Chapter 4 Tourism Regulation

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PowerPoint slides for The Tourism System 7th ed. by Robert C. Mill and Alastair M. Morrison, published by Kendall/Hunt, 2012.

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Chapter 4 Tourism Regulation

  1. 1. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 4Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Tourism Regulation Chapter 4 Tourism Regulation © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish Viewpoint Contents  Describes the functions that government agencies play.  Explains how governments impact tourism through legislation and regulations and by their direct involvement in the planning, development, and marketing. Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish ViewpointRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 1
  2. 2. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 4Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Tourism Regulation Purpose Having learned the reasons for government legislation and regulations, students will be able to describe the types of legislation and regulations that are found in tourism. Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish Viewpoint Learning Objective 1: Government Role in Establishing Legislation and Regulations Explain why the government role in establishing tourism-related legislation and regulations is both essential and controversial. Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish ViewpointRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 2
  3. 3. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 4Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Tourism Regulation Government Role in Essential, Sometimes Controversial  Governments cannot totally rely upon the private sector to effectively control and regulate tourism.  Government agencies are often accused of being too bureaucratic, of developing unnecessary “red tape,” and of going too far in their policing efforts.  Governments are criticized for hindering the development of tourism destination areas because of their lengthy and complex project approval processes.  There is often a lack of coordination and cooperation among government agencies in policies and programs. Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish Viewpoint Government Role in Establishing Legislation and Regulations  Protect and conserve the destination’s natural, historical, and cultural resources.  Protect visitors from unscrupulous business practices.  Ensure that visitors are catered to in a secure and hygienic fashion.  Ensure safety standards in transportation and recreation.  Enforce border controls on immigration and customs. Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish ViewpointRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 3
  4. 4. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 4Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Tourism Regulation Learning Objective 2: Multilateral and Bilateral Agreements Identify and explain the multilateral and bilateral agreements affecting tourism. Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish Viewpoint Multilateral, Bilateral, and Plurilateral Agreements Multilateral: Several (almost all) countries have signed and agreed to abide by the codes of conduct in the agreements. Bilateral: Agreements signed by two countries. Plurilateral: Agreements among specific groups of countries (e.g., European Union). Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish ViewpointRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 4
  5. 5. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 4Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Tourism Regulation Multilateral and Bilateral Agreements Affecting Tourism  Multilateral air agreements  Bilateral and plurilateral air agreements  World Trade Organization , GATT and GATS  Hotel classification, rating and grading  World Heritage List, UNESCO  Free trade agreements Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish Viewpoint GATT and GATS General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade General Agreement on Trade in Services The World Trade Organization (WTO) headquartered in Switzerland, with 157 member countries (August 2012), is the successor to GATT. WTO uses GATT and GATS as its “rule-books” for trade in goods and services. http://www.wto.org, 2013 Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish ViewpointRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 5
  6. 6. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 4Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Tourism Regulation Hotel Classification, Rating and Grading Many countries have their own hotel classification systems (e.g., Austria, Denmark, China, France, Germany, Ireland, Sweden, etc.) A standard worldwide system has been proposed, but has not been adopted due to opposition from the hotel industry and some countries. Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish Viewpoint UNESCO World Heritage List An international agreement was signed in 1972 titled the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage. The primary purpose of this agreement was to define and conserve the world’s heritage by drawing up a list of sites whose outstanding values should be preserved for all humanity and to ensure their protection through a closer cooperation among nations. Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish ViewpointRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 6
  7. 7. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 4Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Tourism Regulation Free Trade Agreements (regional trade agreements) North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)  European Union/European Community Trans-Tasman Mutual Recognition Agreement (TTMRA) Asia Pacific Trade Agreement (APTA) ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA)  Other regional trade agreements, http://rtais.wto.org Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish Viewpoint Learning Objective 3: Reasons for Destination Area Legislation and Regulations Explain the common reasons for introducing tourism-related laws and regulations in destination areas. Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish ViewpointRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 7
  8. 8. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 4Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Tourism Regulation Reasons for Destination Area Legislation and Regulations 1. Controlling the entry of foreign visitors and goods 2. Controlling the quality of the visitor experience 3. Ensuring travel safety 4. Establishing tourism organizations 5. Gaming control 6. Maintaining building standards Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish Viewpoint Reasons for Destination Area Legislation and Regulations 7. Maintaining operating standards 8. Protecting the traveler 9. Protecting the environment and culture 10. Raising funds for tourism 11. Supporting physical planning guidelines Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish ViewpointRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 8
  9. 9. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 4Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Tourism Regulation Learning Objective 4: Types of Tourism Legislation and Regulations Identify the categories and types of tourism legislation and regulation found in destination areas. Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish Viewpoint Types of Destination Area Legislation and Regulations 1. Functional areas (environmental protection, economic development, frontier controls, etc.). 2. Sector basis:  Accommodation and food services  Travel agents, tour wholesalers and operators  Airlines, railways, buses, ships, and other carriers  Attraction operators, adventure travel operators Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish ViewpointRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 9
  10. 10. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 4Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Tourism Regulation Types of Destination Area Legislation and Regulation 3. Horizontal legislation or regulations: Affect every economic sector. 4. Specific legislation or regulations: Relate to a specific economic sector, such as tourism. Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish Viewpoint Types of Legislation and Regulation Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish ViewpointRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 10
  11. 11. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 4Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Tourism Regulation Learning Objective 5: Forms of Destination Area Legislation and Regulations Describe specific forms of destination area legislation and regulations. Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish Viewpoint Forms of Destination Area Legislation and Regulations 1. Accommodation standards 2. Alcohol sales laws and regulations 3. Civil aviation regulations 4. Environmental protection and conservation regulations 5. Health regulations Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish ViewpointRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 11
  12. 12. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 4Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Tourism Regulation Forms of Destination Area Legislation and Regulations 6. Airport and airline security and safety 7. Innkeeper liability laws 8. Retail travel agency, tour wholesaler, and operator regulations 9. Regulations on safety in activity participation 10.Timesharing (vacation ownership) laws and regulations Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish Viewpoint Learning Objective 6: Self-Regulation by the Private Sector in Tourism Explain the steps that private sector businesses in tourism are taking to promote self-regulation. Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish ViewpointRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 12
  13. 13. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 4Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Tourism Regulation Self-Regulation in Tourism 1. Accreditation: A process by which an association or agency evaluates and recognizes a program of study or an institution as meeting certain predetermined standards or qualifications. 2. Certification: A process by which an individual tourism professional is tested and evaluated to determine his or her mastery of a specific body of knowledge, or some portion of a body of knowledge. Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish Viewpoint Destination Marketing Association International Examples Accreditation: Destination Marketing Accreditation Program (DMAP) http://www.destinationmarketing.org/page.asp?pid=114 Certification: Certified Destination Management Executive (CDME) http://www.destinationmarketing.org/page.asp?pid=39 Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish ViewpointRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 13
  14. 14. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 4Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Tourism Regulation Self-Regulation in Tourism 3. Codes of ethics or practice: Codes of ethics or codes of practice to which trade associations in tourism require members to adhere. 4. Consumer protection programs: Often these are programs to protect travelers in the event of the bankruptcy or insolvency of any of a trade association’s members. Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish Viewpoint THE TOURISM SYSTEM Chapter 4 Chapter Summary Highlights  Governments’ role in tourism is essential, but also sometimes controversial.  There are many agreements and treaties among national governments that affect tourism either directly (e.g., air agreements) or indirectly. These are multilateral, plurilateral, and bilateral.  There are multiple types of destination-specific laws and regulations in tourism (e.g., accommodation standards, alcohol sales laws and regulations, health regulations, etc.).  The private sector has introduced many self-regulatory systems, including accreditation, certification, codes of ethics or practice, and consumer protection programs. © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish ViewpointRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 14

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