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Alvar alto & eero saarinen

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Alvar alto & eero saarinen

  1. 1. “The purpose of architecture is to shelter and enhance man’s life on earth and to fulfill his belief in the nobility of his existence.”EERO SAARINEN I N T E R N AT I O N A L S T Y L E 1
  2. 2.  Eero Saarinen (Aug 20,1910 – Sep 1,1961) was a Finnish-American architect and industrial designer of the 20th century famous for varying his style according to the demands of the project: simple, sweeping, arching structural curves or machine-like rationalism. For Eero,Architecture was a discipline like the fine arts, and in particular, sculpture. He called himself a "form giver" and everything he designed had a strong sculptural quality. During his long association with Knoll he designed significant furniture including the "Grasshopper" chair , the "Womb" chair & Ottoman, and his most famous "Tulip" or St.Louis Arch or Saarinen "Pedestal" group , which featured side and arm chairs, dining, coffee & side tables, & a stool. Gateway, MissouriInternational 2 EERO SAARINENStyle
  3. 3.  Saarinen began his career as a student • In the postwar decades of what has at Yale University and after travels and been called "the American studies in Europe returned to the U.S. Century," Saarinen helped create and taught for a brief period at the international image of the Cranbrook. United States with his designs for Saarinen and Eames collaborated on some of the most potent symbolic various projects, culminating in a range of expressions of American identity furniture that won first prize at an such as exhibition held at the Museum of Modern  St. Louis Gateway Arch Art in New York in 1940 entitled,  General Motors Technical Center, "Organic Design in Home Michigan Furnishings."  TWA Terminal at New Yorks After 1946,Saarinen became associated John F. Kennedy Airport. with Knoll Associates.  MIT Chapel A number of Saarinen’s chairs for Knoll  Dulles Airport Terminal, were to become landmarks in the history Washington of 20th century design.International EERO SAARINEN 3Style
  4. 4. Trans WorldAirlines FlightCenter, JFK Airport Kleinhans Music Hall, Buffalo Washington Dulles International AirportInternational EERO SAARINEN 4Style
  5. 5. Kresge Auditorium, MIT. (Emma Hartman)Noyes house, Vassar College campus, New YorkInternational EERO SAARINEN 5Style
  6. 6. North Christian Church, Columbus, IndianaInternational EERO SAARINEN 6Style
  7. 7. MIT CHAPEL, CAMBRIDGE • The MIT Chapel is a non- denominational chapel designed by Eero Saarinen. • It is located on the campus of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts. • Though a small building, it is often noted as a successful example of Mid-century Modern Architecture in the US. • Through the sheer manipulation of light and the its focus on a blazingly white marble altar block, Saarinen created a place of mystic quietness.International EERO SAARINEN 7Style
  8. 8. • From the outside the chapel is a simple, windowless brick cylinder set inside a very shallow concrete moat.• It is 50’(5 m) in diameter and 30’ (9.1 m) high, and topped by an aluminum spire.• The brick is supported by a series of low arches.• Saarinen chose bricks that were rough and imperfect to create a textured effect.• The whole is set in two groves of birch trees, with a long wall to the east, all designed by Saarinen.• The wall and trees provide a uniform background for the chapel, and isolate the site from the noise and bustle of adjacent buildings.International EERO SAARINEN 8Style
  9. 9. • Within is an intimate space, stunning in its immediate visual impact. • Windowless interior walls are undulating brick. • Like a cascade of light, a full-height metal sculpture glitters from the circular skylight down to a small, unadorned marble altar. • Natural light filters upward from shallow slits in the walls catching reflected light from the moat; this dim ambient light is complemented by artificial lighting. • The chapels curving spire and bell tower (designed by the sculptor Theodore Roszak) was added in 1956International EERO SAARINEN 9Style
  10. 10. Interiors of the Millers’ HouseInternational EERO SAARINEN 10Style
  11. 11. TWA -Terminal, John F. Kennedy International Airport, New York.International EERO SAARINEN 11Style
  12. 12. TWA -Terminal, John F. Kennedy International Airport, New York.International EERO SAARINEN 12Style
  13. 13. THE WOMB CHAIR 13  A chair in which one could curl up in.  The Womb Chair is an enveloping, lap-like form continues to be one of the most iconic and recognized representations of mid- century Scandinavian organic modernism.  With its steel rod base with a polished chrome finish and a frame upholstered in fabric over a fiberglass shell, the chair is designed to facilitate a relaxed sitting posture, providing emotional comfort and a sense of security—hence, the name “Womb”.International EERO SAARINENStyle
  14. 14. 14  Its organic form is representative of the mid century Scandinavian modernism style of furniture using synthetic materials to create organically inspired forms.  By applying foam molded over a fiberglass shell, Saarinen was able to create a single-piece form that perfectly facilitated a relaxed sitting posture and a  The slender steel rod base is sublime feeling of security. chrome-plated using a multiple  Additional seat and back step process that results in a cushions and the coordinating flawlessly polished mirror finish. Womb Ottoman provide a  H 35.5" W 40" D 34" Seat H 16" further degree of lavish comfort.International EERO SAARINENStyle
  15. 15. Womb chair used to view the exteriors Womb chair in a reading room or Library Womb chair used in master bedromInternational 15 EERO SAARINENStyle
  16. 16. THE TULIP CHAIR 16  Designed by Eero Saarinen  It was designed primarily as a chair to match the complementary dining table.  The chair is often considered "space age" for its futuristic use of curves and artificial materials.  The base of the tulip chair is of cast aluminum with a rilsan-coated finish to match the upper shell, giving the appearance of a single unit.  The upper shell is molded fiberglass, with a reinforced, plastic bonded finish.  The upholstered foam cushion is removable with Velcro fastening.International EERO SAARINENStyle
  17. 17. 17  Its form is typical of this organic period of molded concrete architecture and plastic futuristic designs, which were derived from organic forms.International EERO SAARINENStyle
  18. 18. Interiors of the Millers’ House – the Tulip set is used in the interiorsInternational EERO SAARINEN 18Style
  19. 19. GRASSHOPPER CHAIR 19  Designed by Eero Saarinen  Materials: Laminated wood frame with upholstered cushions  Dimensions: W 26 1/2―,D 34",H 35 ¼‖International EERO SAARINENStyle
  20. 20. International EERO SAARINEN 20Style
  21. 21. 21ALVAR AALTO I N T E R N AT I O N A L S T Y L E
  22. 22. 22 Aalvar Aalto was born in Kuortane, Finland. In 1916 he then enrolled to study architecture at the Helsinki University of Technology, graduating in 1921. In 1923 he returned to Jyväskylä, where he opened his first architectural office. Jyväskylä would become a notable city for his architecture, with more buildings designed by Otaniemi Technical University, Finland him than in any other city. Red bqick, black Alvar alto’s principle was gqanite, and FUNCTIONALISM IN coppeq combine in FURNITURE DESIGN. Alvaq Aaltos buildings foq theInternational Otaniemi TechnicalStyle Univeqsity O in Espoo, A LV A R A A LT
  23. 23. • Studied Architecture between 1916-1921 at the Technical University of Helsinki.  Used wood instead of metal for his furniture. • Started to produce his innovative plywood chairs in the1930s, and create a new trend in use of plywood. • Built Paimio Sanatorium in Turku in 1930s • His ideas had a strong influence on designers of the period such as Charles and Ray Eames. • Founded Artek, a furniture design company in 1935 with his colleagues Harry and Marie Gullichsen. Finlandia Hall • Designed the Villa Mairea, one of the admired buildings of modern architecture with his perception of organic links between people, nature and buildings.International A LV A R A A LT O 23Style
  24. 24. Seinajoki Town Hall Headquarters for the White Guards Enso-Gutzeit HeadquartersInternational A LV A R A A LT O 24Style
  25. 25. 25 DESIGN PHILOSOPHIES • His design philosophy was • The beauty of his work is hidden in his influenced by nature and design approach of Functionalism but organic materials, unlike other with a strong connection to the furniture of the same period with organic relationship between man, materials as tubular steel, which nature and buildings. were quite modern at the time. • He coordinated these three • Designed vases with curvilinear components and created a synthesis of bases and straight sides for life in materialized form. Savoy Restaurant – Turku • He designed in very different scales – • With his innovative designs and ranging from buildings, town plans, natural forms he changed the furniture, glassware, jewellery and course of design towards other forms of art. organic Modernism.International A LV A R A A LT OStyle
  26. 26. ALVAR ALTO’S FURNITURE DESIGN 26  His design concepts were  He concluded that standardization organic and using the human and mass production could not be form. sustained in Finlands small  His buildings and chairs were first economy. prompted by the user.  His chairs were the result of great  The seats and handles were study and investigation into, posture, moulded to the human form. laminated wood, aesthetic  Of all architectural furniture, his is considerations and efficient the closest to humanity. mechanical methods of mass  Alvar Aalto designed laminated production. timber furniture.  Alvar Aalto’s furniture included:  He saw that tubular steel lacked  The Paimio Chair human qualities.  The Viipuri Stacking Stools  He used local Birchwood as a  Cantilevered Chair substitution for steel tubing. International A LV A R A A LT O Style
  27. 27. PAIMIO CHAIR  Paimio Chair is said to have been influenced by the curved contours of the Finnish lakes.  It is one of the most elegant modern chairs.  The frame is laminated birch bent into a closed curve with solid birch cross- rails.  The seat is molded from one piece of birch plywood.  The springy plywood fixed on a closed frame was Aalto’s brainstorm for making a wooden chair ―soft‖.  The curves are made by clamping  The Paimio Chair is constructed from layers of veneer and glue over a both two dimensional molded plywood form to achieve the desired and laminated timber. curved shapes.International A LV A R A A LT O 27Style
  28. 28.  It was supported by cantilevered continuous arm and leg frame of laminated Birch plywood steam bent in the shape of a "C" and had horizontal braces to the back.  The frame was thicker from the front of the seat down as there was more stress on the frame there.  He constructed the frame with 7 layers of lamination and less for the arms and back as they required less reinforcement. Interior of the Tuberculosis Sanatorium in PaimioInternational 28 A LV A R A A LT OStyle
  29. 29. VIIPURI STACKING STOOLS 29  The Viipuri collection of furniture  They then take up a minimal complemented Aaltos forward storage space so are ideal for thinking design. schools, meeting rooms or  The stacking stool - this was offices. made up of only four wooden parts,  They were available in children three Aalto Legs and a round seat. and adult sizes.  These three legged stools are  The legs were varnished natural versatile and functional Birch timber and the seats were  The stack ability means that they made from natural Birch timber, are ideal for large gathering areas primary and white laminates. with small storage spaces.  The legs were attached to the seat at 120 degree angles which meant they could interlock and stack easily.International A LV A R A A LT OStyle
  30. 30. Auditorium of the Viipuri Municipal LibraryInternational A LV A R A A LT O 30Style
  31. 31. 31 CANTILEVERED CHAIR  Otherwise known as the Cantilever chair no.31; Made of Bent laminated and solid birch frame with bent plywood seat section; has a more subtle curved form.International A LV A R A A LT OStyle
  32. 32. Sofa 544 designed by Alvar Aalto (1932) Lounge chair 43 designed by Alvar AaltoInternational A LV A R A A LT O 32Style
  33. 33. 33 The Savoy Vase or the Aalto Vase Inspired by nature and made to Alvar Aaltos humanist design philosophy, the iconic form still proves to be as popular as it did when it was launched in 1937 Tea trolley by AltoInternational A LV A R A LT OStyle
  34. 34. 34 Pendant lamp A110 desinged by Alvar Aalto (1952) Chair 66 designed by Alvar Aalto (1935)International A LV A R A LT OStyle
  35. 35. Pendant lamp A331 Bench 153B Armchair 401 Interior of Academic Bookshop, HelsinkiInternational A LV A R A LT O 35Style
  36. 36. Interior of a summer House Interior of Finnish Pavilion Riihitie House, HelsinkiInternational A LV A R A LT O 36Style
  37. 37. Views of Villa Mairea, Finland – Built in the middle of a Pine ForestInternational A LV A R A LT O 37Style
  38. 38. Brick wall used as a sculptural element Interior views of villa MaireaThe uneven patterning of poles stairs aredesigned to mimic the forests outdoorsInternational A LV A R A LT O 38Style
  39. 39. Interior views of villa MaireaInternational A LV A R A LT O 39Style

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