Wooten got the news from his wife, Roxanne,
who went to City Hall on Wednesday
to see the election results.
quot;She saw my name with zero votes by it.
She came home and asked me if
I had voted for myself or not.quot;
But Secrecy is Important.
Secret Ballot implemented in Chile in 1958.
“the secrecy of the ballot [...] has
ﬁrst-order implications for resource
allocation, political outcomes, and social efﬁciency.”
Because we care about
a meaningful result,
we’ve made auditing
We are left chasing
evidence of correctness.
Meanwhile we destroy
evidence on purpose.
- each piece of evidence covers
a small segment of the chain.
- attacker knows the checks, and can try to
sneak in where the chain is not covered.
- to maintain security and for practical
purposes, the evidence is very indirect.
The Effect of DREs
- More to audit
- Errors can have disproportionate effects
- Software is not just for speed/efﬁciency,
it becomes central for integrity.
Secret Ballot vs.
Carl the Coercer
[Chaum81], [Benaloh85], [PIK93], [BenalohTuinstra92], [SK94], [Neff2001], [FS2001],
[Chaum2004], [Neff2004], [Ryan2004], [Chaum2005]
Punchscan, Scantegrity I & II, Civitas, ThreeBallot, Prêt-à-Voter, Scratch & Vote, ...