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Abril- modal verbs

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Abril- modal verbs

  1. 1. 01-04-2014 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO SHOULD Should is an auxiliary verb, a modal auxiliary verb. We use should mainly to:  Give advice or make recommendations  Talk about obligation  Talk about probability and expectation  Express the conditional mood  Replace a subjunctive structure Structure of Should Subject + should + main verb The main verb is always the bare infinitive (infinitive without "to"). SUBJECT AUXILIARY VERB MAIN VERB + He should go. - He should not go. shouldn't ? Should he go?
  2. 2. 02-04-2014 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO MUST (subjective obligation) We often use must to say that something is essential or necessary, for example:  I must go. Structure of Must Must is a modal auxiliary verb. It is followed by a main verb. The structure is: Subject + must + main verb Look at these examples: SUBJECT AUXILIARY MUST MAIN VERB I must go home. You must visit us. We must stop now.
  3. 3. 03-04-2014 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO MODALS VERBS EXERCISES Can, must, should  Circle the correct answer. 1. Can you play / to play the guitar? 2.Ann seems be / to be very tired. 3.Peter hasn´t phoned. He must be / to be away.  Make questions or negatives. 1. Mike can’t swim. (ski ?) Can he ski? 2. John can play football. (poker - ) He can’t play poker. 3. Maria must play the piano. (sing - ) She mustn’t sing.
  4. 4. 04-04-2014 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO Using "Should" in Present, Past, and Future Modal Use Positive Forms 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future Negative Forms 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future You can also use: should RECOMMENDATION, ADVISABILITY 1. People with high cholesterol should eat low-fat foods. 2. Frank should have eaten low-fat foods. That might have prevented his heart attack. 3. You really should start eating better. 1. Sarah shouldn't smoke so much. It's not good for her health. 2. Sarah shouldn't have smoked so much. That's what caused her health problems. 3. Sarah shouldn't smoke when she visits Martha next week. Martha hates when people smoke in her house. ought to should OBLIGATION I should be at work before 9:00. We should return the video before the video rental store closes. NO NEGATIVE FORMS be supposed to
  5. 5. "SHOULD" CAN ALSO EXPRESS SOMETHING BETWEEN RECOMMENDATION AND OBLIGATION. "BE SUPPOSED TO" EXPRESSES A SIMILAR IDEA AND CAN EASILY BE USED IN THE PAST OR IN NEGATIVE FORMS. should EXPECTATION 1. Susan should be in New York by now. 2. Susan should have arrived in New York last week. Let's call her and see what she is up to. 3. Susan should be in New York by next week. Her new job starts on Monday. 1. Susan shouldn't be in New York yet. 2. Susan shouldn't have arrived in New York until yesterday. 3. Susan shouldn't arrive in New York until next week. ought to, be supposed to
  6. 6. 07-04-2014 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO Using "Must" in Present, Past, and Future Modal Use Positive Forms 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future Negative Forms 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future You can also use: must CERTAINTY 1. That must be Jerry. They said he was tall with bright red hair. 2. That must have been the right restaurant. There are no other restaurants on this street. 3. NO FUTURE FORM 1. That must not be Jerry. He is supposed to have red hair. 2. That must not have been the right restaurant. I guess there is another one around here somewhere. 3. NO FUTURE FORM have to must not PROHIBITION You must not swim in that river. It's full of crocodiles. You must not forget to take your malaria medication while your are in the tropics. PROHIBITION USUALLY REFER TO THE NEAR FUTURE.
  7. 7. must STRONG RECOMMENDATION (Americans prefer the form "should.") 1. You must take some time off and get some rest. 2. SHIFT TO "SHOULD" You should have taken some time off last week to get some rest. 3. SHIFT TO "SHOULD" You should take some time off next week to get some rest. 1. You mustn't drink so much. It's not good for your health. 2. SHIFT TO "SHOULD" You shouldn't have drunk so much. That caused the accident. 3. SHIFT TO "SHOULD" You shouldn't drink at the party. You are going to be the designated driver. should must NECESSITY (Americans prefer the form "have to.") 1. You must have a permit to enter the national park. 2. SHIFT TO "HAVE TO" We had to have a permit to enter the park. 3. We must get a permit to enter the park next week. 1. SHIFT TO "HAVE TO" We don't have to get a permit to enter the national park. 2. SHIFT TO "HAVE TO" We didn't have to get a permit to enter the national park. 3. SHIFT TO "HAVE TO" We won't have to get a permit to enter the national park. have to
  8. 8. 08-04-2014 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO MIGHT "Might” is use for possibilities in present and future. Might" is most commonly used to express possibility. It is also often used in conditional sentences. English speakers can also use "might" to make suggestions or requests, although this is less common in American English. STRUCTURE: POSITIVE FORM Subject + might + infinitive + Complement NEGATIVE FORM Subject + might not + infinitive + Complement EXAMPLES:  I would bring an umbrella, it might rain later.  It might be better to finish this now, rather than wait until tomorrow.
  9. 9. 09-04-2014 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO MAY As "could", "may" is used to indicate future possibilities. We use May to say that it is possible that something will happen or is happening. May is formal and is often found in writing. EXAMPLES:  I would bring an umbrella, May it rain later.  It May be better to finish this now, rather than wait until tomorrow. STRUCTURE: Modal Verb + Base Verb May + Base Verb 1. It can also be used to give permissions or instructions.  Examples:  You May leave if you like.  You may use your cell phones now. 2. In interrogative sentences, the use of "May" is more polite than "can" or "could".  Examples:  May I have a glass of water?  May I leave now?
  10. 10. 10-04-2014 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO Using “May” in present, past and future Modal Use Positive Forms 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future Negative Forms 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future You can also use: may POSSIBILITY 1. Jack may be upset. I can't really tell if he is annoyed or tired. 2. Jack may have been upset. I couldn't really tell if he was annoyed or tired. 3. Jack may get upset if you don't tell him the truth. 1. Jack may not be upset. Perhaps he is tired. 2. Jack may not have been upset. Perhaps he was tired. 3. Jack may not get upset, even if you tell him the truth might may GIVE PERMISSION 1. You may leave the table now that you're finished with your dinner. 2. SHIFT TO "BE ALLOWED TO" You were allowed to leave the table after you finished your dinner. 3. You may leave the table when you finish your dinner. 1. You may not leave the table. You're not finished with your dinner yet. 2. SHIFT TO "BE ALLOWED TO" You were not allowed to leave the table because you hadn't finished your dinner. 3. You may not leave the table until you are finished with your dinner. can
  11. 11. 11-04-2014 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO Using “Might” in present, past and future Modal Use Positive Forms 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future Negative Forms 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future You can also use: might POSSIBILITY 1. She might be on the bus. I think her car is having problems. 2. She might have taken the bus. I'm not sure how she got to work. 1. She might not be on the bus. She might be walking home. 2. She might not have taken the bus. She might have walked home. could, may might CONDITIONAL OF MAY 1. If I entered the contest, I might actually win. 2. If I had entered the contest, I might actually have won. 3. If I entered the contest tomorrow, I might actually win. Unfortunately, I can't enter it. 1. Even if I entered the contest, I might not win. 2. Even if I had entered the contest, I might not have won. 3. Even if I entered the contest tomorrow, I might not win. might SUGGESTION 1. NO PRESENT FORM 2. You might have tried the cheese cake. 3. You might try the cheesecake. 1. NO PRESENT FORM 2. PAST FORM UNCOMMON 3. You might not want to eat the cheese cake. It's very calorific. could might REQUEST (British form) Might I have something to drink? Might I borrow the stapler? REQUESTS USUALLY REFER TO THE NEAR FUTURE. NEGATIVE FORMS UNCOMMON could, may, can
  12. 12. 14-04-2014 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO HAD BETTER  We use “had better” plus the infinitive without “to” to give advice. Although “had” is the past form of “have”, we use “had better” to give advice about the present or future.  STRUCTURE: Affirmative form is “had better” You'd better tell her everything. I'd better get back to work. We'd better meet early. The negative form is “had better not”. You'd better not say anything. I'd better not come. We'd better not miss the start of his presentation.
  13. 13.  USES: 1. We use “had better” to give advice about specific situations, not general ones. If you want to talk about general situations, you must use “should”. 2. When we give advice about specific situations, it is also possible to use “should”. 3. And we use “had better” there is a suggestion that if the advice is not followed, that something bad will happen.
  14. 14. 15-04-2014 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO HAVE GOT TO  Have (got) to: in the affirmative/positive form to talk about an obligation, or something that is necessary to do.  STRUCTURE: 1. Have got to: is NOT commonly used in American English, in the negative form.  Use don’t and doesn’t with have to. 2. Have got to: is NOT commonly used in American English in a question.  Use: do/don’t and does/doesn’t in a question.
  15. 15.  USES:  You can use “have (got) to” to talk about the future if you have already made plans to do something, or if you are now obligated to do something in the future.  “Have got to” can also be used as an exclamation.  Use “have got to” when you are certain about something (in the simple present tense): For example: o You can’t be serious. You have got to be kidding me!
  16. 16. 16-04-2014 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO Using "Had Better" in Present, Past, and Future "Had better" is often simply pronounced as "better" in spoken English. Use Positive Forms 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future Negative Forms 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future You can also use: had better RECOMMENDATION 1. SHIFT TO "SHOULD" OR "OUGHT TO" People should unplug toasters before they clean them. 2. SHIFT TO "SHOULD HAVE" OR "OUGHT TO HAVE" You should have unplugged the toaster before you tried to clean it. 3. You had better unplug the toaster before you try to clean it. 1. SHIFT TO "SHOULD" OR "OUGHT TO" People shouldn't clean toasters without unplugging them first. 2. SHIFT TO "SHOULD HAVE" OR "OUGHT TO HAVE" You shouldn't have cleaned the toaster without unplugging it first. 3. You had better not clean the toaster until you unplug it. should, ought to had better DESPERATE HOPE, WARNING The movie had better end soon. They had better be here before we start dinner. DESPERATE HOPES AND WARNINGS USUALLY REFER TO THE NEAR FUTURE. They had better not be late. They had better not forget Tom's birthday gift. DESPERATE HOPES AND WARNINGS USUALLY REFER TO THE NEAR FUTURE.
  17. 17. 17-04-2014 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO Using "Have Got to" in Present, Past, and Future Use Positive Forms 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future Negative Forms 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future You can also use: have got to NECESSITY 1. People have got to be on time if they want to get a seat in the crowded theater. 2. SHIFT TO "HAVE TO" You had to be on time if you wanted to get a seat in the crowded theater. 3. You have got to be there on time tonight if you want to get a seat in the crowded theater. 1. SHIFT TO "HAVE TO" People don't have to be there on time to get a seat. 2. SHIFT TO "HAVE TO" You didn't have to be there on time to get a seat. 3. SHIFT TO "HAVE TO" You won't have to be there on time to get a seat. have to, must haven't got to FUTURE OBLIGATION Haven't you got to be there by 7:00?"HAVEN'T GOT TO" IS PRIMARILY USED TO ASK ABOUT FUTURE OBLIGATIONS. IT CAN BE USED IN STATEMENTS, BUT THIS IS LESS COMMON. Don't you have to
  18. 18. 18-04-2014 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO Have to We often use “have to” to say that something is obligatory, for example:  Children have to go to school. Note: we can use the have to expression in all tenses, for example: I have to, I had to, I have had to, I will have to Structure of Have to “Have to” is often grouped with modal auxiliary verbs for convenience, but in fact it is not a modal verb. It is not even an auxiliary verb. In the have to structure, "have" is a main verb. The structure is: Subject + Auxiliary verb + have + Infinitive with to
  19. 19. Look at these examples in the simple tense: Subject Auxiliary verb Main verb have Infinitive (with to) + She has to work. - I do not have to see the doctor. ? Did you have to go to school? Use of Have to In general, have to expresses impersonal obligation. The subject of have to is obliged or forced to act by a separate, external power for example:  the Law  Or the school rules. And ’’Have to’’ is objective.
  20. 20. 21-04-2014 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO Ought to Ought is a modal auxiliary verb. There is no –s in the third person singular. Ought is different from other auxiliary verbs. It is used with to  We ought to respect our parents.  We ought to help the poor. Ought is rarely used in questions and negatives; should is generally used instead. A structure with think … ought is also common.  We ought to help them, shouldn’t we? (More natural than ought not we?)  Do you think I ought to consult a doctor? (More natural than Ought I to consult a doctor?)  Should we tell her? (Less formal than Ought we to tell her?)
  21. 21. Forms of ought to The verb ought to only exists in simple present and present perfect forms ALL PERSONS PRESENT PRESENT PERFECT AFFIRMATIVE ought to ought to have NEGATIVE ought not to, oughtn't to ought not to have, oughtn't to have Ought: Meaning “Ought to”: express duty, necessity, desirability and similar ideas. It is often used to advise people – to tell them that they have a duty to do things. The meaning is similar to should Ought is not as forceful as must. Uses of ought “Ought to” can express logical probability and to express probability.  If he started an hour ago, he ought to be here soon.
  22. 22. 22-04-2014 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO Using "Have to" in Present, Past, and Future Use Positive Forms 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future Negative Forms 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future You can also use: have to CERTAINTY 1. That has to be Jerry. They said he was tall with bright red hair. 2. That has to have been the right restaurant. There were no other restaurants on the street. 3. NONE 1. SHIFT TO "MUST" That must not be Jerry. They said he has blond hair, not red hair. 2. SHIFT TO "MUST" That must not have been the right restaurant. I guess there was another one around there somewhere. 3. NONE must, have got to have to NECESSITY 1. She has to read four books for this literature class. 2. She had to finish the first book before the midterm. 3. She will have to finish the other books before the final exam. 1. She doesn't have to read "Grapes of Wrath." It's optional reading for extra credit. 2. She didn't have to write a critique of "The Scarlet Letter." She had to give a presentation to her class. 3. She won't have to take any other literature classes. American Literature 101 is the only required course. must
  23. 23. 23-04-2014 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO Using "Ought to" in Present, Past, and Future Modal Use Positive Forms 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future Negative Forms 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future You can also use: ought to RECOMMENDATION, ADVICE 1. Margaret ought to exercise more. 2. Margaret ought to have exercised more so she would be better prepared for the marathon. 3. Margaret ought to come to the fitness center with us tonight. 1. Margaret ought not exercise too much. It might cause injury. 2. Margaret ought not have run the marathon. She wasn't in good shape. 3. Margaret ought not stay at home in front of the TV. She should go to the fitness center with us. should ought to ASSUMPTION, EXPECTATION, PROBABILITY 1. She ought to have the package by now. 2. She ought to have received the package yesterday. 3. She ought to receive the package tonight. "OUGHT NOT" IS USED PRIMARILY TO EXPRESS NEGATIVE RECOMMENDATIONS. (SEE ABOVE.) should Notice "Ought not" Remember that "ought to" loses the "to" in the negative. Instead of "ought not to," we say "ought not." "Ought not" is more commonly used in British English. Americans prefer "should not."
  24. 24. 24-04-2014 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO Shall 1. "Shall" is used to indicate future action. It is most commonly used in sentences with "I" or "we," and is often found in suggestions: Such as "Shall we go?" 2. "Shall" is also frequently used in: Promises or voluntary actions. 3. In formal English, the use of "shall" to describe future events, often expresses inevitability or predestination. 4. "Shall" is much more commonly heard in British English than in American English. Americans prefer to use other forms; although they do sometimes use "shall" in suggestions or formalized language.
  25. 25. 25-04-2014 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO Will "Will" is used with promises or voluntary actions that take place in the future. "Will", can also be used to make predictions about the future. Examples: I promise that I will write you every single day. Promise I will make dinner tonight. Voluntary action He thinks it will rain tomorrow. Prediction Shall forms: Modal Use Positive Forms Negative Forms You can also use: will FUTURE ACTION, PREDICTION The marketing director will be replaced by someone from the New York office. Fred will be there by 8:00. The marketing director will not be replaced after all. Fred will not be there. He has a previous obligation. shall will VOLUNTEERING, PROMISING I will take care of everything for you. I will make the travel arrangements. There's no need to worry. I will never forget you. I will never give up the fight for freedom. shall
  26. 26. 29-04-2014 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO Review modal verbs 1) Can Use Examples Ability to do, in the present (substitute form: to be able to) I can speak English. Permission to do, in the present (substitute form: to be allowed to) Can I go to the cinema? request Can you wait a moment, please? offer I can lend you my car till tomorrow. suggestion Can we visit Grandma at the weekend? possibility It can get very hot in Arizona. 2) Could Use Examples ability to do sth. in the past (substitute form: to be able to) I could speak English. permission to do sth. in the past (substitute form: to be allowed to) I could go to the cinema. polite question * Could I go to the cinema, please? polite request * Could you wait a moment, please? polite offer * I could lend you my car till tomorrow. polite suggestion * Could we visit Grandma at the weekend? possibility * It could get very hot in Montana.
  27. 27. 3) May Use Examples possibility It may rain today. permission to do sth. in the present (substitute form: to be allowed to) May I go to the cinema? polite suggestion May I help you? 4) Might Use Examples possibility (less possible than may) * It might rain today. hesitant offer * Might I help you? 5) Must Use Examples force, necessity I must go to the supermarket today. possibility You must be tired. advice, recommendation You must see the new film with Brad Pitt. 6) Must not/may not Use Examples prohibition You mustn't work on dad's computer. You may not work on dad's computer.
  28. 28. 30-04-2014 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO Review modal verbs 7) Need not Use Examples not necessary I needn't go to the supermarket; we're going to the restaurant tonight. 8) Ought to Use Examples advice You ought to drive carefully in bad weather. obligation You ought to switch off the light when you leave the room. 9) Shall Instead of will in the 1st person Use Examples suggestion Shall I carry your bag?
  29. 29. 10) Should Use Examples advice You should drive carefully in bad weather. obligation You should switch off the light when you leave the room. 11) Will Use Examples wish, request, demand, order (less polite than would) Will you please shut the door? prediction, assumption I think it will rain on Friday. promise I will stop smoking. spontaneous decision Can somebody drive me to the station? - I will. habits She's strange; she'll sit for hours without talking. 12) Would Use Examples wish, request (more polite than will) Would you shut the door, please? habits in the past Sometimes he would bring me some flowers. * No past forms - future forms

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