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Smart Demand: Lessons From Water

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Presentation at 'Smart Demand' Workshop, iHeat 2012, 13th November 2012, Murray Edwards College, Buckingham House Conference Centre, Cambridge. (http://www.cir-strategy.com/events/heat/)

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Smart Demand: Lessons From Water

  1. 1. Smart Demand:Lessons from WaterDr Ben Andersonb.anderson@soton.ac.ukSustainable Energy Research GroupFaculty of Engineering and the Environment
  2. 2. The Menu The problem(s) with water Water ‘practices’ The problem with ‘demographics’ Lessons from water Implications for smart energy 2
  3. 3. The Menu The problem(s) with water Water ‘practices’ The problem with ‘demographics’ Lessons from water Implications for smart energy Source: DEFRA, 2008 3
  4. 4. The problem(s) with water… Source: DEFRA, 2011 Over abstraction With no action It costs to clean – Energy (carbon) Supply – Patchy (no grid) – Locally variable Demand – poorly understood 4
  5. 5. What do we know? Domestic water demand is rising Mean daily consumption – ~= 150 l/person/day – ~= 140 l/person/day (2030)? More single households – more total volume Source: DEFRA, 2011 5
  6. 6. What do we know? Domestic water demand is rising Mean daily consumption – ~= 150 l/person/day – ~= 140 l/person/day (2030)? More single households – more total volume And – Consumption = ƒ(occupancy) – But look at the ranges! Source: DEFRA, 2011 But that’s about it… Source: ESRC Sustainable Practices Group Water Survey, 2011 www.sprg.ac.uk 6
  7. 7. Well… almost ‘Expected’ appliance use – On average Actual appliance consumption – Mean l/day – For a few micro-measured households So… – Consumption = ƒ(occupancy) + ƒ(appliances) But Source: Shove & Medd, 2005 7
  8. 8. The trouble with averages… 5 ‘average’ households – but they do different things So to reduce demand… – What to target? – Who to target? – How to target them? Source: Shove & Medd, 2005 Now… – Consumption = ƒ(occupancy * wpd) + ƒ(appliances * wpd) – Where wpd = What People Do 8
  9. 9. But what do people do? Does this tell us? Social practices – Habits – Routines – Neither fully conscious nor reflective – Constraints & inter-dependences – “Why people don’t do what they ‘should’” (Jim Skea, 2011) 9
  10. 10. Washing practices 2011 survey – N = 1800 “7 a week” 7 showers + 1 bath Do washing practices cluster? Source: ESRC Sustainable Practices Group Water Survey, 2011 www.sprg.ac.uk 10
  11. 11. Washing practice clusters Dimensions Whole sample – Frequency – Diversity – Technology – Outsourcing Source: ESRC Sustainable Practices Group Water Survey, 2011 www.sprg.ac.uk 11
  12. 12. Washing practice clusters Dimensions – Frequency – Diversity – Technology – Outsourcing Source: ESRC Sustainable Practices Group Water Survey, 2011 www.sprg.ac.uk 12
  13. 13. Washing practice clusters Dimensions – Frequency – Diversity – Technology – Outsourcing Explain – ~ 20% l/day variation Source: ESRC Sustainable Practices Group Water Survey, 2011 www.sprg.ac.uk 13
  14. 14. But… Cluster membership – is not easy to predict Low Attentious High Low Out and Frequency Cleaning Frequency Frequency About Showering Bathing BathingAge  Number of children  Household Composition  GenderNumber of earnersNumber of cars  AccommodationTenure Environmental values   14
  15. 15. Lessons from water: Volume ~= ƒ(occupancy) + ε – ‘Attitudes’ are not that relevant Appliances provide a substrate for… – What people do - social practices Help to explain variation (ε) • Across ‘similar’ households • With similar appliances • And similar accommodation Are habitual, routine & not fully conscious nor reflective • So difficult to change 15
  16. 16. Implications for Energy Hot water! You can eco-tech all you like – But it’s what people do with it that matters Source: A.S. Bahaj, P.A.B. James (2007) “Urban energy generation: The added value of photovoltaics in social housing” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 11: 2121-2136 16
  17. 17. Implications for Energy Hot water! You can eco-tech all you like – But it’s what people do with it that matters Source: A.S. Bahaj, P.A.B. James (2007) “Urban energy generation: The added value of photovoltaics in social housing” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 11: 2121-2136 17
  18. 18. Implications for Energy Hot water! You can eco-tech all you like – But it’s what people do with it that matters Source: A.S. Bahaj, P.A.B. James (2007) “Urban energy generation: The added value of photovoltaics in social housing” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 11: 2121-2136 18
  19. 19. Implications for Energy Hot water! You can eco-tech all you like – But it’s what people do with it that matters H2 - low demand - little potential for shifting? Source: A.S. Bahaj, P.A.B. James (2007) “Urban energy generation: The added value of photovoltaics in social housing” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 11: 2121-2136 19
  20. 20. Implications for Energy Hot water! You can eco-tech all you like – But it’s what people do with it that matters H2 - low demand - little potential for shifting? H4 -high, peaky demand - potential for shifting? Source: A.S. Bahaj, P.A.B. James (2007) “Urban energy generation: The added value of photovoltaics in social housing” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 11: 2121-2136 20
  21. 21. Implications for Energy Hot water! You can eco-tech all you like – But it’s what people do with it that matters Smart Demand needs a handle on – Habits, routines – Barriers, constraints and flexibility 21
  22. 22. Implications for Energy Hot water! You can eco-tech all you like – But it’s what people do with it that matters Smart Demand needs a handle on – Habits, routines – Barriers, constraints and flexibility – Networks of demand And ways of ‘auto-targeting’ interventions – That don’t rely on ‘demographics’ + ‘values’ – A market of 1? – Smart Monitoring? 22
  23. 23. Thank you Dr Ben Anderson (b.anderson@soton.ac.uk) www.energy.soton.ac.uk – SPRG • Sustainable Practices Research Group • www.sprg.ac.uk – DANCER • Digital Agent Networking for Customer Energy Reduction (EPSRC) • dancerproject.wordpress.com 23

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