3D (Three
Dimentional)
INTRUCTIONAL
MATERIALS
Display an additional quality

that appeals to the sense of
touch – that is, a tactual
quality.
Gives a richer understan...
 Are very useful in the event that real-

life materials are impossible to be
brought in the classroom to provide
student...
1. Jean Piaget
•

•

Use the methods of instruction through
the individualized programs, exploration
and experimentation w...
2. Maria

Montessori

•

2. Jerome Brunner

using real things
help promote
motor and
sensory skills.

•

Proposes that
ins...
1.Objects and Specimens
2.Models and Mock-ups
3.Diorama
4.Puppets

5. Resource Person
1. Objects and Specimens
Objects
Are concrete
materials such as
plants, animals, tools
and artifacts used in
providing dir...
1. Objects and Specimens
Specimens
Is a part or aspect of some
item that is a typical sample
of the character of others in...
ADVANTAGES:
 These are less abstract

and more concrete.
 It
attracts learners’
attention.
 Learners become more
famili...
2. Models and Mock-ups
MODELS
o are

scaled replicas
of real objects.
o Show the totality
of a thing or a
process.
Types of Models
1. Solid Models
- used mainly
for recognizing
external
features
2. Cross-section Model /
Cut-away Models
- show the internal
structures
3.Construction
Models
- models which
can be
assembled and
disassembled to
show relationship
of parts to a
whole
4. Working Models
- indicate how the
things being
represented operate
2. Models and Mock-ups
MOCK-UPS
 Are special types of

models which are
focused on a
specific part of a
whole object and
...
ADVANTAGES:

o Allows learner to examine model or mock-ups

which may not be easy in the real object.
o Functional model/m...
oWorking models can illustrate basic

operations of a real device and
provide important details.
WHEN TO USE:

oWhen reality is too small.
oWhen reality is inaccessible (past and

futuristic events); and when distance i...
oWhen reality is unreliable (weather and

other climatic conditions).
oWhen reality is too abstract (space
relationship, m...
DISADVANTAGES:

o It may be more expensive that extra care is

needed.
o Some models which are too big may be difficult to...
3. DIORAMA
The term diorama is of Greek origin which
means “to see through”.
Diorama is a three-dimensional
representation...
It is also known as a meaningful
exhibit in boxes or cases,
which are portable. It is a
miniature scene in threedimensiona...
 Have intrinsic

values.
 Allows us to
compare past
and present
conditions.
 Help us make
connections to
the real world...
Demands a bigger space

in the classroom in
terms
of
use
and
storage.
Is generally expensive.
Can be easily damaged.
4. PUPPETS
 Puppets are artificial figures whose

movements are controlled by a person. They
are inanimate objects that a...
 A puppet can become the medium through

which the children express themselves, often in
role-playing fashion. Puppets ca...
Types of Puppets

Shadow puppets
– They are twodimensional in nature,
normally controlled by
rods that are much
thinner th...
3. Hand puppets
– This type of puppet is made to
slip over the hand like a glove.
The puppets head is operated by
the fore...
5. Marionettes
– These puppets are suspended
and controlled by a number of
strings, plus sometimes a central
rod attached ...
Advantages:
 They boost active participation among





students.
Stirring and attention getting
Fascination of the i...
Limitations:

 It is time-consuming.
 It is expensive.
 It demands extra effort.
 It can compete with the teacher.
5. RESOURCE PERSON
 A resource person is someone invited to talk

about something. He/she is experienced or
knowledgeable...
Advantages:

 Less preparation on the part of the teacher
 Thorough discussion of the topic
 It might add enthusiasm to...
Limitations:

 Hassle in searching for the suitable speaker.
 It might confuse the audience if the speaker is

not good ...
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  1. 1. 3D (Three Dimentional) INTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS
  2. 2. Display an additional quality that appeals to the sense of touch – that is, a tactual quality. Gives a richer understanding of real things.
  3. 3.  Are very useful in the event that real- life materials are impossible to be brought in the classroom to provide students with certain amount of direct, purposeful, rich and meaningful learning experience.  Are usually constructed to allow handling by the students, except those which are too large, too costly, to rare, or too fragile.
  4. 4. 1. Jean Piaget • • Use the methods of instruction through the individualized programs, exploration and experimentation with concrete materials that helps the child to learn more about his environment. With the use of real things, a child is able to compare or contrast things and make perception about his environment.
  5. 5. 2. Maria Montessori • 2. Jerome Brunner using real things help promote motor and sensory skills. • Proposes that instruction should proceed from direct experiences (real things) to iconic representation (pictures) to symbolic representation (words) for achieving mastery of task.
  6. 6. 1.Objects and Specimens 2.Models and Mock-ups 3.Diorama 4.Puppets 5. Resource Person
  7. 7. 1. Objects and Specimens Objects Are concrete materials such as plants, animals, tools and artifacts used in providing direct experience.
  8. 8. 1. Objects and Specimens Specimens Is a part or aspect of some item that is a typical sample of the character of others in its same class or group.
  9. 9. ADVANTAGES:  These are less abstract and more concrete.  It attracts learners’ attention.  Learners become more familiar with objects. LIMITATIONS:  Needs a bigger storage.  Prone to possible damage.  Some objects have limitation in availability and may not be easy to be found.
  10. 10. 2. Models and Mock-ups MODELS o are scaled replicas of real objects. o Show the totality of a thing or a process.
  11. 11. Types of Models 1. Solid Models - used mainly for recognizing external features
  12. 12. 2. Cross-section Model / Cut-away Models - show the internal structures
  13. 13. 3.Construction Models - models which can be assembled and disassembled to show relationship of parts to a whole
  14. 14. 4. Working Models - indicate how the things being represented operate
  15. 15. 2. Models and Mock-ups MOCK-UPS  Are special types of models which are focused on a specific part of a whole object and are workable.  It is intended to show the essential parts which are made detachable.
  16. 16. ADVANTAGES: o Allows learner to examine model or mock-ups which may not be easy in the real object. o Functional model/mock-ups allows learners to handle and operate. o After presentation, model can be left on display for a period of time and allows learners to independently study the item at their own convenience.
  17. 17. oWorking models can illustrate basic operations of a real device and provide important details.
  18. 18. WHEN TO USE: oWhen reality is too small. oWhen reality is inaccessible (past and futuristic events); and when distance is impossible to bridge. oWhen reality is too dangerous (like viewing an erupting volcano).
  19. 19. oWhen reality is unreliable (weather and other climatic conditions). oWhen reality is too abstract (space relationship, mathematics)
  20. 20. DISADVANTAGES: o It may be more expensive that extra care is needed. o Some models which are too big may be difficult to handle for the actual lecture. o If model are built to scale, it could be time consuming. o It might distort some real objects.
  21. 21. 3. DIORAMA The term diorama is of Greek origin which means “to see through”. Diorama is a three-dimensional representation of events, ideas or concepts against a scenic background.
  22. 22. It is also known as a meaningful exhibit in boxes or cases, which are portable. It is a miniature scene in threedimensional treatment that is meant to replicate reality and cause students to think creatively and aesthetically.
  23. 23.  Have intrinsic values.  Allows us to compare past and present conditions.  Help us make connections to the real world  Develops students creativity  Can be viewed, handled and examined by students.  Adds interest and meaning to the lesson.
  24. 24. Demands a bigger space in the classroom in terms of use and storage. Is generally expensive. Can be easily damaged.
  25. 25. 4. PUPPETS  Puppets are artificial figures whose movements are controlled by a person. They are inanimate objects that are manipulated so as to appear to be moving. The person who operates them is called a puppeteer.  Puppets are moved by hand or by strings, wires, or rods. Puppet figures are made to represent a person, animal, plant, or an object.
  26. 26.  A puppet can become the medium through which the children express themselves, often in role-playing fashion. Puppets can assist the child in assuming the role of the character that he is portraying.
  27. 27. Types of Puppets Shadow puppets – They are twodimensional in nature, normally controlled by rods that are much thinner than the typical ones that are used to support the rod puppet. This type of puppet makes use of a translucent screen (rearview screen) and a light source for its effective use. 2. Rod puppets – They are flat cut out figures tacked to a stick, with one or more movable parts, and operated from below the stage level by wire rods or slender sticks. 1.
  28. 28. 3. Hand puppets – This type of puppet is made to slip over the hand like a glove. The puppets head is operated by the forefinger of the puppeteer, the little finger and thumb being used to animate the puppet hands. 4. Glove-and-finger puppets – They make use of old gloves to which small costumed figure are attached.
  29. 29. 5. Marionettes – These puppets are suspended and controlled by a number of strings, plus sometimes a central rod attached to a control bar held from above by the puppeteer. The control bar can be either a horizontal or vertical one. Basic strings for operation are usually attached to the head, back, hands (to control the arms) and just above the knee (to control the legs). These are generally constructed of wood with articulating joints that replicate those of human beings.
  30. 30. Advantages:  They boost active participation among     students. Stirring and attention getting Fascination of the inanimate objects Enjoyable and spontaneous learning experiences Students become more creative.
  31. 31. Limitations:  It is time-consuming.  It is expensive.  It demands extra effort.  It can compete with the teacher.
  32. 32. 5. RESOURCE PERSON  A resource person is someone invited to talk about something. He/she is experienced or knowledgeable with and is capable of sharing what he/she knows.  . In the classroom, there are instances when a teacher realizes that certain topics are better taught when they are discussed with the help of an expert
  33. 33. Advantages:  Less preparation on the part of the teacher  Thorough discussion of the topic  It might add enthusiasm to the audience if the speaker is good.
  34. 34. Limitations:  Hassle in searching for the suitable speaker.  It might confuse the audience if the speaker is not good enough.  Less enthusiasm from the audience if the speaker is boring.

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