Display an additional quality
that appeals to the sense of
touch – that is, a tactual
Gives a richer understanding
of real things.
Are very useful in the event that real-
life materials are impossible to be
brought in the classroom to provide
students with certain amount of direct,
purposeful, rich and meaningful learning
Are usually constructed to allow handling
by the students, except those which are
too large, too costly, to rare, or too
1. Jean Piaget
Use the methods of instruction through
the individualized programs, exploration
and experimentation with concrete
materials that helps the child to learn
more about his environment.
With the use of real things, a child is
able to compare or contrast things and
make perception about his environment.
2. Jerome Brunner
using real things
proceed from direct
things) to iconic
1.Objects and Specimens
2.Models and Mock-ups
5. Resource Person
1. Objects and Specimens
materials such as
plants, animals, tools
and artifacts used in
1. Objects and Specimens
Is a part or aspect of some
item that is a typical sample
of the character of others in
its same class or group.
These are less abstract
and more concrete.
Learners become more
familiar with objects.
Needs a bigger storage.
Prone to possible damage.
limitation in availability
and may not be easy to be
2. Models and Mock-ups
of real objects.
o Show the totality
of a thing or a
Types of Models
1. Solid Models
- used mainly
2. Cross-section Model /
- show the internal
- models which
of parts to a
4. Working Models
- indicate how the
2. Models and Mock-ups
Are special types of
models which are
focused on a
specific part of a
whole object and
It is intended to
show the essential
parts which are
o Allows learner to examine model or mock-ups
which may not be easy in the real object.
o Functional model/mock-ups allows learners to
handle and operate.
o After presentation, model can be left on
display for a period of time and allows
learners to independently study the item at
their own convenience.
oWorking models can illustrate basic
operations of a real device and
provide important details.
WHEN TO USE:
oWhen reality is too small.
oWhen reality is inaccessible (past and
futuristic events); and when distance is
impossible to bridge.
oWhen reality is too dangerous (like viewing an
oWhen reality is unreliable (weather and
other climatic conditions).
oWhen reality is too abstract (space
o It may be more expensive that extra care is
o Some models which are too big may be difficult to
handle for the actual lecture.
o If model are built to scale, it could be time
o It might distort some real objects.
The term diorama is of Greek origin which
means “to see through”.
Diorama is a three-dimensional
representation of events, ideas or concepts
against a scenic background.
It is also known as a meaningful
exhibit in boxes or cases,
which are portable. It is a
miniature scene in threedimensional treatment that is
meant to replicate reality and
cause students to think
creatively and aesthetically.
Allows us to
Help us make
the real world
Can be viewed,
and meaning to
Demands a bigger space
in the classroom in
Is generally expensive.
Can be easily damaged.
Puppets are artificial figures whose
movements are controlled by a person. They
are inanimate objects that are manipulated so
as to appear to be moving. The person who
operates them is called a puppeteer.
Puppets are moved by hand or by strings,
wires, or rods. Puppet figures are made to
represent a person, animal, plant, or an
A puppet can become the medium through
which the children express themselves, often in
role-playing fashion. Puppets can assist the
child in assuming the role of the character
that he is portraying.
Types of Puppets
– They are twodimensional in nature,
normally controlled by
rods that are much
thinner than the typical
ones that are used to
support the rod puppet.
This type of puppet
makes use of a
translucent screen (rearview screen) and a light
source for its effective
2. Rod puppets
– They are flat cut out
figures tacked to a stick,
with one or more movable
parts, and operated from
below the stage level by
wire rods or slender
3. Hand puppets
– This type of puppet is made to
slip over the hand like a glove.
The puppets head is operated by
the forefinger of the puppeteer,
the little finger and thumb being
used to animate the puppet
4. Glove-and-finger puppets
– They make use of old gloves to
which small costumed figure are
– These puppets are suspended
and controlled by a number of
strings, plus sometimes a central
rod attached to a control bar held
from above by the puppeteer. The
control bar can be either a
horizontal or vertical one. Basic
strings for operation are usually
attached to the head, back, hands
(to control the arms) and just
above the knee (to control the
legs). These are generally
constructed of wood with
articulating joints that replicate
those of human beings.
They boost active participation among
Stirring and attention getting
Fascination of the inanimate objects
Enjoyable and spontaneous learning experiences
Students become more creative.
It is time-consuming.
It is expensive.
It demands extra effort.
It can compete with the teacher.
5. RESOURCE PERSON
A resource person is someone invited to talk
about something. He/she is experienced or
knowledgeable with and is capable of sharing
what he/she knows.
. In the classroom, there are instances when a
teacher realizes that certain topics are better
taught when they are discussed with the help
of an expert
Less preparation on the part of the teacher
Thorough discussion of the topic
It might add enthusiasm to the audience if the
speaker is good.
Hassle in searching for the suitable speaker.
It might confuse the audience if the speaker is
not good enough.
Less enthusiasm from the audience if the
speaker is boring.