood that crocodiles are often villains in Indian mythology. • It is common in games to create time pressure to make games more challenging and engaging. However, this received negative comments from the rural children. This led to recommending game designers adopt an “Easy Fun” approach when designing games for this group.
  8. 8. MOBILE GAMES AND APPLICATIONS IN INDIA • 8 The children sought constant feedback from the adults when performing well in the games. It is therefore vital to take into consideration the existing power structures when creating the games and to create a “pause” button to allow the players to show off their proudest moments. In a second study commissioned by Nokia, Joshi & Avasthi (2007) discuss the fact that the majority of phones interfaces are directly adopted from the realm of computers. However, when the mobile phone may be the first and only interaction with the Internet that the rural user has, there exists a gap between user’s mental model of interaction with the everyday objects and the interaction model of Internet on mobile phones. Given this challenge, they propose a new interaction model for mobile-based browsers in order to provide a good mobile Internet user experience and value-added interactions and services. A second project from Nokia went even further. In this study Sapre (2008) describes his experience with Nokia from 2008 to 2009 in Indian working to understand mobile usage trends and create prototypes of mobile applications that would be useful to people in rural India. Some key findings from the study were: • None of the phones had an interface in the local language. • A higher rate of mobile usage amongst men as compared to women • Children had considerable access to their parents’ phone; often performing tasks for adults such as reading texts and saving contacts. • Most people learned to use their phone from friends, family, or acquaintances. • Many users could not read SMS due to the fact the text was either in English or transliterated in Roman script.
  9. 9. MOBILE GAMES AND APPLICATIONS IN INDIA 9 What all of these papers have in common is the finding that the same application and game design that works in the Western world and even in urban Indian may not always work best in the Indian rural setting. Therefore, in order to take advantages of the growing mobileInternet population in rural Indian, custom applications must be developed keeping the rural user in mind. This need offers a potential opportunity for innovators; it could significantly improve usage among new mobile Internet. It is also the opportunity that this paper will explore. The Market Offering The business services that will be offered are mobile solutions to connect businesses with the rural Indian market. The company will provide design and development of mobile software applications and games using the business operating model of business to businesses (B2B). Business clients currently or plan in the near future, to market, educate or share information with the rural Indian market. The unique selling proposition and key distinguishing factor that sets the company apart from other businesses is that the company provides expert knowledge and understanding of the rural mindset and culture. The company as a B2B solution provider addresses the challenge of creating mobile software that is designed for the rural Indian market, designed with cultural and environmental factors taken into consideration to ensure the highest adoption rates possible. Building the Company Brand Although the industry for designing mobile games and applications is poised for a high growth rate in the coming years, there is little brand awareness in the industry. There are thousands of organizations in India that specialize in developing applications and games for mobile phones and many more companies develop applications in-house. However, there are none that claim to focus on the rural market or even more specifically to understand the
  10. 10. MOBILE GAMES AND APPLICATIONS IN INDIA 10 rural population from a culturally and contextually appropriate mobile perspective. Brand management is a shared responsibility of the entire organisation and therefore, the brand should be built considering the six conventions of corporate branding as laid out by Knox and Bickerton (2003). These are brand context, brand construction, brand confirmation, brand consistency, brand continuity, and brand conditioning. These six conventions stress the importance of brand continuity throughout the organization and how the brand aligns with the values of the customer and the key stakeholders. Brand context. Brand context defines where the brand stands from the aspect of vision, culture, image, and competitive landscape. • Vision - The vision of the company is to develop and deliver innovative mobile application technology to businesses that enhance the well-being of the rural Indian community. • Culture - The culture of the company will be based around the concept of value creation. Applications must create value for our clients and also for the rural consumer. Our applications and games must make the rural consumer’s life better through entertainment, education and information, influencing positive behaviours, or making their life easier. • Competitive Landscape -There are several organizations that have developed specialized applications for the rural market. These include: - Reverie Language Technologies develops technology to translate English texts into local languages. - Plustxt has created a text messaging application that works with many of the local Indian languages. - Newshunt has an application that offers local language news.
  11. 11. MOBILE GAMES AND APPLICATIONS IN INDIA - 11 m.Panni designs and implements mobile-based loyalty programs that empower underserved communities. The company focuses in the areas of safe water, education, healthcare, energy, nutrition and mobility. - Nano Ganesh is a GSM mobile-based remote control system that allows farmers to use their mobile phone to control their irrigation pumps. It is important to note that these companies either market their own application rather than their services as application developers. This is a distinction that will need to be clear. To conclude brand context, it is important to note that in order to properly monitor the context of your brand, surveys of key stakeholders should be held at least yearly. Brand construction. Brand construction describes how the brand is positioned in accordance to customer and stakeholder value. Knox and Bickerton (2003) state that brand construction should be developed from an understanding of the key stakeholders’ value drivers. Key stakeholders would include customers, users, employees, and potential employees. Other stakeholders could include the press, the government, and non-government organizations (NGOs). Brand confirmation. Brand confirmation is the way the brand is articulated to the rest of the organization and all of its audiences. It will be important to work with members throughout the organization to develop agreed statements and language that best describe the brand position. This broad-based involvement should help to gain the commitment of the organization to a common message. Brand consistency. Brand consistency describes delivering clarity to all stakeholders through its communication channels. Once the common language and message set forth in the brand confirmation stage is determined, it is important to communicate consistently
  12. 12. MOBILE GAMES AND APPLICATIONS IN INDIA 12 through all channels, be they formal or informal. Knox and Bickerton (2003) suggest creating a measurement tool upon which all corporate communication is measured. Brand continuity. Brand continuity is the alignment of business processes with the corporate brand. In order to achieve brand continuity it is important that everything the business says, does, and communicates has a consistent "look and feel". To do this all business processes that help deliver the promises to customers must be aligned through all departments, suppliers, intermediaries, etc., as all of these pay an important role in the service experience. Brand conditioning. Brand conditioning is the ability to monitor and manage the brand on a continual basis. Companies must ensure that their brand retains significance and uniqueness as it relates to the values of their customers and other stakeholders. Knox and Bickerton (2003) suggest creating a hierarchy of customer and stakeholder values and overlay them against those of the corporate brand and ensure the company is delivering these needs. This is important to perform on a regular basis as companies need to adapt to evolving needs of customers and ever growing competition. It would be important for a company designing mobile games and applications for the rural market to condition its brand against both customers and the end users in the rural community. Building a Brand in Rural India Ali, Thumiki & Khan (2012) show that the consumer in rural India is fiercely brand loyal. It is therefore important to build a strong brand. Seshadri (2005) lists five attributes that he believes must be built into your brand if you are to be successful in rural India. These are build customization, build empathy/relevance, build recognition, build word-of-mouth, and build access.
  13. 13. MOBILE GAMES AND APPLICATIONS IN INDIA 13 Build customization. Many companies make the mistake of making available to the rural market the same mobile games and applications that have a high usage rate in the urban markets. If they do modify the game or application, they often simply strip down some of the frills and reformat for a smaller screen. Similarly, many companies treat the rural consumer as a single, homogenous market. There is considerable diversity within the regions that must also be considered. Customer mobile games and applications must be developed that deliver experiences tailored to their specific needs, values, and preferences while overcoming the challenges unique to the rural environment. In order to do so, the following challenges will need to be addressed: • Language - A key challenge to overcome is language. The first 100 million users in India are English-speaking users. In order to go forward companies must create more vernacular content. Sapre (2008) and the team from Nokia replaced words with pictures whenever possible. • Data – Many of the current applications and games use a relatively large amount of data. While data rates are expected to fall in the future, many of the applications that make up the smartphone experience will still be too data heavy. It is crucial that mobile applications for the rural market use as little bandwidth as possible. • Connectivity- Connectivity also remains an issue in many parts of rural India. Applications must also be designed to work whether or not they are connected to the network. • Pricing – Despite the growing interest in mobile games and applications, consumers are still inhibited by price. Comviva (2009) found that the average cost per game download in India is roughly Rs. 50. However, they also found that the majority of prepaid mobile customers keep a balance of between Rs. 10 and Rs. 30. To be
  14. 14. MOBILE GAMES AND APPLICATIONS IN INDIA 14 successful, companies must come up with better pricing models. For example, session-based use would allow the user a limited number of sessions with the game or application for a lesser price. Subscription pricing is another option. In this model, the user pays a small monthly fee to continue using the application. Finally, as we will discuss in the build access section, bundling mobile applications and games with the telecom service is also an option. Build “word-of-mouth”. It is important to build word-of-mouth of your brand. In rural communities, very strong homogeneous bonds are formed. Rural consumers are therefore largely influenced by family and friends within the village. It is important to identify the proper groups to build strong word-of-mouth. For mobile applications the village youth are vitally important as opinion leaders and demand generators. Sapre (2008) found that children have significant access to their parent’s phone and often help with technical tasks. Rural children are also getting more and more access to technology in the classroom. The Aakash is an inexpensive tablet aimed specifically at the rural student community. Firstpost (2013) recently reported that 150,000 rural students in Punhab will receive Aakash tablets. Children can and many will bring awareness to their parents of the available technologies as well as help them to understand how to use it. Another excellent way of generating word-of-mouth is through partnering with welltrusted NGOs and governmental organizations. Lifebuoy did this successfully when it teamed up with the Government of India and UNICEF in a campaign to promote hand washing to change hygiene behavior to prevent certain disease. Additionally, a press release in The Wall Street Journal (2013) reports that Merck and Safe Water Network, an NGO co-
  15. 15. MOBILE GAMES AND APPLICATIONS IN INDIA 15 founded in 2006 by actor and philanthropist Paul Newman, are using tablet-based mobile applications to build awareness of and demand for safe water in rural communities. Figure3: Safe Water Network's station operator helps consumers in the village of Thodellagudem experience Tablet messaging. (PR News Foto, 2013). Other excellent groups to target to generate positive word-of-mouth are religious groups and women. Rajan (2010) also recommends building strong word-of-mouth for a brand through executing customized events within the village revolving around the core message of a brand. A publisher of mobile games might have a puppet show for the children using the main characters in their game and then have a competition afterwards. Build empathy/relevance. For the design of mobile games and applications, building empathy and relevance means developing applications that delivering experiences tailored to the needs, values, and preferences of the rural consumer. In other words, it needs to be rooted in their culture. The brand must be seen as delivering value to the community; whether through entertainment, knowledge and education, or simply making their life easier. An example of such applications could be mobile games developed based upon India’s Rural Olympics formerly known as Kila Raipur Sports Festival. Unique mobile games based upon
  16. 16. MOBILE GAMES AND APPLICATIONS IN INDIA 16 events such as getting run over by a tractor, seeing how many bricks you can pick up with your teeth, or the bullock cart race could be more relevant to the rural community than Angry Birds. Build recognition. Seshadri (2005) discusses two key issues the must be addressed when building brand recognition in rural India. The first is rip-off or counterfeit brands and the other is the needs to physically demonstrate the use of the product. Counterfeit brands are those that attempt to leverage the brand cognition of another brand by duplicating many of the same features and designs of that brand. Applications with similar names and similar logos are easily confused. In order to minimize this risk, it is advised that when building brands for the rural market that companies include the brand name in the local language or local symbolism. In addition to this frequent communications to draw the consumer’s attention to the brand are also advised to minimize these fake encounters. The second challenge of demonstrating the proper use of the product can be addressed by demonstration and training of local experts. Demonstrations help to bring awareness of the brand by arousing the villager’s interest and bringing to his attention the value of your product. Seshadri (2005) uses the story of CavinKare to highlight this challenge. CavinKare found that though their shampoos were getting encouraging trials from the rural consumers, the penetration levels were extremely low. Many rural consumers had no clue how to use a shampoo. CavinKare’s team traveled extensively in rural pockets, caught hold of school boys to demonstrate how to lather, wash and comb hair! This exercise had a significant impact and made the rural consumer comfortable with the concept of using a shampoo. Sapre (2008) found that most mobile users learned to use their device from friends and family. It is reasonable to assume that the same would hold true for mobile applications
  17. 17. MOBILE GAMES AND APPLICATIONS IN INDIA 17 and games. Here again, due to their more frequent interactions with technology, the youth of the village are excellent sources of local trainers. Referencing back to building customization, it is also critical that development standards be developed so that terminology and interactions is consistent across all applications. This will aid in the transfer of knowledge from one application to the next. In a recent study, Accenture (2013) surveyed executives at Indian firms as to the most common marketing initiatives they were undertaking to promote their brand and their offerings in rural India. The results are summarized in the table below. Figure 4: Marketing and communication initiatives for promoting offerings in rural India. Accenture (2013). Build access. The best brand building in the world is useless if your target market cannot access your product or service. Accenture (2013) states that 75% of executives believe that collaborative channels will become a dominant force in the future. However, only 4 % say their organizations are doing so. Regardless, a multi-pronged approach to reach rural consumers is recommended.
  18. 18. MOBILE GAMES AND APPLICATIONS IN INDIA 18 An obvious choice for collaboration would be the mobile carriers. Increased competition among various telecom operators, are driving mobile telecom operators in India toward providing more value added services such as mobile games and applications. Downloading an application to a mobile device can be as easy as sending a text message that returns a link to the application. Many rural-Indian mobile users have already engaged in some form of commerce on mobile devices such as downloading ringtones, music, or wallpapers. Therefore, for many rural-Indian mobile users, there is already a trust factor. However, as the mobile carriers have the billing right with the customers; it is important to ensure the proper revenue share is determined. Another distribution opportunity is the direct download of the game or application to the user’s mobile device. Obviously, this is more labor intensive. Not only does it require someone to load the application to the device, it must also consider different types of phones and data connections. If this route is chosen, excellent choices to do this would be through mobile-phone showrooms and shops. A study by Manglik, Ranjan, Narsalay, & Falk (2010), shows that 64% of rural customers prefer to buy their mobile device at a shop in the city, and another 26% prefer to buy them in a shop in a nearby town or village. Rural customers also prefer to go to exclusive mobile phone showrooms to buy their devices. These showrooms also offer excellent opportunities to advertise the mobile game and applications. Other important distribution points for physical delivery of mobile games and applications that cannot be overlooked are the haats and the melas. Haats are temporary markets that are held on average once a week in a location central to a large number of villages. Due to this fact, haats offer an opportunity to meet with a larger number of consumers. Melas are similar to haats, but are scheduled less regularly and many have
  19. 19. MOBILE GAMES AND APPLICATIONS IN INDIA 19 themes. As with haats, they are an excellent opportunity to meet with a larger number of consumers. Conclusion Rural Internet use is on the rise. The Internet and Mobile Association of India (IAMAI) and Indian Market Research Bureau International (IMRB) (2012) reported that rural Internet users increased from 24 million in December 2011 to 38 million at the end of December 2012; an increase in rural Internet user of 58%. Due to the lack of personal computers, many of the rural users have leapfrogged that technology and are accessing the Internet through their mobile phones. At the end of June 2012, there were 3.6 million rural mobile Internet users. This is an increase of 720% in the last two years. Daga, et al (2010) predict that by 2015, the number of Internet users will increase to more than 350 million with more than half of those accessing the Web via mobile phones. As demand for mobile Internet grows, so will demand for mobile games and applications. However, research has shown that mobile game and application design that works in the Western world and even in urban Indian may not always work best in the Indian rural setting. Therefore, in order to take advantage of the growing mobile-Internet population in rural India, custom applications must be developed keeping the rural user in mind. This paper has highlighted a number of the key challenges businesses will face when creating applications for rural consumers. It also walked through the steps necessary to build a brand around this service and how the games and applications can be marketed to a rural consumer. In conclusion, market research demonstrates a company focused on creating mobile applications and games for the rural Indian population would fill a gap in the mobile development arena. The need for custom applications creates an opportunity for entrepreneurs and entrepreneurial companies that are ready to embrace the technological
  20. 20. MOBILE GAMES AND APPLICATIONS IN INDIA 20 innovations of this century and have a strong desire to understand the rich cultural population of rural India.
  21. 21. MOBILE GAMES AND APPLICATIONS IN INDIA 21 References Ali, M. A., Thumiki, V. R. R., & Khan, N. A. (2012). Factors Influencing Purchase of FMCG by Rural Consumers in South India: An Empirical Study. International Journal of Business Research and Development (IJBRD), 1(1). Comviva (2009). Realizing Potential of Mobile Gaming (White Paper). Retrieved from Comviva website: Firstpost (2013, May 29). 150,000 students in rural Punjab to get Aakash tablets worth Rs 110 crore. Retrieved from Gram Panchayat. (2013, June 16). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved June 21, 2013, from website: Jain, V., & Pant, S. (2012). NAVIGATING GENERATION Y FOR EFFECTIVE MOBILE MARKETING IN INDIA: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK. International Journal Of Mobile Marketing, 7(3), 56-65. Joshi, D., & Avasthi, V. (2007). Position Paper–Mobile Internet UX for Developing Countries. In Workshop on mobile Internet user experience. Kam, M., Rudraraju, V., Tewari, A., & Canny, J. (2007). Mobile gaming with children in rural India: Contextual factors in the use of game design patterns. In Proceedings of 3rd Digital Games Research Association International Conference. M.Panni (2012). m.paani. Retrieved from Manglik, H., Ranjan, K., Narsalay, R., & Falk, S. (2010). Wanted: New Business Models for Profitable Expansion of Mobile Telephony in Rural India. Journal of Technology
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  23. 23. MOBILE GAMES AND APPLICATIONS IN INDIA 23 Simon Knox, David Bickerton, (2003) "The six conventions of corporate branding", European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 37 Iss: 7/8, pp.998 – 1016. The Wall Street Journal (2013, May 21). Using Tablets in Rural India to Build Demand for Safe Water - Retrieved from