Himachal & nagaland


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Himachal & nagaland

  1. 1. NORTHERN & EASTERN INDIA Factors influencing the planning aspects, materials of construction & constructional details of: • KASHMIR – Typical Kutcha houses, mosque, Dhoongas(Boathouses), Ladakhi houses, bridges. • HIMACHAL PRADESH – Kinnaur houses • UTTAR PRADESH – Domestic housing of Uttar Pradesh • BENGAL – Bangla (Rural house form), Aat Chala houses – change from Bangla to Bungalow, Kutcha & Pucca architecture of Bengal. • NAGALAND – Naga houses & Naga village, Khasi houses1 VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE
  2. 2. VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF HIMACHAL PRADESH2 Vernacular Architecture of Northern India
  3. 3. • Kinnaur is one of the 12 administrative districts of Himachal Pradesh, India. • The district is divided into three administrative areas and has five tehsils (counties). • The administrative headquarter of Kinnaur district is at Reckong Peo. • It is the second least populous district of Himachal Pradesh (out of 12), after Lahaul and Spiti. • Kinnaur, is sharply divided between a lower valley section, which is damp and well forested; and Upper, arid and bare. • The geographical location and the vegetation of the state played an imperative role in the evolution and development of various architectural forms.3 Ve r n a c u l a r A r c h i t e c t u r e O f H P
  4. 4. • The architecture of HP is unique in character from the rest of India. • HINDUISM is the dominant religion of the place and hence is the major factor to determine the architectural style and form. • The indigenous form of architecture of • The architecture of the houses are dictated by traditional Himachal is known as rituals, beliefs and ceremonies. the “Kathkuni “ style • The cedar forests have made the construction of wooden of architecture. structures possible which endures long periods of weather & corrosion.4 Ve r n a c u l a r A r c h i t e c t u r e O f K a s h m i r
  5. 5. • The house form is similar in both, but it varies in the use of materials. • In the lower Kinnaur the houses are two storeyed and built of stone and wood- since abundant timber • is available.either slated roofs or having flat roofs made of layers of bhojpatra (tree These are bark) covered with earth. • The doors are often folding and open inwards. • Initially no mortar was used to consolidate the walls. • The floor is made of wooden planks.5 Vernacular Architecture of HP
  6. 6. • In upper Kinnaur the houses are usually built of stone. • These are flat roofed and covered with earth. • They are ill- built on account of the scarcity of wood. • The houses are two storeyed and doors are small. • The ground floor is used as cattle shed and upper storey for living purposes. • The houses are white washed in lower as well as upper Kinnaur. • The flooring is made of mud and dung.6 Ve r n a c u l a r A r c h i t e c t u r e O f H P
  7. 7. • Lower floor – for livestock & for local • The inner walls are mud plastered craftsmen having their workshops. and white washed. • Upper floors – Living Area surrounded • Urch – Granary – built away from by extended wooden balconies. the main house. • Roofing – Rough wooden planks covered • Usually the households have some with a skin of bark on which a thick wooden chest for keeping grain and layer of mud is spread. dried fruits. • Each floor consists of a single large • In addition most of the houses have space, where there is no division for separate wooden grain storage sleeping, washing or cooking areas. structures locally called Kathar. • The Meiling – Hearth- set in the center, • Khayarcha is a mat used for sitting • Dusrang – a hole in the roof ; above purposes, which is made of goats the hearth; to allow smoke to escape hair. and some light to penetrate. • Pakpa which is skin of sheep or goat • In case of rain or snow, the dusrang is or some wild animal as often placed closed with a stone or a plank. on khayarcha for sitting.7 Ve r n a c u l a r A r c h i t e c t u r e O f H P
  8. 8. Traditional wood & stone walling8 Ve r n a c u l a r A r c h i t e c t u r e O f H P
  9. 9. Stone wall- without mortar Wooden Walls9 Ve r n a c u l a r A r c h i t e c t u r e O f H P
  10. 10. VERNACUL AR ARC HITECTURE OF N AGAL AND1 Vernacular Architecture of Northern India
  11. 11. • One of Indias most colourful states is Nagaland, located on the eastern margin of the Himalayan range in Northeast India. • Nagaland is home to a range of colourful tribes, such as Angamies, Tangsas, Chakesangs, a nd so on. • Nagas are hill dwellers and their settlements are highly inaccessible as they are located on hill slopes or the highest possible points along a hill slope. • Naga village patterns differ from group to group, ranging from disperse, terrace to linear arrangement of houses.1 Ve r n a c u l a r A r c h i t e c t u r e o f N a g a l a n d
  12. 12. • A typical Naga house has an elongated rectangular plan, a short side forming the side. • A few tribes build in circular shapes as well. • The house traditionally faces eastern direction. Plan of a typical Naga House • Broad wooden boards forming the house front are often elaborate carved.1 Ve r n a c u l a r A r c h i t e c t u r e o f N a g a l a n d
  13. 13. • The subjects are the carvings are usually from wildlife, hornbill and the horns of a mithan (bison) being very popular. • Each beast has a ritual or mythological significance. • The roof is thatched with paddy straw or palm leaves; the wealthier tiled their roofs with wooden shingles. • The interior is divided by a number of woven wall panels to create rooms. • This housing type has very limited openings. There is only one entrance. Some houses have a rear or side exit as well in their houses. • Generally, there is no window and there is no provision for ventilation, making the house very dark inside. • A kitchen and a place for pounding and husking rice are found inside the entrance, with the sleeping rooms towards the rear side.1 Ve r n a c u l a r A r c h i t e c t u r e o f N a g a l a n d
  14. 14. • Machan, is an unroofed area on stilts; usually • Un-husked grains are stored in at the back of the house, constructed so that it large granaries. projects over a slope. • They are built either singly or in• In dry weather, it acts as extra living space as clusters at the edge of a khel or a well as a drying platform. weaving also takes village, at some distance away place here in some houses as it is well lit. from the house; as a precaution• At one side of the platform, a lavatory is found. from fire.• Below the projection is a pig sty.1 Ve r n a c u l a r A r c h i t e c t u r e o f N a g a l a n d
  15. 15. • The Naga tribes are expert craftsmen. • Their dwellings are made of wood and straw and these are ornately carved and arranged. • Each tribe has a unique way of constructing their huts. • A common practice among all the tribes is decorating the entrances of their dwellings with the heads of buffaloes. Decoration of Naga Houses1 Ve r n a c u l a r A r c h i t e c t u r e o f N a g a l a n d
  16. 16. The Hearth - Heat from the hearth is used to dry the fire wood. Loft above the hearth - is used to dry the firewood and to store utensils etc.1 Ve r n a c u l a r A r c h i t e c t u r e o f N a g a l a n d
  17. 17. Timber posts are embedded directly into the ground Connection details in the roof understructure1 Ve r n a c u l a r A r c h i t e c t u r e o f N a g a l a n d
  18. 18. Interior of the King’s room Master Living Room1 Ve r n a c u l a r A r c h i t e c t u r e o f N a g a l a n d
  19. 19. Various Traditional Houses1 Ve r n a c u l a r A r c h i t e c t u r e o f N a g a l a n d