Chettinad style

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Chettinad style

  1. 1. TRADITIONAL ART&ARCHITECTURE OF CHETTINAD Culture &
  2. 2.  SOCIAL LIFE OF NAGARATHARS SALIENT FEATURES OF A CHETTINAD HOUSE TRADITIONS IN ARTS & CRAFTS SPACE, FUNCTION & CLIMATE RESPONSIVENESS COLUMNS, PARAPETS AND CORNICES RAJAS’ PALACE IN KANADUKATHAN NAGARATHAR HOUSES IN KARAIKUDI. Culture &
  3. 3. Culture &
  4. 4. • C H E T T I N A D is a region of the Sivaganga district of southern Tamil Nadu state, India.• K A R A I K U D I is known as the capital of Chettinad, which includes Karaikudi and 74 (traditionally its said as 96) other villages.• Since Chettinad was strategically located on the old trade route, the Chettiars left their homes to work as traders and moneylenders in Burma, Ceylon (Sri Lanka), Malaysia, Singapore, Vietnam and other South-East Asian countries.• They prospered, returned Culture & home & built massive homes
  5. 5. • Nagarathars are an exclusive • Since the 1970s, many have clan, famous for their become professionals, enterprise, hard work and entrepreneurs and industrialists. contributions to society. • While the Nagarathars still see• They earned money by their roots in Chettinad, over the crossing the seas and their years, they have been moving business acumen made them away from ancient traditions and successful and prosperous. customs.• Their social life is Unique. At the apex of the family household, is the “Aachi” the senior most female in the house.• She controlled, if not every thing, the finances of the household.• As a result of their traveling, the Chettiars integrated Culture & diverse influences into their traditions which contributed
  6. 6. CHETTINAD CUISINE• Chettinad is known for its Culinary delicacies• Traditionally, meals for Chettiars are served on a large banana leaf with rice, vegetables, pickles, papadams, along with meat dishes.• Chettiars are very superstitious with numbers, dishes have to be served in odd numbers (i.e. seven or nine dishes per meal).• Although the Chettiars are well-known for their delicious vegetarian preparations, their recipes include fish and meats also.• Chettinad can be considered as the master chefs who prepare food that reflects the Chettinad cuisine traditionally eaten on excellence of leaf (vaazhai ilai) for in the a banana South Indian look Culture & preparation and serving of food.
  7. 7. The colorful Rituals inTraditional Weddings Culture &
  8. 8. around 9 clan temples. EachC U S T O M S & Chettiar Icommunitymember of the TRAD TIONSbelongs to a clan and each clan hasits own temple.• AYA N N A R S H R I N E SAyannar is the Tamil God “ofeverything ": rain maker, god ofchildren, cattle, villages, earth,nature and villagers. He is present inrural areas. His abodes are notnecessarily temples but outdoorshrines that are filled with terra-cottaofferings.• MARIAMMAN TEMPLESMariamman, the Goddess ofsmallpox, is the deity of life,especially of women and children.She grants children and cures them.The main festivals take place duringthe months of Culture & March and
  9. 9. • E S T I VA L SFD E E PAVA L I - On Deepavali day, there is a grand festive lighting of traditional lamps by the achis (the Chettiar wives). The lamps are placed with other consecrated offerings on banana leaves. • N AVA R AT R I - Navaratri is the celebration of Goddesses Lakshmi, Saraswati, and Durga, the manifestations of Shakti (Female Energy or Power). Customarily, the Navaratri festival or „Nine Nights festival‟ is the culmination of nine days and nignts of joyful celebrations when the women of a Culture & household celebrated . are particularly
  10. 10. Temple Festival – the 5decorated gods,Panchamurthi - theannual procession inopen bullock carts Vaikasi Visakam – carrying of kavadi, Fire walking & piercing the body with long needles & sharp hooks Culture &
  11. 11. Sevvai(Tuesday)Pongal- Puravi Edupu – Horse festival –celebrated on first Tuesday of beseeching the rain gods for Culture &pongal, the harvest festival their mercy
  12. 12. AT H A N G U D I T I L E S• Athangudi tiles are prepared by a unique process in which local soil along with cement, baby jelly and synthetic oxides are used.• The tiles are cast from the locally available clay that is first burnt and then glazed.• It is the play of base colours with typical conventional flora and line-drawing Culture &
  13. 13. STREET VIEWS Culture &
  14. 14. ARTS & CRAFTS OF CHETTINADCulture &
  15. 15. • The arts & crafts of Chettinad occupy a distinct position in South Indian folklore.• Wood carving, silver embellishment, woven saris, palm- leaf baskets, gold jewellery, hand- made tiles, architectural styles, Traditional Jewellery refined cuisine and egg plastering are among their more visible contributions to the wide-ranging Traditional thaali - repertoire of Indian arts and crafts. Marriage necklace• Chettinad baskets has a special attraction as they have intricate Intricate wooden carved patterns made with date-palm doorframe leaves. Twin Chettinad baskets woven in fine silver Culture &
  16. 16. Ornamental wooden carving Kandanghi sarees- hand woven Kidarams-big water storage vessel Sombu - Brass vesselPalmyra Spitoons- Craftedleaf Echilpanickam aruvamanaiBaskets –‘Kottans’& Culture &‘Koodais’
  17. 17. The Traditional Wooden Dolls – The Chettiar & The AchiUse of Burmese teak and multi-colortiles for cupboards.• A special feature of any chettinad house is the decorative art of "Kolam" practiced everyday at dawn on the cleansed threshold of the house.• During auspicious days and especially on lifecycle rituals like Nadu veetu kolam birth and marriage Culture & related
  18. 18. ARCHITECTURE OF CHETTINAD Culture &
  19. 19. TYPICAL NAGARATHAR HOUSES• Most Chettiar mansions • They later expanded vertically comprised of a public into two-storeyed structures, and reception area abutting the horizontally through the addition street. of numerous halls and courtyards• The basic floor plan of a that could accommodate guests Chettinad house consists of at marriages and other an outside verandah (thinnai) ceremonies. for guests, • The rear hall served as the• with a room for conducting women‟s domain where the business on one or both women of the community reared ends; children, engaged in food• an interior courtyard to be preservation and went about used in ceremonies, with a other domestic activities. raised seating area at one or both ends;• a series of small double rooms opening off the main Culture & courtyard, for storage, prayer
  20. 20. • Chettinad architecture stands out for its use of large spaces in halls and courtyards, ornate embellishmen ts like Belgian glasswork, intricate woodwork, spectacular ceramic tiles, stone, iron and wooden pillars like ItalianTiles nothing else Culture &
  21. 21. existed in the older days.• Buildings N A D H O U S E S intoC H E T T I are divided portions -„Kattu‟.• Each house in chettinad is made up of Mugappu, Valavu, Irandankattu, Moonankattu & thottam• Mugappu – The reception; entrance of the house• Valavu – Living area of the house• In the valavu, there are 4 “Mugappu" held by pillars made of granite • Nadai – Corridor platforms that are called as • Irandankattu – used for Pattalai, each at 4 corners of the dining / with storerooms for valavu. storing crockery/kitchenware• Pattalai – Living halls of each • Moonamkattu – family Kitchen(adukala)• Along with Pattalai, valavu • Thottam – Garden consists of numerous Irattai • Stables, cowsheds etc., veedu. Culture &• Irattai veedu – rooms used by
  22. 22. • The magnificent mansions in Chettinad are the finest examples of combinations of vernacular architecture & amalgam of South East & European architecture.• The source of inspiration derived from can be attributed to their connection The pillared corridors The long corridors of with Trade, Travel, around the valuvu second kattu-used for (courtyard), lead into dining Temples, Tradition individual rooms, each and Taste. meant for a married son.• From birth to burial, the Nagarathars observed numerous Culture &
  23. 23. urban planning, represented namely by • The marble was brought from orthogonal streets and Italy, chandeliers and teak specific water management from Burma, crockery from systems, which are also Indonesia, crystals from directly linked to the earlier Europe and wall-to-wall Tamil traditions of mirrors from Belgium. rectangular plots and • The woodwork and houses with an inner stonework was inspired that courtyard. of the houses in France and• The houses, which evolved other European destinations. over two centuries, are • The walls of Chettinad veritable palaces. Nagarathars‟ buildings are• On the ground floor, the embellished with „Chettinad architecture is typically plaster‟ whose other names Tamil, while one can see are: Western influences on the • White –„Vellai poochchu‟; higher floors. • Egg plastering;• This reflects the Chettiar • Muthu Poochchu Culture & way of life, a combination of • Such walls were coated with their vibrant traditions with
  24. 24. Thinnaikitchen 3rd Courtyard 2nd Courtyard 1st Courtyard Kanakupullai’s roomTYPICAL PLAN OF A CHETTINADHOUSE The open aired valavu (courtyard) with wooden-pillared corridors on each side. The pillars were made out of Burmese Teak. Culture &
  25. 25. The most important characteristic 16) Edges of the passages arefeatures of Chettinad Buildings are lined with cut stone slabs– known as „vellaikkallu‟,1) Cluster Houses, with 17) The stone pillars meant for2) (Mostly)East West orientation supporting the roof,3) High – rise compound wall 18) Sloping clay - tiled roofs,(front side)4) Entrance Arch with stone steps5) Elevated plinth,6) Tiled Portico,7) Facade with stucco sculptures,8) Verandah „Thinnai‟ (twoPlatforms),9) Wooden Pillars on it,10) High door frame with ornatewood work, The color-glass arch flanked by pillars on11)Double main door, either sides12) „pattalai‟ or pattasalai (smaller Culture &version of the thinnai- platforms),13) Open Courtyard („Mutram –
  26. 26. 19) Square – flat tiles floor of 27) All the mediums used inthe „mutram‟ will have making columns viz, wood,rectangle stone slabs on all the stone, brick, and iron,four corners to bear the brunt 28) First floor facade isof the falling rain water, invariably adorned by20) Small single / double colonnade made of stone,rooms on one side or either wood, and bricks,side of the passage 29) Window niches and arches(„suththukkattu‟) length – wise, above are decorated with21) Kitchen on the last „kattu‟, stucco work or paintings.22) Staircase on one or two or 30) Designed for collecting /all the four corners, harvesting rain water (especially23) Banquet Hall Bhojan Hall in courtyard (Mutram).„Panthi kattu‟ on the side of thefirst kattu,24) Floors laid with -Italianmarble Black and White,Granite & Athangudi tiles - Central portion of valavu, called Muttram„Pookkallu‟, Culture &25) Japanese and Spanish tiles
  27. 27. • Chettinad is rich in cultural heritage, art and The Reception architecture, and is area - well known for its Chettinad houses, House – with embellished with imported Italian Marble marble and Burma flooring teak, wide courtyards, spacious rooms, and for its 18th century mansions. Extensively• Local legend tells carved that their walls Wooden used to be Ceiling of a polished with a Chettinad paste made out of mansion egg-whites to give Culture &
  28. 28. The Hall Moonamkattu – the kitchen courtyardThe Pillared Verandah courtyard Culture &
  29. 29. RAJA’s PALACeKANADUKATHAN Culture &
  30. 30. • The Chettinad Raja‟s Palace, home of the Chettiar family, was built in 1912.• The pillars around the courtyard are in Burma teak, and there is picturesque combination of scarlet tiles and sloping woodwork. The construction material, decor items and furnishings were mostly imported, from east Asian countries and also from Europe where the Raja Chettiyar had spread his sprawling business .• The woodwork and stone Culture & work were inspired by French and other European
  31. 31. The elegant wooden bracketingMugappu - belgium glasswork Culture &
  32. 32. Imported Italian chandeliers- Uniquedecorated wooden columnsThe Central courtyard is used for weddings andreligious ceremonies. Culture &
  33. 33. The third courtyard Entrance Hall The elegant Dining Hall Culture &
  34. 34. PARAPETS, CORNICES & PILLARS / COLUMNSCulture &
  35. 35. Use of animal motifs for bracketsintricate poetry on wood- richly Elaborate wooden ceiling in a mansioncarved doorwayWooden Culture &
  36. 36. Culture &
  37. 37. The rich and intricate detailing of the parapets and cornices across the houses of chettinadCulture &
  38. 38. The colorful Belgian Glasswork Culture &
  39. 39. STUCCOWORK • Stucco work was used on the interior & exterior walls; stucco sculptural work was employed on the entrance tower, façade, railing wall & compound wall. • Images of God, goddess, angels, flora and fauna are generally portrayed by using the medium of stucco. • The icons of Gods/Goddesses- Gaja Lakshmi, „Meenakshi Sundareswarar‟,Shiva Parvathi on • Gajalakshmi symbolizes Rishaba bull was often aand prosperity while protection repeated theme in Chettinad. Shiva Parvathi pair represents happy family life.Stucco Work-ArchitecturecumSculpture Culture &
  40. 40. Chettinad is a hot and semi-CLIMATE RESPONSIVENESS arid region, The climate was taken into consideration in the design of their homes and the materials used.• The houses were built around an East/West central courtyard which brings shade, light, coolness and air to the entire home.• BUILDING MATERIALS USED - The materials used for construction and the essential components of this luxury home are brick and lime plaster walls, terracotta tiled roofs, stone pillars, teak columns, and marble and stone floors.• ROOFING - The roof is Culture & terracotta tiled – which helps in

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