The Tourism System 6th edition                                                                                            ...
The Tourism System 6th edition                                                             Chapter 10Kendall Hunt Publishi...
The Tourism System 6th edition                                                             Chapter 10Kendall Hunt Publishi...
The Tourism System 6th edition                                                              Chapter 10Kendall Hunt Publish...
The Tourism System 6th edition                                                         Chapter 10Kendall Hunt Publishing C...
The Tourism System 6th edition                                                             Chapter 10Kendall Hunt Publishi...
The Tourism System 6th edition                                                             Chapter 10Kendall Hunt Publishi...
The Tourism System 6th edition                                                            Chapter 10Kendall Hunt Publishin...
The Tourism System 6th edition                                                                      Chapter 10Kendall Hunt...
The Tourism System 6th edition                                                                            Chapter 10Kendal...
The Tourism System 6th edition                                                              Chapter 10Kendall Hunt Publish...
The Tourism System 6th edition                                                              Chapter 10Kendall Hunt Publish...
The Tourism System 6th edition                                                        Chapter 10Kendall Hunt Publishing Co...
The Tourism System 6th edition                                                             Chapter 10Kendall Hunt Publishi...
The Tourism System 6th edition                                                              Chapter 10Kendall Hunt Publish...
The Tourism System 6th edition                                                             Chapter 10Kendall Hunt Publishi...
The Tourism System 6th edition                                                              Chapter 10Kendall Hunt Publish...
The Tourism System 6th edition                                                                          Chapter 10Kendall ...
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Chapter 10 Forces Shaping Tourism

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PowerPoint slides for The Tourism System 7th ed. by Robert C. Mill and Alastair M. Morrison, published by Kendall/Hunt, 2012.

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Chapter 10 Forces Shaping Tourism

  1. 1. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 10Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Forces Shaping Tourism PART 3 DEMAND Part 1. Destination: Planning, Developing, and Controlling Tourism An identification of the procedures that destination areas follow to set policies, plan, control, develop, and cater to tourism, with an emphasis on sustainable tourism development. Part 2. Marketing: Part 4. Travel: Strategy, Planning, Promotion, and The Characteristics of Travel Distribution An examination of the process by which A description of major travel segments, destination areas and tourism businesses travel flows, and modes of market services and facilities to potential transportation used. customers with an emphasis on the effective use of promotion and distribution channels. Part 3. Demand: The Factors Influencing the Market A consumer behavior approach to market demand emphasizing the internal and external influences on travelers including needs, motivation, and perception, the alternatives to travel, the marketing by tourism organizations, and the process by which travelers make buying decisions. © 2013 1 Chapter 10 Forces Shaping Tourism © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism MalaysiaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 1
  2. 2. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 10Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Forces Shaping Tourism Contents  Examines certain key factors that affect people’s travel and leisure-time decisions:  Culture  Availability of time  Demographics  Life cycle stages  Personality © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism Malaysia Purpose Having examined the external environment of specific types of tourists, students will be able to suggest appropriate types of vacations for them. © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism MalaysiaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 2
  3. 3. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 10Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Forces Shaping Tourism Learning Objective 1: Cultural Background and Travel Decisions Explain the effects of cultural background on travel decisions. © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism Malaysia The Effects of Culture on Travel Individuals are part of a larger group, which influences their decisions. Understanding culture and sub-cultures is essential to understanding the behavior of tourists from different places of origin. © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism MalaysiaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 3
  4. 4. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 10Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Forces Shaping Tourism Culture and Society Cultural values give individuals rules for behavior. Cultural values develop certain attitudes and perceptions. Culture values influence how people evaluate the world. Cultural differences can impact the level of satisfaction that tourists have with a destination. Cultural differences can cause difficulties in social interactions. © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism Malaysia Culture and Social Groups Groups have roles or standards of behavior peculiar to each group Vacation role? People enjoy “being themselves” on vacation Roles are learned through socialization Innovators are frequently opinion leaders; “mass follows class” External factors influence culture © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism MalaysiaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 4
  5. 5. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 10Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Forces Shaping Tourism Analyzing a Culture Culture varies along four main dimensions (Hofstede, 1985):  Individualism vs. collectivism  Masculinity vs. femininity  Large or small power distance  Strong or weak uncertainty avoidance © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism Malaysia Analyzing a Culture Country Clusters 1. More Developed Latin 2. Less Developed Latin 3. More Developed Asian 4. Less Developed Asian 5. Near Eastern 6. Germanic 7. Anglo 8. Nordic © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism MalaysiaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 5
  6. 6. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 10Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Forces Shaping Tourism Analyzing a Culture (Louden & Britta, 1979) Determine:  Relevant motivations in the culture  Characteristic behavior patterns  Broad cultural values relevant to the product  Characteristic forms of decision making  Appropriate institutions for this product in the minds of consumers Evaluate:  Promotion methods appropriate to the culture  Appropriate institutions for product © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism Malaysia The U.S. Culture U.S. Culture is varied There is not one culture, but four, based on generation divisions:  Veterans (1922-1943)  Baby Boomers (1943-1960)  Gen Xers (1960-1980)  Nexters (1980-2000) (aka Generation Y) © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism MalaysiaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 6
  7. 7. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 10Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Forces Shaping Tourism Learning Objective 2: Effects of Time on Travel Decisions Explain the effects of time on travel decisions. © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism Malaysia The Effect of Time on Travel Availability of time affects travel decisions. Financial ability and desire to travel are not enough if the traveler has no time. © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism MalaysiaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 7
  8. 8. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 10Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Forces Shaping Tourism The Effect of Time on Travel Spending Time Time is spent on maintenance activities It is also spent on work Leisure time: the rest of the day:  Inner-directed; time for the self  Over the last few centuries, U.S. leisure time has increased  Discretionary time decreases after a person has a family, and increases once the children leave the home © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism Malaysia Historical Development of Leisure Time 1900: Work week about 60 hours; today about 40 hours. Paid vacation time varies by country. Most European countries have 18 to 25 paid weekdays off. U.S. and Japan have only about 10. Workweek in France now pegged at 25 hours. Although workweeks have decreased; leisure time has not. © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism MalaysiaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 8
  9. 9. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 10Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Forces Shaping Tourism Leisure Time Divisions Weekdays Leisure Weekends Holidays © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism Malaysia Learning Objective 3: Effects of Socio-Economics on Travel Decisions Explain the effects of socioeconomic background on travel decisions. © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism MalaysiaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 9
  10. 10. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 10Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Forces Shaping Tourism The Impact of External Factors on Vacation Purchases © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism Malaysia Socioeconomic Background Age  Younger and older people have more free time  Younger people choose more adventurous vacations, while older people travel farther  Older travelers value restfulness and historical interests © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism MalaysiaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 10
  11. 11. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 10Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Forces Shaping Tourism Socioeconomic Background Generational Influence Matures: born before 1945  Duty  Hunting for a bargain  Strong family and community ties  Baby Boomers: born between 1946-1964  Seek less traditional excursions  Generation Xers: born between 1965 and 1978  Savvy, because they have seen uncertain economic times  Generation Y: born between 1978 and 2000 © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism Malaysia Socioeconomic Background Income  Inhibiting force on travel decisions  High income associated with high education and more household earners  Personal disposable income is income left after taxes  Highest recreation expenditures are by couples under 40 without children  Travelers of different income levels do different things while on vacation: high income: reading, bridge, fencing, squash, chess; low income: television, dominoes, bingo © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism MalaysiaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 11
  12. 12. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 10Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Forces Shaping Tourism Personal Income Distribution © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism Malaysia Socioeconomic Background Gender  Women take part in slightly fewer leisure activities than men  Women are more involved in cultural activities, and they prefer to travel for these reasons: a) to rest/relax; b) for friends; and c) for social reasons  Men generally prefer outdoor recreation, and playing and watching sports  Women souvenir buyers choose colorful or culturally- themed souvenirs © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism MalaysiaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 12
  13. 13. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 10Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Forces Shaping Tourism Socioeconomic Background Education More educated travelers  Participate in outdoor activities  Activities that require interpretation: plays, concerts, art museums, etc.  Less educated travelers  Often spend more money than the more-educated travelers  Seem to equate spending money with fun © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism Malaysia Time Phases in the Family Life Cycle © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism MalaysiaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 13
  14. 14. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 10Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Forces Shaping Tourism Life Cycle Stages Travel behavior varies depending on life stages Singles partake in a wider variety of activities outside the house than married people do Married people don’t do the same things singles do because of the presence of the spouse, not because of the nature of the activity © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism Malaysia Life Cycle Stages Presence of Children Less travel, more leisure time at home, and few new leisure activities Family vacation  Decisions are made jointly by husband and wife Childless vacation  Wife is more likely to make decisions Children  Leisure activity fads are easy to start  College-aged children are more likely to take risks on new activities © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism MalaysiaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 14
  15. 15. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 10Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Forces Shaping Tourism Life Cycle Stages Empty Nesters After children leave the home, the parents’ travel preferences switch from car to bus, plane or boat Usually empty nesters don’t think of extended air travel to foreign countries Fear is the main barrier for empty nesters who want to travel  Packaged tours may alleviate this fear © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism Malaysia Life Cycle Stages Ideal Vacation Trip by Life Cycle Young Free, 18 to 34 with no children Young Families, 18 to 34 with children Middle Frees, 35 to 54 with no children Middle Families with lower incomes, 35 to 54 with children and incomes of less than $50,000 Middle Families with higher incomes, 35-54 with children and incomes of $50,000 plus Older Frees with lower incomes, 55 and older with no children and incomes less than $50,000 Older Frees with higher incomes, 55 and older with no children and incomes of $50,000 and more © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism MalaysiaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 15
  16. 16. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 10Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Forces Shaping Tourism Life Cycle Stages Barriers to Leisure Enjoyment Not being sure what activities to be involved in Not knowing what’s going on and what’s available Not being sure how to use available resources Difficulty in planning and making decisions Not having anyone to do things with Not being at ease in social situations Difficulty in carrying out plans © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism Malaysia Learning Objective 4: Effects of Psychographics on Travel Decisions Explain the effects of psychographic background on travel decisions. © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism MalaysiaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 16
  17. 17. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 10Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Forces Shaping Tourism Personality People may view a vacation as an extension of their personality Traits  People express interests in certain things, which makes it simple to guess at the activities they would enjoy  No strong connection between traits and travel choices is yet established, however © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism Malaysia Personality Types Introverts  Do not seek the company of others  Rarely choose to participate in outdoor recreational activities Extroverts  Enjoy the company of others  Generally enjoy outdoor recreational activities © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism MalaysiaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 17
  18. 18. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 10Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Forces Shaping Tourism Psychographics and Lifestyle Psychographics – the development of psychological profiles of consumers based on lifestyles Venturers  Prefer to travel to more adventurous, less peopled areas  Generally traveled more as a child  Wealthier, self-confident Dependables  Prefer tour groups and developed areas  Travel less than venturers on the whole © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism Malaysia THE TOURISM SYSTEM Chapter 10 Chapter Summary Highlights  Vacation choices are influenced by, and often constrained by various factors: (a) the culture of which people are a part; (b) significant events that helped shape their values; (c) time available; and (d) demographic and psychographic factors  Early attempts to explain vacation behavior using demographics alone have been found to be incomplete.  Developments in paid vacations have enabled people to take a vacation  Advances in technology have influenced how far people can go with the amount of free time they have. © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism MalaysiaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 18

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