Prc open stack conf aug 2012 cox v1


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  • Cloud computing can provide many benefits - from significant agility and efficiency gains to cost savings. However, there remain several barriers to cloud adoption and today I’ll be talking about these barriers, along with details behind Intel’sOpen Cloud Vision, a multi-year vision that leads to clouds that are interoperable, built on open, multi-vendor solutions, and ultimately will help you realize the most benefits from your cloud deployments – be they public, private or hybrid. I’ll also talk about Intel’s cloud strategy and how we can help you on your evolution to cloud.
  • Key Message: Growth in users, devices, data and traffic & IT challenges drive need for cloud computingThere is significant growth projected in connected users, over 3 billion by 2015, along massive growth in data, everything from transactions and financial data to emails, text, video, and photos. In fact, there are forecasts of over 2X growth in information every 2 years, and 11X increase in mobile data traffic by 2015. Moreover, we project there will be 15 billion connected devices – from notebooks and desktops to smartphones, tablets, cars and more. To keep up, IT is expanding their datacenter deployments to handle the growth in users, data, devices, and traffic. This could lead to a 2X increase in datacenter power costs from 2011 to 2015, or an additional $27B (source – Intel: Incremental 30GW of power = ~10M homes (2011: 31GW, $27B in cost, estimate 2015: 62GW, $54B in cost)To cope with this growth, IT is under pressure to improve agility and efficiency. In the past, deploying new datacenter resources could take weeks or months. The goal is to reduce that to having new resources up and available within minutes. In fact, there are many examples today where employees are using third party public cloud service infrastructure in order to address their business needs – and they are doing this often without corporate knowledge or approval. And IT needs to become more responsive without major cost increases, facing budgets that are flat.As part of the massive growth in data, companies seek to take advantage of this “big data” by using it for competitive advantage by gaining unique insights into their business, customers, and competition. But IT is challenged to implement the right solutions, tools, processes and platforms to deliver an efficient means of enabling companies to capitalize on this big data. Finally, IT has concerns about vendor lock in: makes a customer dependent on a vendor for products and services, unable to use another vendor without substantial switching costs.In short, IT seeks to be more responsive, secure, and deliver the necessary solutions that enable companies to grow and gain competitive advantage, all while keeping costs in check. Cloud computing has developed to the point where it can provide a solution to meet these needs.
  • Key message: There are real benefits to be gained from cloud and company adoption is growingBased on IT surveys, many companies are either adopting or have plans to adopt public clouds, private clouds, or hybrid clouds that combine both public and private and allow for usages, such as cloud bursting where businesses “burst” from their private cloud to consume public cloud resources such as servers and storage when needed. In fact, many companies view hybrid cloud as helping companies truly realize the benefits of cloud via flexibility and efficiency to use whatever form of cloud they choose based on business and IT requirements. You can see the stats here – 42% of IT surveyed and 23% will run over 40% of operations in public cloud by 20142 (ODCA member survey)35% will use hybrid clouds by 20151 (Gartner)Running Intel’s Business in the CloudIntel IT has had an aggressive evolution to cloud in the past 2 years via deployment of a private cloud behind the company’s firewall. In 2011, we continued to make rapid progress in transitioning to our enterprise private cloud. We focused on virtualizing more demanding applications, including Internet facing and mission-critical applications with higher security requirements, and migrating them to the private cloud. Sixty-five percent of our Office and Enterprise environment is virtualized, and we are on track to reach our target of 75 percent. Building on a foundation of virtualized infrastructure, we dramatically decreased the time it takes to acquire new capacityusing self-service provisioning and extensive automation. Self-service is now the norm:Most new services are now delivered within 45 minutes in our private cloud. In contrast, just two years ago, server provisioning in the traditional IT environment typically took as long as 90 days. And Intel IT has realized $9M in savings in the past 2 years via efficiency & agility gains. There are several other industry examples where enterprises, universities, and governments are realizing significant benefits from cloud computing. In spite of these gains, Intel is like many enterprises in that there remain many opportunities to more fully take advantage of cloud computing and realize its benefits
  • Key Message: While we’ve made great progress in the past 2 decades in driving significant cost savings, along with major advancements in efficient server performance, reliability, virtualization improvements and built in security capabilities, there remain opportunities to continue to drive innovation and improvements in servers well into the future. Today, companies deploy servers largely in a homogenous environment with a focus on versatile 2S servers for the bulk of workloads, along with 1 socket and 4 socket+ servers for specific workload requirements, such as 4S servers used for large databases. Virtualization and consolidation, along with >16X improvement in efficient performance in servers in the past 5 years, has driven significant OpEx gains as well. Moreover, current security features built into hardware provide added protection for data. However, opportunities remain to drive even more innovation. Some of the current challenges in servers include:Improving operational efficiency through the use of more granular controls in the server platform, such as power, utilization, and performance based on demands and workloads.Optimizing platforms based on workloads to drive even higher levels of efficiency and cost effectiveness.Delivering more tamper proof security capabilities built into the hardware to better protect the infrastructure from increasingly more sophisticated threats. Continuing to strength VM isolation and thus improve quality of service is another opportunityIntel has a continued focus on driving major gains in efficient performance to enable a wide range of platforms optimized for customer requirements. There will also be continued evolution of platforms optimized for workloads, such as in the low power micro-server segment, and content delivery and streaming. Intel is continuing to invest in advancements in hardware enhanced security and virtualization, along with improvements in power controls and more controls that take advantage of the platform instrumentation, including utilization, thermals, security, and others. By enabling these advancements, it can also help provide the necessary computing capacity to meet the needs for real-time analytics on large scale, “big data.”
  • Standard chilled water supply system – cooling tower, row based cooling, variable frequency driveDetails pertaining to decrease in capex21C – Design parameters are: Chilled Water with Cooling Tower, Row based cooling, CRAH with VFD Chiller/Tower, N+1 CRAC/CRAH with Chiller, Single Heat Rejection System35C – Design parameters are: Chiller with dry cooler, CRAH with VFD Chiller/Tower, N+1 CRAC/CRAH with Chiller, Single Heat Rejection, Closed Coupled Cooling Summary Savings (Delta in Capex)There are fewer Chillers, Cooling Towers and ACUs required because of the higher operating conditions and through proper distribution of load. The primary system at 35C is the dry cooler (air-side economizer) with closed coupled cooling and the CWS moves to a secondary redundant system in the event of excursions. However, the CWS could be replaced entirely with Evaporative Cooling solution such as a mister system by Mee Manufacturing, but for this exercise the CWS was left in place as the alternative
  • Key message: Today’s virtualized, multi-tenant cloud environments are dynamic, often with multiple datacenter locations. Managing network traffic is both complex and lacks the needed flexibility in terms of routing in multi-tenant infrastructure with limitations on global visibility into the network in order to better handle quality of service and security. Open, programmable networks, or software defined networks, are a future direction that can address several of these challenges. Near term, most of the value of SDN is being found among telcos and cloud service providers. Software defined networking (SDN) is an approach to using open protocols, such as OpenFlow, to apply globally aware software control to access network switches and routers that typically would use closed and proprietary firmware. SDN holds the promise of providing greater control over networks using open standards with added flexibility in routing traffic, while providing network administrators with a global view into the network environment which can improve quality of service and security. Today, much of the interest in and use of SDN comes from large scale cloud service providers, such as Google, along with telcos, such as Verizon, and others. There are potential applications in private clouds as well, though the use cases are still in early stages of development as SDN can introduce greater complexity into managing the network environment. Some of the uses/benefits of programmable SDNs include:Would allow for separate flows to be programmed for different data types providing flexibility to route traffic based on policiesNetwork virtualization for multi-tenantquality of service and securityTraffic engineering for massive scale datacenter operationsRapid service innovation through Network Applications
  • Key message: Massive growth in unstructured data, such as video, web content, documents and more, plus cloud adoption is driving a need to deploy new forms of storage to keep up.According to IDC, traditional structured data, such as databases, are still growing at 24% and we’re seeing an unprecedented 55% CAGR in unstructured data, such as email, video, documents, and more. Furthermore, IDC is forecasting by 2015, 20% of data, or 1.4 zetabytes, will be processed and/or stored in clouds, up from low single digits in 2011. One zetabyte is the equivalent of 1 billion terabyte hard drives. In addition, the amount of info. managed by enterprise datacenters is forecasted by IDC to grow a factor of 50 by 2020. Enterprises are struggling to keep up with the demand for space in storage systems, management of these storage systems, and all the associated power, physical space, and cooling expenses associated with that kind of growth. Traditional storage has primarily housed structured data. But, today’s centralized storage has limited scalability and is not cost effective to keep up with the massivegrowth in this unstructured data. Deployment times can also be 6 months or more. Traditional storage solutions have created performance bottlenecks & application workload inefficiencies. The future storage environment will use centralized storage for structured data like large databases, and highly distributed, scale out storage that is much easier to add capacity more quickly. Plus storage will be tiered to balance need for data that is accessed frequently and requires high performance storage, to data accessed less frequently with lower performance requirements, but requires high capacity, thus leading to a scale out storage solution. Both types of storage will benefit from greater efficiencies through more advanced storage capabilities, including data de-dup, thin provisioning, and storage virtualization. A scale-out storage architecture is scalable with many nodes accessing and storing data. There are 3 key pieces of a scale-out solution. You have “storage client driver” that an application uses to initiates a request to access stored data; a “metadata server”, which provides the mapping of the data to storage nodes; and storage nodes, which holds the data.A transaction starts with the application requesting data (i.e. file), the “storage client driver” initiates a request to the “metadata server” which responds with the locations of where the data is stored (i.e. which storage nodes has the data). Then the “storage client driver” initiates a request to those storage node and provides the data back to the application. The application, and a wide range of different devices can access the data stored using the location information in the metadata server, even though the data is stored across many different storage nodes. In addition, multiple requests can be processed in parallel – with multiple simultaneous responses from data spread across nodes. This separation of metadata and data allows the system to scale to “immense” sizes and enables capacity to be add without changes to the application servers.It doesn’t solve the problem for all storage but works well for large object storage in a very scalable fashion. This is the architecture that allows, for example, portals like Google and Amazon to handle massive amounts of data. The net benefit of future storage is simplified scalability (add capacity as needed, quickly and easily), lower cost by using standards based server platforms, and greater flexibility by allowing capacity and performance to change independently (i.e. fewer larger storage nodes for higher capacity, more smaller storage nodes for greater performance).
  • At the single node, a Combination of software and configuration optimizationsTesting – for performance – multiple load generators that generate requests with defined characteristics for realism – analyze traces of real-world service. This feeds the characteristics used by the load generators. Also lets us tune for hit-rates, etc.
  • Key message: Intel is collaborating with the Open Data Center Alliance as the technical advisor and from this engagement, we have further enhanced our knowledge of enterprise and service provider needs to getting to cloud of the future. The Open Data Center Alliance (ODCA) is a unique independent organization led by the data center managers who are in charge of some of the largest compute pools in the world. Today, there are over 300member companies representing >$100B in annual IT spend. They came together to create a unified voice on what they require to innovate their data centers to address new requirements and to implement cloud computing both in private enterprise clouds as well as federated with public clouds.They communicate these requirements through detailed usage model requirements. Think of this as deep technical documents that address which technologies and standards are required to meet specific computing challenges. They have made a deep level of commitment to these usage requirements – both in the development of the usagesapproved by members as well as on guiding internal data center planning and purchases. The ODCA also includes solution provider members thatrepresent over 90% of the virtualization software market, over two-thirds of the server hardware market, and the leading networking, storage and enterprise management vendors. These vendors can provide input to usage models as they develop if they are selected to participate in specific working groups. In a recent ODCA member survey, some of the major challenges they are grappling with – including security, migrating apps into the cloud, and more simplified mgmt.The ODCA has published over a dozen usage models. These usage models lay out a plan to enable federation, agility and efficiency across cloud computing while identifying the specific innovations in secure federation, automation, common management and policy and solution transparency required for widespread adoption of cloud services. Through adoption, these innovations aim to reduce $25 billion in annual IT costs within five years and unleash over $50 billion in cloud services innovation.Moreover, enterprises and service providers can easily use the usage models the ODCA has published in RFPs. There is a tool on the ODCA website called the Proposal Engine Assistant Tool (PEAT) that allows you to easily add the language of the usage models into RFPs. By including it, you help drive requirements to the industry ecosystem for specific solutions that are open and interoperable and address your specific needs, such as enabling secure federation across clouds or transparency of cloud services. You can learn more about the Alliance and their usage model requirements and PEAT at If you have not yet joined, consider joining to add your company’s voice, and also gain early access to the ODCAs usage model and other contents, such as member only webcasts. Also PEAT can help you include the ODCA usage models into your RFPs.
  • Key message: To accelerate the development and adoption of interoperable standards, Intel is engaged with multiple industry organizations and in many cases, playing a leading role. ODCA: The ODCA is engaged with major industry organizations setting technical standards for cloud computing – from manageability to security. The organizations they are collaborating with include – Cloud Security Alliance (CSA), Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF), TMForum, Open Compute Project, OASIS and the Green Grid. OpenStack: OpenStack is a global collaboration of developers and cloud computing technologists producing the ubiquitous open source cloud computing platform for public and private clouds. The project aims to deliver solutions for all types of clouds by being simple to implement, massively scalable, and feature rich. The technology consists of a series of interrelated projects delivering various components for a cloud infrastructure solution. Intel is an active member of OpenStack and is contributing Intel developed code to the OpenStack community that delivers enhanced security, power management and policy enforcement capabilities. W3C: The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is an international community where Member organizations, a full-time staff, and the public work together to develop Web standardIntel engaged on Platform Context APIs with W3C and developed System Info API spec in Device Access Protocol Working Group . Major portions of that spec pulled out into sub-specs: Battery Info and Network Info being implemented by browser vendors. Intel’s client aware cloud Web APIs implement a super set of these standardsIntel is also a founding member of the Open Compute Project, is a member of Open Networking Foundation, and Open Virtualization Alliance among several other industry organizations that are focused on open cloud and web standards. Refer to the backup slide for more details on Intel’s participation and role in each of these organizations.
  • Prc open stack conf aug 2012 cox v1

    1. 1. Cloud Industry Trends &Customer Usage Models Billy Cox Director, Cloud SW Strategy 2012 August 10
    2. 2. Growth & IT Challenges Drive Need for Cloud Computing IT Pros Growth IT Challenges >3B connected users by 20151 Improve Agility Reduce service delivery 2X growth times, improve TCO in information every two years2 Greater Efficiencies Reduce complexity & deploy 15B new workloads connected devices by 20153 >11X Gain Better Insights increase in mobile data Via intelligent analytics traffic by 20154 Up to 2X or $27B5 Avoid Lock-In in additional data center Seek interoperable solutions & power costs by 2015 services 1 Cisco Global Cloud Index Nov 2011 2 IDC Extracting Value from Chaos June 2011 3 Intel ECG – One Smart Network device forecast 4 Cisco Visual Networking Index: Global Mobile Data Traffic Forecast Update, 2011–2016, Feb 2012 5 Datacenter Dynamics Global Datacenter Energy Demand 2012 forecast; projected to 2015 by Intel; Assume $0.10/kWh3
    3. 3. Cloud Adoption Growing & Delivers Benefits IT Survey Results Hybrid Cloud Private Public Cloud Cloud Private Public Cloud Cloud Today: 14% Today: 7% 2014: 42% 35% by 20152 2014: 23% >40% of IT operations1 >40% of IT operations1 Intel IT example3 Traditional IT – 2009 Private cloud - 2011 Resource provisioning 90 days 45 minutes Virtualized Platforms 12% 65% Asset Utilization 10-20% >60% Capacity Silos Shared globally Cost Savings $9M in savings in 2 years 1 ODCA global member survey, Oct 2011, N=63 2 Gartner, Dec 2010, N=55 The Road Map From Virtualization to Cloud Computing (G00210845)4 3 Source: Intel IT-
    4. 4. Progress Towards Vision of “Cloud 2015” Private Cloud Public Cloud Federated Today Automated Growing public and private Silo‟d Clouds Resource Provisioning: cloud adoption Months => Minutes Security, management Manual processes complexity, app migration Client Aware Context aware growing: screen size, location, identity Lack client aware standards5
    5. 5. 2015 & Beyond: Open Cloud Vision Private Cloud Public Cloud Federated Automated Client Open Clouds Aware Interoperable, Built on Open, Multi-Vendor Solutions & Industry Standards 2015 Future Private Public  Integrated hybrid clouds  Services & resources adapt to  Easy to compare services environment  Automated security and  Predictive, real-time analytics resource allocation  User experience adapts to  Expanded context awareness patterns/behaviors6
    6. 6. Cloud high level framework Service Consumer Cloud Big data Applications Analytics Cloud Management (Orchestration) OSS Network BSS Compute Storage Mass Fast Service Provider Storage Storage7
    7. 7. Servers: Efficient, Secure, Highly Scalable Environment Future Homogeneous, Virtualized Built in security / virtualization • Platforms tailored to workloads >16X efficiency gains past 5 years1 • Advanced Challenges security, virtualization, power & • Improve OpEx: Seek more management controls granular platform controls Benefits • Workload optimized platforms • Scale & improved automation • Infrastructure security:1,200 new rootkits/day2 • OpEx & QoS improvements • Enhance QoS & VM isolation • More secure infrastructure 1.Source: Intel – based on SPECpower results from 2006 – 2012. Refer to backup for more details. 2.McAfee Labs, Quarterly Threats Report 3.Source Intel - 2010  2020 Data center energy efficiency is determined by server energy efficiency (as measured by SPECPower_ssj2008 or equivalent publi cations and using a 2010 baseline of an E56xx series processor-based server platform) as well as technology adoption that raises overall data center work output (such as virtualization technology). Performance tests and ratings are measured using specific computer systems and/or components and reflect the approximate8 performance of Intel products as measured by those tests. Any difference in system hardware or software design or configuration may affect actual performance. Buyers should consult other sources of information to evaluate the performance of systems or components they are considering purchasing. For more information on performance tests and on the performance of Intel products, visit Intel Performance Benchmark Limitations.
    8. 8. Open Compute Project Structure Contributions Enablement
    9. 9. Open Compute Projects
    10. 10. Impact of High Ambient Temp Intel Analysis• Data Center – 15 MW datacenter with 10 KW rack and a 50% average utilization. Standard Chilled water system, N+1 configuration• System – Compared an HTA optimized platform with a non optimized system – CPU, layout & heat sink• Energy savings • Reduction in cooling • Reduction in chillers, converted to server energy costs cooling towers and ACU power- from cooling • Power savings due to by using free cooling infrastructure reduction optimized systemIntel Internal estimate based on deploying HTA optimized system24/7/365 ambient temperature in 15 MW New Mexico data centerwith 5kW rack and 50% utilization. Assumed 10c/kw as cost ofpower.
    11. 11. Optimized Networking for Cloud Infrastructure Environment Future Company Company A Multi-tenant Company A Company • Programmable Company B Company C Dynamic B C • Open ecosystem Cloud OS • Standard high Network management Controller volume hardware cluster configure Network management configure configure configure configure configure Challenges Benefits • Complex management • Agility, scale, improved QoS • Isolate multi-tenant networks • Network automation • Scale & meet SLAs • Increase pace of innovation12
    12. 12. Networks
    13. 13. Scalable Cloud Storage Advancements Environment Future 20% 50X Application Servers of all info “touched” Increase in data by cloud by 20151 managed by 20201 Traditional Centralized Storage Servers Metadata Storage Servers Servers Centralized Scale out • More efficient centralized storage • Scale out, highly distributed storage • Advanced storage capabilities SAN (Storage Area Network) Benefits • Scale up to Exabytes Challenges • Lower cost $/TB for capacity • Limited scalability & cost effectiveness • Flexibility • Long deployment times 1 IDC Digital Universe Study 201114
    14. 14. Scale-out storage Swift Lustre15
    15. 15. Cloud Management (Orchestration)16
    16. 16. Cloud Applications Global transport: • Geo specific DNS Client Device • IP level transport Global • Geo specific content App types: Transport • Local app • Browser • Browser app CDN • Hybrid • “local” delivery • Caches „most‟ content CDN CDN CDN CDN • May do local processing (encoding) Cloud App • The datacenter part of the app Cloud App • C#, Java, Ruby, PHP, Javascript • Scale-out and across providers • Stateless instancesStorage• DB and NoSQL Logs Analytics Pages• Replicated for performance Images and availability Content Analytics• Scalable capacity and • For diagnostics throughput are critical • For business intelligence
    17. 17. Cloud Application memcached cache memcached webfe SP cache Geo IPS LB cache LB cache DNS webfe GEO SP cache IPS LB cache ~10TBClient Device DB Financials Financials Global Transport SP cache Geo IPS LB cache DB DNS ~1TB Users Users GEO SP cache IPS LB cache NoSQL ~1PB Pages Pages Images Images ~100TB NoSQL Logs Logs Hadoop+ Analytics CDN Cloud App
    18. 18. Scaling Memcached Performance with Intel® Xeon® Server Software Optimizations to memcached v1.6 Throughput Scaling of GET Thread pinning Memcached V1.6 Base vs. Age-Bag LRU Optimized Lockless GET 18 16 Optimized Released to Open Source Relative Throughput 14 Base 12 Configuration 10 Optimizations 8 10 Gb NIC 6 4 • Intel® 82599EN 2 16 TX and RX queues 0 Intel® Hyper-Threading™ Technology 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Linux Kernel 2.6.30 or later Number of cores • (multiple NIC TX and RX queues)Software and workloads used in performance tests may have been optimized for performance only on Intel® microprocessors. Performancetests, such as SYSmark* and MobileMark*, are measured using specific computer systems, components, software, operations and functions.Any change to any of those factors may cause the results to vary. You should consult other information and performance tests to assist youin fully evaluating your contemplated purchases, including the performance of that product when combined with other products. For moreinformation go to Configuration: see slide 39
    19. 19. 20
    20. 20. Open Data Center Alliance Defining requirements & amplifying voice of IT Published IT Requirements for: >$100B in annual IT spend • Secure Federation • Enhanced Identity Management • Services Transparency & Automation • Common Management & Policy Proposal Engine Assistant tool: • Use ODCA usage models in RFPs Source: ODCA member survey, Oct 201121
    21. 21. Accelerating Open, Interoperable Standards ODCA collaborating with multiple industry organizations: CSA, DMTF, Green Grid, OASIS, Open Compute Project, and TMForum Intel: Technical Advisor Open source software for building clouds Intel: Active member Publishes specs for efficient datacenters, server, storage Intel: Founding member Drive standards for development of the web Intel: Active member Influence and Take Advantage of Emerging Industry Standards22
    22. 22. Usage Models Secure Federation • Secure Provider Assurance • Security Monitoring • Identity Management Interoperability Guide • Cloud based Identity Governance and Auditing • Infrastructure as a Service Privileged User Access • Cloud based Identity Provisioning • Single Sign on Authentication Automation • IO Control • VM Interoperability • Long Distance Workload Migration Common Management and Policy • Regulatory Framework Transparency • Carbon Footprint • Service Catalog • Standard Units of Measure23
    23. 23. VM Interoperability24
    24. 24. Security Monitoring25
    25. 25. From Intel IT Category Change/Add Block Storage Nova Volume HA Block Storage Boot from Volume support Image Management HTTP based image management Image Management Preserve in use images and snapshots Manageability An open, extensible deployment design that is not hardware vendor specific Manageability For the operators, a richer set of command-line tools Networking Security group enhancements Networking IP address management integration with external DNS servers Security OpenID federation to Keystone Manageability Macro Install All Projects Package/script. Security Optimized code for everything over SSL/TLS Security SDL and 3rd Party Code Auditing for Core Security Standardize Logging output for all Openstack Services and applications. Security Federation of roles and identities between different Openstack Instances/Implementations Security Implement Multifactor authentication options for administrative identities in Openstack Security User configurable RBAC Capacity Management User quota support Manageability Amazon Cloud Watch; Amazon Simple Workflow Add federation or P2P capabilities for multiple OpenStack instances in the same environment to Manageability work together. Change Keystone API to include CUD operations for administrators to manage tenants and user Manageability memberships. Manageability Add sub-system for auto-scaling. Greatly improved Web interface enabling end user usage of GUI to consume Open Stack based User Interface Cloud services Image Management Trusted Source Glance Peers with local Glance caching Core Added metrics/filter attributes for scheduler service
    26. 26. Closing Cloud adoption is happening. Rapidly. Cloud technology is on fast evolution path: hw and sw. Infrastructure is evolving quickly in cloud environments. Open source continues to be a strong influencer. Customers have a voice for their requirements. If 5 years ago, you knew the tools you would have today: would you have implemented your IT differently?27
    27. 27. 28
    28. 28. Legal Disclaimer Pages 33 - 36 - Pick the ones needed – remove othersOverclocking Disclaimer WARNING: Altering clock frequency and/or voltage may: (i) reduce system stability and useful life of the system and processor; (ii) cause the processor and other system components to fail; (iii) cause reductions in system performance; (iv) cause additional heat or other damage; and (v) affect system data integrity. Intel has not tested, and does not warranty, the operation of the processor beyond its specifications. Intel assumes no responsibility that the processor, including if used with altered clock frequencies and/or voltages, will be fit for any particular purpose. For more information, visit Memory Warning: Altering PC memory frequency and/or voltage may (i) reduce system stability and use life of the system, memory and processor; (ii) cause the processor and other system components to fail; (iii) cause reductions in system performance; (iv) cause additional heat or other damage; and (v) affect system data integrity. Intel assumes no responsibility that the memory, included if used with altered clock frequencies and/or voltages, will be fit for any particular purpose. Check with memory manufacturer for warranty and additional details.Overspeed Protection Removed Warning: Altering clock frequency and/or voltage may (i) reduce system stability and useful life of the system and processor; (ii) cause the processor and other system components to fail; (iii) cause reductions in system performance; (iv) cause additional heat or other damage; and (v) affect system data integrity. Intel has not tested, and does not warranty, the operation of the processor beyond its specifications.Intel® Trusted Platform Module (Intel® TPM): The original equipment manufacturer must provide TPM functionality, which requires a TPM-supported BIOS. TPM functionality must be initialized and may not be available in all countries.WiMAX Technology requires a WiMAX-enabled device and subscription to a WiMAX broadband service. May require purchase of additional software or hardware. WiMAX availability is limited; consult your service provider for details and network limitations. Actual performance will vary depending on your service provider and other variables. See for more information.Intel® WiDi Technology requires an Intel® Wireless Display enabled PC, compatible adapter, and TV. 1080p and Blu- Ray* or other protected content playback only available on 2nd generation Intel® Core™ processor-based PCs with built-in visuals enabled. Consult your PC manufacturer. For more information, see® AES-NI requires a computer system with an AES-NI enabled processor, as well as non-Intel software to execute the instructions in the correct sequence. AES-NI is available on select Intel® processors. For availability, consult your reseller or system manufacturer. For more information, see Intel® Advanced Encryption Standard Instructions (AES-NI)Home Server: Requires an Internet connection and wireless router. Certain capabilities may not be compatible with all computer systems, consult your system or device manufacturer. For more information, visit Intel® Home & Small Business Storage Developer ResourcesClient Initiated Remote Access (CIRA): Client Initiated Remote Access may not be available in public hot spots or "click to accept" locations. For more information on CIRA, visit Fast Call for Help Overview
    29. 29. Legal DisclaimerBuilt-In Security: No computer system can provide absolute security under all conditions. Built-in security features available on select Intel® Core™ processors may require additional software, hardware, services and/or an Internet connection. Results may vary depending upon configuration. Consult your PC manufacturer for more details.Enhanced Intel SpeedStep® Technology - See the Processor Spec Finder at or contact your Intel representative for more information.Intel® Hyper-Threading Technology (Intel® HT Technology) is available on select Intel® Core™ processors. Requires an Intel® HT Technology-enabled system. Consult your PC manufacturer. Performance will vary depending on the specific hardware and software used. For more information including details on which processors support Intel HT Technology, visit® Pair & Share App requires a genuine Intel® processor-based computer with Windows* 7 OS, Intel® Pair & Share device application installed on each supported device and the sharing session host PC. Host PC and devices must be connected to the same wireless network. Intel® Wireless Display technology required for sharing on TV.Intel® vPro™ Technology is sophisticated and requires setup and activation. Availability of features and results will depend upon the setup and configuration of your hardware, software and IT environment. To learn more visit:® Small Business Advantage requires an Intel® Small Business Advantage enabled system and proper configuration. Availability of features will depend upon the setup and configuration by your PC manufacturer. Consult your system manufacturer.Requires activation and a system with a corporate network connection, an Intel® AMT-enabled chipset, network hardware and software. For notebooks, Intel AMT may be unavailable or limited over a host OS-based VPN, when connecting wirelessly, on battery power, sleeping, hibernating or powered off. Results dependent upon hardware, setup and configuration. For more information, visit Intel® Active Management Technology.Intel® Anti-Theft Technology (Intel® AT): No system can provide absolute security under all conditions. Requires an enabled chipset, BIOS, firmware and software, and a subscription with a capable Service Provider. Consult your system manufacturer and Service Provider for availability and functionality. Intel assumes no liability for lost or stolen data and/or systems or any other damages resulting thereof. For more information, visit® HD Graphics P3000 are only available on select models of the Intel® Xeon® processor E3 family. To learn more about Intel Xeon processors for workstation visit® High Definition Audio (Intel® HD Audio) requires an Intel® HD Audio enabled system. Consult your PC manufacturer for more information. Sound quality will depend on equipment and actual implementation. For more information about Intel HD Audio, refer to Intel® High Definition Audio
    30. 30. Legal DisclaimerIntel® 64 architecture requires a system with a 64-bit enabled processor, chipset, BIOS and software. Performance will vary depending on the specific hardware and software you use. Consult your PC manufacturer for more information. For more information, visit® Trusted Execution Technology (Intel® TXT): No computer system can provide absolute security under all conditions. Intel® TXT requires a computer with Intel® Virtualization Technology, an Intel TXT enabled processor, chipset, BIOS, Authenticated Code Modules and an Intel TXT compatible measured launched environment (MLE). Intel TXT also requires the system to contain a TPM v1.s. For more information, visit® Virtualization Technology (Intel® VT) requires a computer system with an enabled Intel® processor, BIOS, and virtual machine monitor (VMM). Functionality, performance or other benefits will vary depending on hardware and software configurations. Software applications may not be compatible with all operating systems. Consult your PC manufacturer. For more information, visit® Turbo Boost Technology requires a system with Intel Turbo Boost Technology. Intel Turbo Boost Technology and Intel Turbo Boost Technology 2.0 are only available on select Intel® processors. Consult your PC manufacturer. Performance varies depending on hardware, software, and system configuration. For more information, visit™ 3D: Viewing stereo 3D content requires 3D glasses and a 3D-capable display. Physical risk factors may be present when viewing 3D material.Intel® MyWiFi Technology is an optional feature and requires additional software and an Intel® Centrino® wireless adapter. Wi-Fi devices must be certified by the Wi-Fi Alliance for 802.11b/g/a in order to connect. See for more details.Intel® Insider™ is a hardware-based content protection mechanism. Requires a 2nd Generation Intel® Core™ Processor based PC with built-in visuals enabled, an internet connection, and content purchase or rental from qualified providers. Consult your PC manufacturer. For more information, visit™: As compared to other PC I/O connection technologies including eSATA, USB and IEEE 1394 Firewire*. Performance will vary depending on the specific hardware and software used. For more information go to Thunderbolt™ Technology.Intel® Identity Protection Technology (Intel® IPT): No system can provide absolute security under all conditions. Requires an Intel® Identity Protection Technology-enabled system, including a 2nd Generation Intel® Core™ processor enabled chipset, firmware and software, and participating website. Consult your system manufacturer. Intel assumes no liability for lost or stolen data and/or systems or any resulting damages. For more information, visit™ Touch/Convertibility: Touch and convertibility may not be available on all models. Consult your UltrabookTM manufacturer. For more information and details, visit Visuals: Built-in visual features are not enabled on all PCs and optimized software may be required. Check with y our system manufacturer. Learn more at
    31. 31. Legal DisclaimerKVM Remote Control (Keyboard, Video, Mouse) is only available with Inte® Core™ i5 vPro and Core™ i7 vPro processors with Intel® Active Management technology activated and configured and with integrated graphics active. Discrete graphics are not supported.ENERGY STAR* is a system-level energy specification, defined by the Environmental Protection Agency, that relies on all system components, such as processor, chipset, power supply, etc.) For more information, visit Source Code Disclaimer: Any software source code reprinted in this document is furnished under a software license and may only be used or copied in accordance with the terms of that license. {include a copy of the software license, or a hyperlink to its permanent location}Other Software Code Disclaimer Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions: The above copyright notice and this permission notice (including the next paragraph) shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software. THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.
    32. 32. Risk FactorsThe above statements and any others in this document that refer to plans and expectations for the second quarter, the year andthe future are forward-looking statements that involve a number of risks and uncertainties. Words such as “anticipates,” “expects,”“intends,” “plans,” “believes,” “seeks,” “estimates,” “may,” “will,” “should” and their variations identify forward-looking statements.Statements that refer to or are based on projections, uncertain events or assumptions also identify forward-looking statements.Many factors could affect Intel‟s actual results, and variances from Intel‟s current expectations regarding such factors could causeactual results to differ materially from those expressed in these forward-looking statements. Intel presently considers the followingto be the important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from the company‟s expectations. Demand could bedifferent from Intels expectations due to factors including changes in business and economic conditions, including supplyconstraints and other disruptions affecting customers; customer acceptance of Intel‟s and competitors‟ products; changes incustomer order patterns including order cancellations; and changes in the level of inventory at customers. Uncertainty in globaleconomic and financial conditions poses a risk that consumers and businesses may defer purchases in response to negativefinancial events, which could negatively affect product demand and other related matters. Intel operates in intensely competitiveindustries that are characterized by a high percentage of costs that are fixed or difficult to reduce in the short term and productdemand that is highly variable and difficult to forecast. Revenue and the gross margin percentage are affected by the timing of Intelproduct introductions and the demand for and market acceptance of Intels products; actions taken by Intels competitors, includingproduct offerings and introductions, marketing programs and pricing pressures and Intel‟s response to such actions; and Intel‟sability to respond quickly to technological developments and to incorporate new features into its products. Intel is in the process oftransitioning to its next generation of products on 22nm process technology, and there could be execution and timing issuesassociated with these changes, including products defects and errata and lower than anticipated manufacturing yields. The grossmargin percentage could vary significantly from expectations based on capacity utilization; variations in inventoryvaluation, including variations related to the timing of qualifying products for sale; changes in revenue levels; segment product mix;the timing and execution of the manufacturing ramp and associated costs; start-up costs; excess or obsolete inventory; changes inunit costs; defects or disruptions in the supply of materials or resources; product manufacturing quality/yields; and impairments oflong-lived assets, including manufacturing, assembly/test and intangible assets. The majority of Intel‟s non-marketable equityinvestment portfolio balance is concentrated in companies in the flash memory market segment, and declines in this marketsegment or changes in management‟s plans with respect to Intel‟s investments in this market segment could result in significantimpairment charges, impacting restructuring charges as well as gains/losses on equity investments and interest and other. Intelsresults could be affected by adverse economic, social, political and physical/infrastructure conditions in countries where Intel, itscustomers or its suppliers operate, including military conflict and other security risks, natural disasters, infrastructuredisruptions, health concerns and fluctuations in currency exchange rates. Expenses, particularly certain marketing andcompensation expenses, as well as restructuring and asset impairment charges, vary depending on the level of demand for Intelsproducts and the level of revenue and profits. Intel‟s results could be affected by the timing of closing of acquisitions anddivestitures. Intels results could be affected by adverse effects associated with product defects and errata (deviations frompublished specifications), and by litigation or regulatory matters involving intellectualproperty, stockholder, consumer, antitrust, disclosure and other issues, such as the litigation and regulatory matters described inIntels SEC reports. An unfavorable ruling could include monetary damages or an injunction prohibiting Intel from manufacturing orselling one or more products, precluding particular business practices, impacting Intel‟s ability to design its products, or requiringother remedies such as compulsory licensing of intellectual property. A detailed discussion of these and other factors that couldaffect Intel‟s results is included in Intel‟s SEC filings, including the company‟s most recent Form 10-Q, Form 10-K and earningsrelease. Rev. 5/4/12