The Cell Cycle  &  Cell Division
The Cell Cycle http://www.nobel.se/medicine/laureates/2001/press.html
Cell division is a fundamental process <ul><li>All cells come from pre-existing cells </li></ul><ul><li>It is necessary to...
Cell division and reproduction <ul><li>It is necessary for reproduction in unicellular or multicellular organisms </li></u...
Prokaryotes <ul><li>Prokaryotes  have no nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>They have a single circular chromosome </li></ul><ul><l...
Eukaryotes <ul><li>Eukaryotes  must divide their nucleus (and other organelles such as mitochondria) in preparation for ce...
Animated Cycle http://www.cellsalive.com/cell_cycle.htm
MITOSIS
Mitosis The process of cell division which results in the production of two daughter cells from a single parent cell.  The...
Chromosomes  – rod-like structures, consisting of nucleic acids and protein, located within the nucleus The no.of chromoso...
 
Mitosis can be divided into stages  <ul><li>Interphase </li></ul><ul><li>Prophase </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphase </li></ul><u...
Interphase The cell prepares for division <ul><li>Animal Cell  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA replicated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Interphase Animal Cell Plant Cell Photographs from: http://www.bioweb.uncc.edu/biol1110/Stages.htm
Prophase The cell prepares for nuclear division <ul><li>Animal Cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Packages DNA into chromosomes </...
Prophase Animal Cell Plant Cell Photographs from: http://www.bioweb.uncc.edu/biol1110/Stages.htm
Metaphase The cell prepares chromosomes for division <ul><li>Animal Cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chromosomes line up at the ...
Metaphase Animal Cell Plant Cell Photographs from: http://www.bioweb.uncc.edu/biol1110/Stages.htm
Anaphase The chromosomes divide <ul><li>Animal Cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spindle fibers pull chromosomes apart </li></ul>...
Anaphase Animal Cell Plant Cell Photographs from: http://www.bioweb.uncc.edu/biol1110/Stages.htm
Telophase The cytoplasm divides <ul><li>Animal Cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA spreads out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nuc...
Telophase Animal Cell Plant Cell Photographs from: http://www.bioweb.uncc.edu/biol1110/Stages.htm
Animal Mitosis -- Review Interphase                                                                  Prophase             ...
Plant Mitosis -- Review Interphase                                                                 Prophase               ...
 
MEIOSIS
Meiosis Meiosis is the   type of cell division by which germ cells (eggs and sperm) are produced.  One parent cell produce...
Meiosis During meiosis, DNA replicates  once , but the nucleus divides  twice .
Meiosis Four stages can be described for each division of the nucleus.
Meiosis I First division of meiosis
First Division of Meiosis <ul><li>Prophase 1:  Each chromosome duplicates and remains closely associated. These are called...
Prophase  I http://everyschool.org/u/logan/cellreproductionx/rogersa/research/meiosis.html
Prophase I http://everyschool.org/u/logan/cellreproductionx/rogersa/research/meiosis.html
Metaphase I http://everyschool.org/u/logan/cellreproductionx/rogersa/research/meiosis.html
Telophase I http://everyschool.org/u/logan/cellreproductionx/rogersa/research/meiosis.html
Meiosis Second Division of Meiosis
Second Division of Meiosis <ul><li>Prophase 2 : DNA does not replicate.  </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphase 2 : Chromosomes line ...
Prophase II http://everyschool.org/u/logan/cellreproductionx/rogersa/research/meiosis.html
Metaphase II http://everyschool.org/u/logan/cellreproductionx/rogersa/research/meiosis.html
Telophase II http://everyschool.org/u/logan/cellreproductionx/rogersa/research/meiosis.html
Meiosis http://www.biosci.uga.edu/almanac/bio_103/notes/apr_3.html .
 
 
Meiosis Animation http://www.rothamsted.bbsrc.ac.uk/notebook/courses/guide/movie/meiosis.htm
Differences in Mitosis & Meiosis <ul><li>Mitosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asexual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell divides onc...
Comparison Animations http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/divi_flash.html   http://www.usoe.k12.ut.us/curr/science/sciber00/...
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Cell division lec

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Cell division lec

  1. 1. The Cell Cycle & Cell Division
  2. 2. The Cell Cycle http://www.nobel.se/medicine/laureates/2001/press.html
  3. 3. Cell division is a fundamental process <ul><li>All cells come from pre-existing cells </li></ul><ul><li>It is necessary to replace worn out cells in multicellular organisms </li></ul><ul><li>It is required for growth in multicellular organisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An increase in size will require an increase in surface area to volume ration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell division subdivides the cytoplasm into small units (cells) surrounded by plasma membranes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is necessary for reproduction in unicellular or multicellular organisms </li></ul>© 2007 Paul Billiet ODWS
  4. 4. Cell division and reproduction <ul><li>It is necessary for reproduction in unicellular or multicellular organisms </li></ul>© 2007 Paul Billiet ODWS Microbus © Microscope-Microscope.org
  5. 5. Prokaryotes <ul><li>Prokaryotes have no nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>They have a single circular chromosome </li></ul><ul><li>Prokaryotes simply divide their cells in two by binary fission </li></ul>http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/ © 2007 Paul Billiet ODWS
  6. 6. Eukaryotes <ul><li>Eukaryotes must divide their nucleus (and other organelles such as mitochondria) in preparation for cell division (mitosis or meiosis) </li></ul><ul><li>Before the nucleus divides the genetic material replicates (duplicates) </li></ul>© 2007 Paul Billiet ODWS
  7. 7. Animated Cycle http://www.cellsalive.com/cell_cycle.htm
  8. 8. MITOSIS
  9. 9. Mitosis The process of cell division which results in the production of two daughter cells from a single parent cell. The daughter cells are identical to one another and to the original parent cell.
  10. 10. Chromosomes – rod-like structures, consisting of nucleic acids and protein, located within the nucleus The no.of chromosomes per nucleus is normally constant for all the individuals of a species, e.g. Man has 46, rat 42, garden pea 14 and tomato 24. Every body (somatic ) cell contains the characteristic number of chromosomes but mature germ cells ( gametes ) contain only half the usual number one member of each pair. The gametes are described as haploid in chromsome number and the somatic cell as diploid .
  11. 12. Mitosis can be divided into stages <ul><li>Interphase </li></ul><ul><li>Prophase </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphase </li></ul><ul><li>Anaphase </li></ul><ul><li>Telophase & Cytokinesis </li></ul>
  12. 13. Interphase The cell prepares for division <ul><li>Animal Cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA replicated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organelles replicated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell increases in size </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plant Cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA replicated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organelles replicated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell increases in size </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Interphase Animal Cell Plant Cell Photographs from: http://www.bioweb.uncc.edu/biol1110/Stages.htm
  14. 15. Prophase The cell prepares for nuclear division <ul><li>Animal Cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Packages DNA into chromosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plant cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Packages DNA into chromosomes </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Prophase Animal Cell Plant Cell Photographs from: http://www.bioweb.uncc.edu/biol1110/Stages.htm
  16. 17. Metaphase The cell prepares chromosomes for division <ul><li>Animal Cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chromosomes line up at the center of the cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spindle fibers attach from daughter cells to chromosomes at the centromere </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plant Cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chromosomes line up at the center of the cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spindle fibers attach from daughter cells to chromosomes at the centromere </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Metaphase Animal Cell Plant Cell Photographs from: http://www.bioweb.uncc.edu/biol1110/Stages.htm
  18. 19. Anaphase The chromosomes divide <ul><li>Animal Cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spindle fibers pull chromosomes apart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>½ of each chromosome (called chromotid) moves to each daughter cell </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plant Cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spindle fibers pull chromosomes apart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>½ of each chromosome (called chromotid) moves to each daughter cell </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Anaphase Animal Cell Plant Cell Photographs from: http://www.bioweb.uncc.edu/biol1110/Stages.htm
  20. 21. Telophase The cytoplasm divides <ul><li>Animal Cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA spreads out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nuclei form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell wall pinches in to form the 2 new daughter cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plant Cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA spreads out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nuclei form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New cell wall forms between to nuclei to form the 2 new daughter cells </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Telophase Animal Cell Plant Cell Photographs from: http://www.bioweb.uncc.edu/biol1110/Stages.htm
  22. 23. Animal Mitosis -- Review Interphase                                                               Prophase                                                               Metaphase                                                               Anaphase                                                               Telophase                                                               Interphase                                                              
  23. 24. Plant Mitosis -- Review Interphase                                                               Prophase                                                               Metaphase                                                               Anaphase                                                               Telophase                                                               Interphase                                                              
  24. 26. MEIOSIS
  25. 27. Meiosis Meiosis is the type of cell division by which germ cells (eggs and sperm) are produced. One parent cell produces four daughter cells. Daughter cells have half the number of chromosomes found in the original parent cell
  26. 28. Meiosis During meiosis, DNA replicates once , but the nucleus divides twice .
  27. 29. Meiosis Four stages can be described for each division of the nucleus.
  28. 30. Meiosis I First division of meiosis
  29. 31. First Division of Meiosis <ul><li>Prophase 1: Each chromosome duplicates and remains closely associated. These are called sister chromatids. </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphase 1 : Chromosomes align at the center of the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Anaphase 1 : Chromosome pairs separate with sister chromatids remaining together. </li></ul><ul><li>Telophase 1 : Two daughter cells are formed with each daughter containing only one chromosome of the chromosome pair. </li></ul>
  30. 32. Prophase I http://everyschool.org/u/logan/cellreproductionx/rogersa/research/meiosis.html
  31. 33. Prophase I http://everyschool.org/u/logan/cellreproductionx/rogersa/research/meiosis.html
  32. 34. Metaphase I http://everyschool.org/u/logan/cellreproductionx/rogersa/research/meiosis.html
  33. 35. Telophase I http://everyschool.org/u/logan/cellreproductionx/rogersa/research/meiosis.html
  34. 36. Meiosis Second Division of Meiosis
  35. 37. Second Division of Meiosis <ul><li>Prophase 2 : DNA does not replicate. </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphase 2 : Chromosomes line up at the center of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Anaphase 2 : Centromeres divide and sister chromatids move separately to each pole. </li></ul><ul><li>Telophase 2 : Cell division is complete. </li></ul><ul><li>Four haploid daughter cells are formed . </li></ul>
  36. 38. Prophase II http://everyschool.org/u/logan/cellreproductionx/rogersa/research/meiosis.html
  37. 39. Metaphase II http://everyschool.org/u/logan/cellreproductionx/rogersa/research/meiosis.html
  38. 40. Telophase II http://everyschool.org/u/logan/cellreproductionx/rogersa/research/meiosis.html
  39. 41. Meiosis http://www.biosci.uga.edu/almanac/bio_103/notes/apr_3.html .
  40. 44. Meiosis Animation http://www.rothamsted.bbsrc.ac.uk/notebook/courses/guide/movie/meiosis.htm
  41. 45. Differences in Mitosis & Meiosis <ul><li>Mitosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asexual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell divides once </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two daughter cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic information is identical </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Meiosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell divides twice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Four haploid daughter cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic information is different </li></ul></ul>
  42. 46. Comparison Animations http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/divi_flash.html http://www.usoe.k12.ut.us/curr/science/sciber00/7th/genetics/sciber/animatin.htm

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