Louis kahn& kenzo tange


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Louis kahn& kenzo tange

  1. 1. • Louis Isadore Kahn (February 20, 1901 – March 17, 1974) was an American architect, based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.• After working in various capacities for several firms in Philadelphia, he founded his own atelier in 1935.• While continuing his private practice, he served as a design critic and professor of architecture at Yale School of Architecture from 1947 to 1957.• From 1957 until his death, he • Louis Kahns works are was a professor of architecture at considered as the School of Design at the monumental beyond University of Pennsylvania. modernism. 2• Influenced by ancient ruins,
  2. 2. IDEOLOGIES &PHILOSOPHIES• Kahns architecture is notable • He was also concerned for its simple, platonic forms with creating strong and compositions. formal distinctions• Through the use of brick and between served spaces poured-in place concrete and servant spaces. masonry, he developed a • The servant spaces are contemporary and spaces that serve other monumental architecture that spaces, such as maintained a sympathy for the stairwells, corridors, site; that responded to the restrooms, or any other Human scale. back-of-house function• Louis Kahns work infused the like storage space or INTERNATIONAL STYLE with mechanical rooms. a fastidious, highly personal • His palette of materials taste, a poetry of light. His few tended toward heavily projects reflect his deep textured brick and bare 3
  3. 3. • Another important connection that can be derived from his designs is his affinity towards water.• Most of his planning projects are somehow related to the peace achieved In the Salk institute the two laboratory blocks frame out of a large an exquisite view of the Pacific Ocean, accentuated stretch of water or by a thin linear fountain that seems to reach for the the spaces horizon. This view itself gives a divine feeling of focusing towards peace, endlessness. a distant stretch of water. 4
  4. 4. MAJOR WORKS • YALE UNIVERSITY ART GALLERY, New Haven, Connecticut • THE SALK INSTITUTE, La Jolla, California IIM, Ahmedabad • INDIAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT, Ahmedabad, in Ahmedabad, India • KIMBELL ART MUSEUM, Fort Worth, Texas, • JATIYO SANGSHADJatiyo Sangshad Bhaban BHABAN (National constructed as if on a pool of water Assembly Building) in 5
  5. 5. • Kahn reveals his penchant for repetitive geometries, with a concrete ceiling cast in a triangular pattern and concealing the lighting and mechanical systems above.Interior of Yale Art Gallery • This motif isThis separation of mechanical functions repeated at ainto their own distinct volume above the grand scale in theceiling was just the beginning of Kahn’s building’sexplorations of a building’s served and monumentalservant spaces staircase, which6
  6. 6. Interior of the National AssemblyInterior of Exeter Academy Library building in Dhaka, Bangladesh 7
  7. 7. YA L E C E N T E R F O R B R I• The beautifully detailed interior finishes are travertine marble, white oak, and Belgian linen.• The plan is based on a 20-foot- square grid, which creates a linear series of rectangular gallery spaces arranged around two inner courts which, like the entire top floor, are naturally lit from above through a coffered skylight system.• One court forms the entrance foyer and one a main three- storey high gallery space with large paintings.• The interior of the building is a calm, light-filled space. 8
  8. 8. • The transition to the interior is met by a mix of elemental spatial and material evolutions. • The entrance sequence proceeds from outdoor expanse through a covered exterior space and into an interior courtyard with expansive ceilings.• The warm brushed metal panels carry to the interior but are mingled with warm wooden cladding in a glowing top-lit space. the Yale center for Interiors of British Art 9
  9. 9. Interior of the National Parliament Assembly building (Jatio Shôngshod Bhôbon) in Dhaka, BangladeshInterior of the sanctuaryat First Unitarian Church 10
  10. 10. Interior Prayer Hall, Sher-e-BanglaNagar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Fisher House – Interior viewNational Assembly Building of Living room 11
  11. 11. Interior of the Kimbell Art Museum - Lightcreating illusions of depth of field. It cancreate drama, a sense of openness, and a senseof spirituality 12
  12. 12. Interior views of the Esherick house 13
  13. 13. Interior views of theEsherick house 14
  14. 14. KENZO TANGE 15
  15. 15. • Kenzo Tange (4 September 1913 – 22 March 2005) was a Japanese architect, and winner of the 1987 Pritzker Prize for architecture.• He was one of the most significant architects of the 20th century, combining traditional Japanese styles with modernism, and designed major buildings on five continents. "Architecture must have• Tange was also an influential something that appeals to the protagonist of the structuralist human heart, but even then, basic forms, spaces and movement. appearances must be logical.• He said: "It was, I believe, Creative work is expressed in around 1959 or at the beginning our time as a union of of the sixties that I began to technology and humanity". 16 think about what I was later to
  16. 16. • Tange(1913-2005) was a • Kenzo Tanges work marked legendary figure in a revived awareness of modern Japanese Japanese architectural architecture. traditions expressed through• Influenced by Le a contemporary interpretation Corbusier , was a master of architectural form. in the use of reinforced • Tange demonstrated that a concrete. unique regionalism could be• Kenzo Tange, as well as developed, and recognized, most architects of Tanges within the circumstance of the generation, was greatly international style. influenced by the • Kenzo tange was considered principles of the CIAM and to be the Pioneer in the the individuals identified movement known as with that organization “METABOLISM”. including Le Corbusier, • The movement took that Walter Gropius, and name because, distancing 17 Siegfried Giedion. away from modernism,
  17. 17. • Their vision for cities of the future inhabited by a mass society were characterized by large scale, flexible and expandable structures that evoked the processes of organic growth.• In their view, the traditional laws of fixed form and function were obsolete.• Metabolism arose in post- World War II Japan, and much of the work produced by the movement is concerned with housing issues.• Besides the architecture and urbanism, art was deeply 18
  18. 18. MAJOR WORKS• Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum, Hiroshima• Yoyogi National Gymnasium for the 1964 Summer Olympics, Tokyo• St. Marys Cathedral (Tokyo Cathedral) , Tokyo• UOB Plaza in Singapore• Fuji Television HQ Building, Odaiba, Tokyo• Kagawa Prefectural Gymnasium, Japan• Tokyo Metropolitan Government Building.• Nanyang Technological UOB Plaza in Singapore University, Singapore, 1986 19• Hwa Chong Institution Boarding
  19. 19. Shinjuku Citizens PlazaKagawa Prefectural Gymnasium, Japan Fuji Television HQ Building, Tokyo 20
  20. 20. Mode Gakuen Cocoon Fukuoka Bank’s head Shizuoka Press andTower, shinjuku office, Kenzo Tange (1975). Broadcasting Center, Tokyo 21
  21. 21. Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum - The rhythmical facade comprises vertical elements that repeat outwards fromKenzo Tange’s own the centre.House - it is fusedwith a moretraditionalJapanese designthat uses timberand paper. Thehouse is based onthe traditional 22
  22. 22. S t . M A RY ’ S C AT H E D R A L , TO K The plan • YO of the building is in the form of a cross, from which eight hyperbolic parabolas rise up. • These open upwards to form a cross of light which continues vertically the length of the four facades. • To this rhomboid• Their rectangular volumes contrast with the symbolic character volume other of the cathedral. The bell tower is 60 m in height and stands at secondary a little distance from the main building of the cathedral. constructions are• The exterior surfaces are clad in stainless steel, which gives added, including the them a special radiance in keeping with the religious character 23 baptistery and the
  23. 23. • The cathedral is based, as many ancient Christian churches, in a cross layout.• The arms of the cross measure 55.5 and 40 meters respectively.• However, contrary to what is seen in the West, Tange depressed the cruise raising each of the arms of the cross to a height of 39.4 m. Simplicity & elegance in the exterior surface coating. 24
  24. 24. 25
  25. 25. Interior of St Marys Cathedral, Tokyo Stained Glass behind the Altar The Nave 26
  26. 26. • The exposed concrete also symbolizes a biblical concept: "The Lord is my rock and my fortress in whom I take refuge” .... • Hence, the architect wants to express strength in its proposal, which at the same time seemsLight, volume and texture, masterfully to levitate through its sculpturaldominated by Tange. form. • While the exterior facade catches the eye due to its metal tones, especially glaring on a sunny day, the interior captivates with its grim tones The grim concrete texture evokes the Japanese concept of wabi sabi. just like and unfinished texture, the Japanese concept of wabi sabi , that is the aesthetic 27
  27. 27. TO K Y O M E T R O P O L I TA N G O V E R N M E N T B U I• Looking more like the home • This building has a of a global corporate giant unique superstructure than the local city council, this that disperses the office complex reflects the energy inflicted on it by modern Asian architectural violent natural acts. sensibility. • Instead of swaying with• In some ways its twin 48- a quake or wind, the story towers even mirror the building twists, allowing famed PETRONAS Towers in more energy to be Malaysia. absorbed and expended• The buildings towering height while at the same time is the result of Japans late minimizing actual linear 20th century economic boom movement. when land values soared and it seemed like the money would never stop flowing. 28• Tokyo wanted to demonstrate
  28. 28. TO K Y O M E T R O P O L I TA N G O V E R N M E N T B U I 29
  29. 29. Y O Y O G I N AT I O N A L G Y M N A S I U M , TO K Y O• The Yoyogi National Gymnasium in Tokyo, built for the Olympics in 1964, is the most famous work by the Japanese architect Kenzo Tange.• Its aerodynamic, monumental and suggestive design became an icon of the Japanese capital and a benchmark in the Metabolist Movement distancing himself from the International Style. 30• When it was completed,
  30. 30. • The complex consists of 2 buildings, and both stand out by their quality of their structures as well as the innovation of their design, by using high technology in a country constantly shaken by strong winds and earthquakes.• The two gyms are placed in a landscaped platform. In fact, despite their monumental size,• they givecapacity for 10,000 the With a the impression that people, the main gym can accommodates the park itself, roofs are bornswimming events, but also basketball and hockey games. emphasizing its relationship with• the surrounding environment.roofs of the two gyms use a CONCEPT : The elegant contemporary language and a similar structural logic: they are suspended by two large steel cables. Both axes are arranged in an east-west, which is also the predominant direction of 31 plot.
  31. 31. • The structural concept is based on a main spine that consists of two steel cables 13 " in diameter, anchored to two large slabs of concrete on either end of the building and to two structural towers.• Cables describe a parabolic curve (technically, it is called catenary) from which smaller wires are placed perpendicularly, to form a tent- like roof.• The roof over stands, having a different curvature from that of the cables, generates an elegant and graceful roofing 32 structure, whose surface,
  32. 32. • Kenzo Tange takes advantage of the gap between the two curves to propose an imposing triangular access, which, despite having a monumental scale, seem to be born of the earth, giving the building a feeling of lightness.• Both accesses are preceded by concourses or squares, which are distinguished from the rest of the • Another detail that park by a small atrium. provides visual lightness to the structure is the graceful cantilevers containing the stands that give the impression that the building would increase. 33 • These stands also
  33. 33. Kenzo Tange designed thesefour elements to be usedtogether or separately asdetermined by need. Eachpiece can be turned on edge oron end and utilzed as stools,tables or shelves. 34