Anatomy and physiology


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  • Anatomy is the structure of an organism while Physiology is the functions of an organism; the physical and chemical process of a living thing Also metabolism is the total changes that take place during physiological processes
  • First we will talk about a little biology You may ask why do we have to know this? Well, inorder to understand how to fix the body, you have to know how it works
  • The cell has 3 main elements Quiz Cell membrane is semipermeable, allows for electrolyte and fluid balance and allows enzymes, howrmones and nutrients into and out of the cell.
  • Organelles are structures that perform specific functions within the cell
  • DNA determines our inherited traits and must be constantly copied and transferred to new cells
  • They convert essential nutrients into energy sources such as ATP. When ATP is split by enzyme action, it yields energy
  • They break down bacteria and organic material which has been taken into the cell and release usable substances such as sugars and amino acids.
  • Especially abundant in the liver, neutralizing alcohol.
  • The body is a dynamic system in which cells, tissues and organs work together. Homeostasis- cells do not tolerate extreme environmental fluctuations
  • Organs communicate through secreting signals Endocrine – sometimes called ductless glands, secrete hormones directly into the circulatory system where they travel to the target organ (more on this later) Parachrine – secrete chemical mediators that only act on nearby cells. Example Histamine Synaptic signaling – neurotransmiters such as norepinephrine and acetylcholine transmit across synapses which are the junctions between neurons (more later) This is important because many of our medications act upon these systems Negative Feedback – when the body compensates for a pathologic condition, it negates the problem ie baroreceptor in aorta increases heart rate when BP falls.
  • Bone marrow is the primary site of blood cell production.
  • Average adult has 6 liters of blood.
  • Plasma is the fluid part of blood and transports dissolved nutrients and waste products Red blood cells (erythrocytes) contain hemoglobin which carries oxygen (more later) White blood cells (leukocytes) provide protection from infection Platelets (thrombocyte) help to form clots
  • Granulocytes – primary function in allergic reaction releasing histamine causing vasodilation, bronchoconstriction increased vascular permeability Monocytes – “garbage collectors” engulf foreign invaders and dead neutrophils Lymphocytes are the primary cells involved in immune response. 2 basic subpopulations are T cells and B cells. B cells produce antibodies specific to invading organisms
  • Quiz – the only vein in the body that carries oxygenated blood is the pulmonary vein
  • Gallbladder receives bile from the liver and stores it untill needed in the digestion of fatty foods Pancreas produces glucagon and insulin quiz Spleen is not an organ of digestion but the immune system. Also stores a large amount of blood and is the most fragile abd organ
  • Hypothalamus cells act as both nerve and endocrine cells. It is the link between the central nervous systemand the endocrine system. It releases hormones which target the pituitary to promote homeostasis Posterior pituitary releases anitdiuretic hormone which stimulates the kidneys to retain water and oxytocin which stimulates the uterus to contract. Anterior pituitary releases growth hormone, and adrenal and thyroid stimulating hormones Thyroid stimulatescell metabolism and calcium uptake by bones Parathyroid stimulates calcium release increasing blood calcium levels Pancrease releases glucagon and insulin Adrenal medulla releases epi and norepi Adrenal Cortex releases steroids, estrogen, progesterone and testosterone Pineal gland releases melatonin in response to light. May affect mood.
  • Cerebrum governs all sensory and motor actions. It is the seat of intelligence, learning, analysis, memory and language, the cerebral cortex is the outermost layer Cerebellum coordinates fine motor movement, posture, equilibrium, and muscle tone Midbrain generated involuntary motor responses such as touching a hot stove Medulla Oblongata autonomic center for regulation of cardiovascular, repiratory and digestive systems The brain is covered by three membranes Dura mater – outer most Arachnoid membrane Pia Mater
  • Hypoxic – Anaerobic metabolism decrese in atp and increase in lactic acid Allergic response can damage healthy cells in area Physical – burns, frostbite etc Nutritional – insufficient intake of vitamins can damage cells
  • Accounts for 60% body weight Water is also known as the universal solvent.
  • The input and output of water must be the same. Regulated by pituitary gland which secretes ADH which causes the kidney to reabsorb more water into the blood and excrete less urine. Gastrointest – proloned vomiting and diarrhea or malabsorption Insensible – perspiration water vapor in lungs Sweating – diaphoresis Internal – third space from intravascular to interstitial Plasma – burns
  • Example is sodium bicarb-  sodium cation+bicarb ion NaHCO3  (Na+)+(HCO3-)
  • It is often said water follows sodium because water is attracted to sodium and therefore sodium plays a major role in distribution of water.
  • Oncotic force is a form of osmotic pressure exerted by large protein in blood plasma. In capillaries, tends to pull water from interstitial space
  • Filtration is due to hydrostatic pressure pushing water out of the capillaries. Forces opposing filtration is oncotic force Net is usually zero
  • pH PaCO2 HCO3 Acute Metabolic Alkalosis (uncompensated) >7.45 Normal <26 Acute Metabolic Acidosis <7.35 Normal >22 Acute Resp Alkalois >7.45 <35 Normal Acute Resp Acidosis <7.35 >45 Normal Look at what is out of range
  • Anatomy and physiology

    1. 1. Anatomy and Physiology
    2. 2. Part 1 Topics The Cell Types of Tissue Organ Systems Disease Causes Disease Pathophysiology
    3. 3. The Normal Cell The cell is the fundamental unit of the human body. Cells contain all the necessary components for life functions.
    4. 4. Cell Structure The cell membrane is the outer covering that encircles and protects the cell. Cytoplasm is the thick, viscous fluid that fills and gives shape to the cell. Organelles are structures that perform specific functions within a cell.
    5. 5. Organelles Nucleus Endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus Mitochondria Lysosomes Peroxisomes
    6. 6. Nucleus Contains genetic material, DNA, and enzymes necessary for replication of DNA.
    7. 7. Mitochondria The “Powerhouses” of the cell
    8. 8. Lysosomes Contain digestive enzymes which protect against disease and produce nutrients
    9. 9. Perioxisomes Absorb and neutralize toxins
    10. 10. Cell Function All human cells have the same general structure and genetic material. Differentiation causes cells to become specialized. There are seven major functions of cells.
    11. 11. Major Functions of Cells Movement Conductivity Metabolic absorption Secretion Excretion Respiration Reproduction
    12. 12. Tissues Tissue refers to a group of cells that perform a similar function.
    13. 13. Tissue Types
    14. 14. Epithelial Tissue Lines internal and external body surfaces and protects the body. Some forms perform specialized functions:  Secretion  Absorption  Diffusion  Filtration Skin, mucous membranes, lining of intestinal tract.
    15. 15. Muscle Tissue Has the capability of contraction when stimulated.  Cardiac tissue is found only within the heart.  Has the unique capability of spontaneous contraction without external stimulation.  Smooth muscle is found within the intestines and encircling blood vessels.  Generally under control of the autonomic nervous system.  Skeletal muscle allows movement and is generally under voluntary control.  Most abundant type.
    16. 16. The Three Types of Muscle:Skeletal muscle, also calledvoluntary muscle, is foundthroughout the body.Cardiac muscle is limited tothe heart.Smooth muscle, occasionallycalled involuntary muscle, isfound within the intestinesand surrounding bloodvessels.
    17. 17. Connective Tissue Most abundant tissue in the body. Provides support, connection, and insulation. Examples include bone, cartilage, and fat. Blood is classified as connective tissue.
    18. 18. Nerve Tissue Specialized tissue that transmits electrical impulses throughout the body. Examples include the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves.
    19. 19. Organs, Organ Systems, and the Organism An organ is a group of tissues functioning together. A group of organs working together is an organ system. The sum of all cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems makes up an organism.
    20. 20. Organ Systems Cardiovascular  Nervous Respiratory  Endocrine Gastrointestinal  Lymphatic Genitourinary  Muscular Reproductive  Skeletal
    21. 21. System Integration Homeostasis  The natural tendancy of the body to maintain a steady and normal internal environment Metabolism  Building up (anabolism) and breaking down (catabolism) of nutrients to create energy
    22. 22. System Integration Chemical Signaling  Endocrine  Parachrine  Synaptic Negative Feedback
    23. 23. Integumentary System Epidermis Dermis Subcutaneous Hair Nails
    24. 24. Hematopoietic System Blood Bone Marrow Liver Spleen Kidneys
    25. 25. Blood Components
    26. 26. The percentage of the blood occupied by the red blood cells is termed the hematocrit.
    27. 27. White blood Cells Granulocytes  Basophils  Eosinophils  Neutrophils Monocytes Lymphocytes
    28. 28. Cardiovascular System Pump Pipes Fluid
    29. 29. Blood Flow Through the Heart
    30. 30. Blood Flow Through the Heart
    31. 31. Digestive System
    32. 32. Skeletal System
    33. 33. Endocrine System Secrete hormones directly into the circulatory system. Some endocrine glands include: pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal glands, Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, testes, and ovaries.
    34. 34. Endocrine System
    35. 35. The body’s cells interactand intercommunicate with substances secreted by various body glands.
    36. 36. Signaling Endocrine signaling—hormones distributed throughout the body. Paracrine signaling—secretion of chemical mediators by certain cells that act only upon nearby cells. Autocrine signaling—cells secrete substances that act upon themselves. Synaptic signaling—cells secrete neurotransmitters that transmit signals across synapses.
    37. 37. Nervous System
    38. 38. Pathophysiology The study of how diseases alter the normal physiological processes of the human body. From the root “patho” meaning disease.
    39. 39. How Cells Respond to Change and Injury
    40. 40. Cellular Adaptation Cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems can adapt to both normal and injurious conditions. Adaptation to external stressors results in alteration of structure and function. Examples: Growth of the uterus during pregnancy, dilation of the left ventricle after an MI.
    41. 41. Types of Cellular Adaptations (1 of 2) Atrophy—decreased size resulting from a decreased workload. Hypertrophy—an increase in cell size resulting from an increased workload.
    42. 42. Types of Cellular Adaptations (2 of 2) Hyperplasia—An increase in the number of cells resulting from an increased workload. Metaplasia—Replacement of one type of cell by another type of cell that is not normal for that tissue. Dysplasia—A change in cell size, shape, or appearance caused by an external stressor.
    43. 43. Cellular Injury Hypoxic Chemical Infectious Immunologic/ Inflammatory Physical agents Nutritional balances Genetic factors
    44. 44. Manifestation of Cellular Injury When cells are injured metabolism is changed, causing substances to infiltrate or accumulate to an abnormal degree in cells.
    45. 45. Cellular Swelling Results from a permeable or damaged cellular membrane. Caused by an inability to maintain stable intra- and extracellular fluid and electrolyte levels.
    46. 46. Fatty Change Lipids invade the area of injury. Occurs most commonly in vascular organs, most frequently the liver. Causes a disruption of the cellular membrane and metabolism and interferes with the vital functions of the organ.
    47. 47. Signs and Symptoms of Cellular Change Fatigue and malaise Altered appetite Fever Increased heart rate associated with fever Pain
    48. 48. Cell Death (1 of 3) Apoptosis  Injured cell releases enzymes that engulf and destroy the cell.  Cells shrink.  Eliminating damaged and dead cells allows tissues to repair and possibly regenerate.
    49. 49. Cell Death (2 of 3) Necrosis  A pathological process  Cells swell and rupture  Coagulative  Liquefactive  Caseous  Fatty
    50. 50. Cell Death (3 of 3) Gangrenous necrosis  Cell death over a wide area  Dry  Wet  Gas
    51. 51. The Cellular Environment:Fluid and Electrolytes
    52. 52. Water is the most abundantsubstance in the human body.
    53. 53. Where the Water is Found Intracellular fluid—fluid inside the cells. Extracellular fluid—all the fluid outside the body cells. Intravascular fluid—fluid within the circulatory system. Interstitial fluid—fluid outside of the cell membranes but not within the circulatory system.
    54. 54. Percentage of total body weight due to water distributed into various fluid compartments.
    55. 55. Dehydration A b n o r m a l
    56. 56. Overhydration Retention of abnormally high amount of body fluid. Major sign is edema. In severe cases, heart failure may occur.
    57. 57. Electrolytes
    58. 58. Electrolytes Substances that separate in water into electrically charged particles called ions. Cations have a positive charge. Anions have a negative charge.
    59. 59. Cations
    60. 60. Sodium (Na ) + Most prevalent cation in extracellular fluid. “Water follows sodium.” Important in transmission of nervous impulses. Hypernatremia is an abnormal increase in sodium. Hyponatremia is an abnormal decrease in sodium.
    61. 61. Potassium (K ) + Most prevalent cation in the intracellular fluid. Important in transmission of electrical impulses. Hyperkalemia is an abnormally high potassium level. Hypokalemia is an abnormally low potassium level.
    62. 62. Calcium (Ca ) ++ Plays a major role in muscle contraction as well as nervous impulse transmission. Hypercalcemia is an abnormally increased calcium level. Hypocalcemia is an abnormally low calcium level.
    63. 63. Magnesium (Mg ) ++ Necessary for several biochemical processes. Closely associated with phosphate. Hypermagnesemia is an abnormally increased level of magnesium. Hypomagnesemia is an abnormally decreased level of magnesium.
    64. 64. Anions
    65. 65. Chloride (Cl ) - Negative charge balances the positive charge of cations. Major role in fluid balance and renal function. Associated with sodium.
    66. 66. Bicarbonate (HCO3 ) - Principle buffer of the body. Neutralizes the hydrogen ion and other organic acids.
    67. 67. Phosphate (HPO4 ) - Important in body energy stores. Closely associated with magnesium in renal function. Acts as a buffer, primarily in the intracellular space.
    68. 68. Osmosis and Diffusion
    69. 69. Diffusion is the movement of a substancefrom an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration.
    70. 70. Types of Solutions Isotonic—solutions on opposite sides of a membrane are equal in concentration. Hypertonic—the concentration of a given solute is greater on one side of a membrane than the other. Hypotonic—the concentration of a given solute is less on one side of a membrane than the other.
    71. 71. OSMOSIS VS. SOLUTES (1 of 2) Osmosis is the movement of water from an area of higher WATER concentration to an area of lesser WATER concentration. Because water is a solvent, it moves from an area of lower SOLUTE concentration to an area of higher SOLUTE concentration.
    72. 72. OSMOSIS VS. SOLUTES (2 of 2)
    73. 73. Active Transport The movement of a substance across the cell membrane against the osmotic gradient (toward the side that already has more of the substance). Faster than diffusion. Requires energy.
    74. 74. Facilitated Diffusion Certain molecules can move across the cell membrane with the assistance of “helper proteins.” Glucose is one example. Depending on the substance, this movement may or may not require energy.
    75. 75. OSMOTIC VS. ONCOTIC Osmotic pressure—pressure exerted by the concentration of solutes on one side of a semipermeable membrane. Oncotic force (colloid osmotic pressure)—osmotic pressure exerted by large protein particles.
    76. 76. Starling’s Hypothesis Net Filtration = (Forces favoring filtration) MINUS (–) (Forces opposing filtration)
    77. 77. Edema Accumulation of water in the interstitial space due to disruption in the forces and mechanisms that normally keep net filtration at zero.
    78. 78. Mechanisms that Cause Edema A decrease in plasma oncotic force. An increase in hydrostatic pressure. Increased capillary permeability. Lymphatic channel obstruction.
    79. 79. Edema (1 of 2) Can be local or within a certain organ system. For example: Sprained ankle vs. pulmonary edema.
    80. 80. Edema (2 of 2) Water in interstitial spaces is not available for metabolic processes. Edema, therefore, can cause a relative condition of dehydration.
    81. 81. Acid-Base Balance
    82. 82. Acid-Base Balance Acid-base balance is a dynamic relationship that reflects the relative concentration of hydrogen ions in the body. Hydrogen ions are acidic and the concentration of those in the body must be maintained within fairly strict limits.
    83. 83. Acidosis — pH below 7.35 Alkalosis — pH above 7.45 A variation of only 0.4 of a pHunit in either direction of normal can be fatal in humans.
    84. 84. Acid-base relations relevant to pH
    85. 85. Regulation of Acid-Base Balance
    86. 86. Mechanisms to Remove Hydrogen Ions From the Body
    87. 87. Buffer System (Bicarbonate Buffer System) The fastest mechanism. Two components of this system are bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) and carbonic acid (H2CO3) and are normally in equilibrium with hydrogen (H+).
    88. 88. H + HCO3 + - H2CO3 Hydrogen may combine with bicarbonate to produce carbonic acid. In other circumstances carbonic acid will dissociate into bicarbonate and hydrogen.
    89. 89. Respiratory and Kidney Mechanisms Increased respirations cause increased elimination of CO2 which causes a decrease in hydrogen ions and an increase in pH. The kidneys regulate the pH by altering the concentration of bicarbonate ions in the blood.
    90. 90. The Respiratory Component of Acid-Base Balance
    91. 91. Acid-BaseDerangements
    92. 92. Respiratory Acidosis Caused by abnormal retention of CO2 from impaired ventilation due to problems occurring in the lungs or respiratory center of the brain.Respiration = CO2 + H2O H2CO3 H+ + HCO3-
    93. 93. Respiratory AlkalosisCaused by increased respirationand excessive elimination of CO2.The CO2 level is decreased and thepH is increased.Respiration = CO2 + H2O H2CO3 H+ + HCO3-
    94. 94. Metabolic AcidosisResults from the production ofmetabolic acids such as lactic acid.These acids consume bicarbonateions.Can be the result of dehydration,diabetes, or medication usage. H+ + HCO3- H2CO3 H 2O + CO2
    95. 95. Compensation for metabolicacidosis begins with an increase in respirations.
    96. 96. Metabolic Alkalosis The pH is increased and the CO2 level is normal. It is usually caused by administration of diuretics, loss of chloride ions associated with prolonged vomiting, and overzealous administration of sodium bicarbonate. H + HCO3 + - H2CO3 H 2O + CO2
    97. 97. Arterial Blood Gases pH 7.35 – 7.45 pCO2 35 – 45 mmHg pO2 80 – 100 mmHg HCO3- 22 – 27 mEq/L
    98. 98. Part 1 Summary The cell Types of tissue Disease causes Disease pathophysiology