Forest and their_uses


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  • The many uses of forests seem to appeal to man's desire to bring all of nature under subjection, and this is contributing to global warming. The Caribbean is experiencing rising sea levels and heavier and more prolonged rain. The negative impact of deforestation on Haiti and sections of Jamaica do not appear to be registering with persons who chop down trees for survival reasons-charcoal production, sticks for yam fields, etc.
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Forest and their_uses

  1. 1. Forest and their Uses
  2. 2. General Use
  3. 3. Maintaining the water supply
  4. 4. Maintaining the water supply <ul><li>Forest: </li></ul><ul><li>Enable water to be collected and stored within a water catchment </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: Bukit Timah Nature Reserve </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of 4 reservoirs surrounded by forests </li></ul>
  5. 5. Maintaining the water supply <ul><li>Forest forms part of the water cycle: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process of evapo-transpiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water released into the atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encouraging Cloud formation, condensation and rain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rain falls replenishes the water in rivers and reservoirs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaves/branches intercept water and water seeps into the ground as groundwater </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reducing surface-runoffs </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Maintaining water quality <ul><li>Supports natural filteration </li></ul><ul><li>Makes its possible for drinking and supporting life </li></ul><ul><li>As the water flows seeps into the ground, soil particles trap impurities and filters the water </li></ul><ul><li>Less run-offs reduce erosion of soil and deposited in reservoirs and rivers </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Keeps the soil fertile </li></ul>Maintains the Nutrient cycle
  8. 8. Replenishing Oxygen and Removing Carbon Dioxide <ul><li>Forest as Green Lungs of the Earth: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>During photosynthesis, trees and plants give off oxygen and take in carbon dioxide to make food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduction in carbon dioxide content prevents rising global temperatures </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Nutrients on the forest floor
  10. 10. Form of Habitat for People
  11. 11. Form of habitat for plants and animal species
  12. 12. As a Resource <ul><li>For timber: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For industries </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Recreation and eco-tourism
  14. 15. Camping and hiking
  15. 16. Education and Research
  16. 17. Education and Research
  17. 18. Deforestation in Kalimantan, Borneo Causes Effects Measures to Control Deforestation
  18. 19. Word Splash Area Kalimantan Farming Lungs of the Earth Amazon Loss of nutrient cycle Soil erosion Loss of biodiversity Commercial logging Effects Deforestation Overpopulation transport Cattle ranching settlements Infertile soil Mineral Ores Decrease in evapotranspiration Causes Human Activities
  19. 20. <ul><li>World deforestation rates and forest cover statistics, 2000-2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Borneo </li></ul><ul><li>deforestation word splash.doc </li></ul><ul><li>(Use the word splash to get students to categorise and develop a mind-map on the causes and effects of deforestation) </li></ul>
  20. 21. Rainforest clearance YouTube - Saving the Rainforests in Indonesia - 24 Sep 07
  21. 22. <ul><li>Location </li></ul>
  22. 25. Causes of Deforestation in Borneo <ul><li>Increase in population </li></ul>Increasing Demand for Resources More land for farming Land for Settlement Land for Industrialisation Timber Fuelwood
  23. 27. Commercial Logging <ul><li>Most intensive in the 1980s and 1990s: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>with 60-240 cubic metres of wood harvested per ha </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logs for paper products mainly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>majority of land-clearing for timber plantations: </li></ul><ul><li>large landholders: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1985 - 1997 cleared nearly 1.7 million ha </li></ul></ul><ul><li>small landholders cleared 467,000 ha </li></ul>
  24. 28. Mining <ul><li>Gold, silver and copper found under the forest </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetation cleared to extract the minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Leading to soil erosion and contamination of river (excess of cyanide killing animals) </li></ul>
  25. 29. Farming <ul><li>Clearing forest for oil palm plantations </li></ul><ul><li>Carried out by commercial profit making companies </li></ul><ul><li>Small-scale farmers clear forest by slash and burn method for subsistence farming and cash-crop farming </li></ul><ul><li>The 1997-1998 fires: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>burned some 9.7 million hectares of forest and non-forest land in Borneo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>caused estimated economic damage of more than 9 billion dollars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>released 0.8-2.5 gigatons of carbon into the atmosphere. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Kalimantan, more than 6.5 million hectares burned and the smoke over the island &quot;covered an area measuring 2,000 by 4,000 km. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 30. Poaching of Animals
  27. 31. Transport <ul><li>Construction of roads and railway tracks link many settlements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg: Trans-Kalimantan Highway (230 km) cuts through the rainforest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Links the 2 cities of Balikpapan and Banjarmasin </li></ul></ul>
  28. 32. Settlements <ul><li>Resettlement programmes: internal migration of people from islands such as Java and Sumatra to unpopulated Kalimantan </li></ul><ul><li>Cleared forests to build settlements </li></ul><ul><li>Population adding pressure to land: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expansion of towns and cities (urbanisation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More forest is cleared </li></ul></ul>
  29. 33. Effects <ul><li>Lack of vegetation to hold the soil </li></ul><ul><li>Soil Erosion and soil leaching leading to infertility of land </li></ul><ul><li>Soil washed into the nearby rivers causing water pollution, raising of river bed and swelling of rivers </li></ul><ul><li>Land slides due to lack of vegetation </li></ul><ul><li>Disruption to the nutrient cycle and infertility of soil </li></ul>
  30. 34. Effects <ul><li>Increasing amount of carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere and contributing to global warming </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of flora and fauna </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce evapo-transpiration and decrease amount of rainfall </li></ul>
  31. 35. Solutions <ul><li>Conservation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Afforestation such as practice of forest plantation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conserve some parts of the forest as nature reserves or national parks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impose fines on those illegal loggers, corrupted forest rangers and those who do not abide by the rules </li></ul></ul>
  32. 36. Solutions <ul><li>Conservation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protected Areas: Setting aside land as National Parks or Forest Reserves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protected from cultivation, logging and construction of roads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice of selective cutting where certain trees are felled to prevent soil erosion </li></ul></ul>
  33. 37. Solutions <ul><li>Conservation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reforestation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(replanting trees in abandoned farming areas or areas that were once covered by forest) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Afforestation (planting of trees in areas that were not originally covered by forest) </li></ul></ul>
  34. 38. Solutions <ul><li>Demand Reduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice of the 3Rs of Reduce, Reuse and recycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public Awareness through education and campaigns </li></ul></ul>
  35. 39. Solutions <ul><li>Stewardship: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Our responsibility towards taking care of the environment and the resources: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>by govt, special organisations such as the FSC (forest stewardship council) or individuals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recycling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conservation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Restoration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regeneration </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 40. Sustainable Management (Development) <ul><li>Is careful use of resources so that the needs of the future generation are not compromised </li></ul><ul><li>Use of environmentally-friendly strategies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic devt approaches at the same time not damaging the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Egs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Afforestation and reforestation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled Logging </li></ul></ul>
  37. 41. Question <ul><li>1) How far do you agree that clearing the forest only brings about environmental problems? Explain your answer. </li></ul><ul><li>2) The following measures have been taken by the Indonesian government to reduce the problems of deforestation. </li></ul><ul><li>Reforestation and Afforestation </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled Logging </li></ul><ul><li>Control of Forest Fires </li></ul><ul><li>Are all the measures taken by the Indonesian government effective? </li></ul>