Activating Strategies * can be used in alternate strategy area Strategy Description Possible ModificationsAnticipation/Reaction Students make predictions based upon • Can be summarizerGuide prior knowledge and then evaluate those • Have students discuss predictions based upon a text misconceptions*summarizing AGREE/DISAGREE commonly used.Fast Write/Writing Students are given a topic and a set time • Use a thematic graphicRoulette to free write about it—do not allow organizer for students to students to stop writing—use “I’m write insde* summarizing thinking” or “stuck” phrases when blank Roulette version has students passing their papers and responding to each others in same written formatPossible Sentences Provide students with a list of key terms • Revisit to see who was from the passage and ask them to write closest as a summarizer*vocabulary sentences predicting how they might be used in the textProbable Passages Provide students with a list of key terms • Revisit to see who was from the passage and ask them to write a closest as a summarizer*vocabulary paragraph predicting how they might be used in the textThree Step Interview Students partner up to discuss a question • Great for ethical issues or issue. The interviewer asks their partner about the topic and then summarizes what they heard. Roles are then reversed. Then they introduce their partners to other partners and share what they learned.Walk Around Survey Students walk around and survey 3 classmates about a particular topic. They record the responses on a graphic organizer and then share in groups or whole group.Word Splash Provide students with a list of key terms • Same as probable passages from the passage that they use to predict but in box graphic organizer*summarizing how they might be used in the text. Have them rewrite*vocabulary paragraphs correctly after reviewing materialYou Ought to be in Show students a picture or visual and askPictures them infer and make predictions about the text
First Word Similar to acrostics, students write • can the used as summarizer sentences relating to a specific topic. The called Last Word*summarizing sentences begin with letters of a keyword.Dump and Clump Students brainstorm around a main idea • Similar to Hilda Taba and then “clump” ideas into categories. organizer*organizing Have students write summarizing*vocabulary statements for each category.Humor in the Quick Activator—Cartoons • Discuss cartoon applicationClassroom to content • Delete words and have*summarizer students write their own content as a summarizer • Draw their own cartoons completelyKWL Plus K—what students know • group “K”s into color coded W—what students want to know categories*summarizer L—what students learned • group “W”s into color coded categories to possibly pre- Address whether the text answered any organize the text Ws or showed any misconceptions from KMindstreaming Students partner up and for one minute talk non-stop about a topic. The partner*summarizing listens and then switches roles. Partners share highlights with the whole group.Quick Activators • Thumb It! (Up, Down, Sideways) • Use Stop/Go/Yield (red, • Yes/No Cards green, yellow cards) for*comprehension comprehensionThink-Ink-Pair-Share Students respond individually to a topic and write their thoughts. They then share*summarizing their thoughts with a partner and share*comprehension highlights with the whole group.
Organizing Strategies Strategy Description Possible ModificationsContent Frames Graphic organizer used to break down and categorize the information in a textJigsaw/ Missing Students are jigsawed from a core group into • Puzzle could be large sizedPieces expert groups. The expert groups then read a and actually cut up and section of the text and take notes in a “piece” reassembled of the puzzle. They then reconvene with core • Don’t cut up puzzle—give all group and share their puzzle piece. students copy of entire puzzle in order to take notes from Possible “notes”: 3-4 important facts, 3-4 their “expert” words to define through context, anticipation • Link to Anticipation Guide guide questions to defend/refute • Each piece of the puzzle could be a math problem—problem expertsPower Thinking Alternate outlining activity that breaks downNotes text into P1, P2, P3 (main, sub, sub, etc.). It is more flexible than traditional outlining.Story Maps Narrative text organizer focusing on story elementsStory Star Narrative text organizer—assign role to each • assign alternative point point of the star (could be setting, characters, focuses to fit other texts climax, etc.)Two-Column T-chart used to organize material in a • main idea/supporting detailNotes virtually endless number of ways • problem/steps • vocabulary/definitions • questions/answers • predictions/realitiesVenn Diagram Comparision/contrast graphic organizer • students make diagram in symbolic fashion appropriate to the textInformative Text Various graphic organizers that break downThinking Patterns the text into its organizational structure • description (bubble map) • informative (MI/D outline form) • chronological (flow chart) • comparison/contrast (venn)
Concept Mapping Alternate form of bubble mapping a text. • Color coding prior Students can brainstorm for all prior knowledge from the text*activating knowledge or words associated with a topic additions*summarizing as an activator. Then they map the data into • Use asterisk to denote prior categories. After reading the text, they knowledge confirmed by the adjust their maps based upon ideas confirmed text or disproved through the text. Prior knowledge not addressed in the text should stay.Semantic Feature This strategy uses a content frame to break • Students can writeAnalysis text data into categories, and students analyze summarizing statements characteristics. Good for helping students about the patterns or data*summarizing identify and recognize patterns. presented*vocabulary • Use with evaluative writing to analyze criteria/solutionsTarget Notes Graphic organizer with inset ringed layers • Divide the “pie” and turn it that organize text into main concept, main into a jigsaw activity*summarizing ideas, sub details. A box around the inset • Cut the graphic organizer up circles is used for additional data like point of and have students reference, vocabulary, etc. reassemble as a summarizerThink Aloud Teacher models think aloud process by • Teacher to students verbalizing thoughts will reading, processing • Student to teacher*comprehending information, or performing a task. • Students to studentsSticky Notes Use sticky notes to help students sort, • Use color coded sticky notes highlight, or distinguish between main idea to differentiate between and details. Students can “note” questions, “note” contents confirmed prior knowledge, misconceptions, or interesting points.
Comprehending Strategies Strategy Description Possible Modifications3x3 Vocabulary 3x3 “bingo board” where students write • Could be summarizer or sentences using vocabulary vertically, activator depending on when*summarizer horizontally, or diagonally. There is no the strategy is used*activator free center square.*vocabularyCollaborative Listening Collaborative media note-taking guide • have students shareand Viewing Guide for demonstrations, lectures, field-trips, collapsed notes on the(CLVG) videos, and experiments. overhead • write one-sentence summary Students take notes individually and of what was learned then compare notes with a partner or • groups decide on one “best” group and compile notes together. note—then expand on that one “best” note—share whole groupOpinion-Proof Notes T-chart where students take on the • students could chart persona of a personality in the text. On opposing opinions for a one side they determine the opinion that persuasive paper personality would hold on a given topic. On the other side they record details from the text to support the opinion.Problem Solution T chart where students state the • could add category forGuide problem, analyze the causes, analyze advantages for solutions the effects, and list solutions • these items could be analyzed in a text or as preplanning for a student’s own paperQAR (Question Right There—Think and Search— • could be turned into classAnswer Relationship) Author and You—In Your Head jeopardy game for review Students write sample questions in each category--should be modeled firstSentence Expansion Provide students with basic sentences • elaboration with figurative that they expand based upon the language*vocabulary knowledge of the text • pull in specific content vocabulary while writingTalking Drawings Students draw their impression of the • can be activator – draw concept and discuss their drawings and concept from prior their differences with a partner knowledge
• can be summarizer—used in Can also be used to fix misconceptions isolation or to “fix” from activator (if used as activator also) misconceptionsVocabulary Mapping Graphic organizer that expands the • What it is? definitions of words. After expanding • What it is like?*vocabulary their words, students write a • Examples? “definition” from their analysis. • What it is not?Problem/Process ChartMath graphic organizer that breaks problem solving down into steps that ask students to write out the process used to solve the problem.RAFT (Role-Audience- Writing strategy that engages students • Have students generateFormat-Topic) into the text from different points of roles, audiences, formats, view etc. • Assign components R-Role • Assign part of the A-Audience components with students F-Format choice for other parts T-Topic S-Strong Verb (Vocabulary)Trading Cards Students write the vocabulary word and • Math formulas and pictures draw a related picture on one side. On • “I have. . .Who Has. . .*vocabulary the other side they define the word and (Google for already created write a sentence using the word. ideas) Words can be passed around in a variety • Combine with expert to of ways. expert to allow students t o teach each others wordsGive One-Get One Students respond to general, reflective • Use false statements and sentence starters or specific content have students “give and get”*activating sentence starters. They complete three corrections*summarizing within the chart and then mingle in the • Choose one square to*vocabulary room to “give” their responses to “get” elaborate upon for answers. summarization • Vocabulary words/definitions/pictures
Summarizing Strategies Strategy Description Possible ModificationsEpitaphs Write a tombstone epitaph for an object, • “death” of overused/dead words person, or concept*vocabulary 2 stanzas, same # of syllables, hanging indentExit Slips Using any of the other simple • one sentence summaries or 3-2- summarizing strategies, students answer 1 work well here. a review question, pose a new question, make a list, draw a picture, set a goal, etc. to be handed in as they leave the class.Final Countdown Triangle graphic organizer that asks • 3 things you learned(3-2-1 Review) students to reflect on their learning. • 2 questions you still have • 1 statement relating something new to something you already knew • 3-2-1 can be anything you want it to beFour-Box Synectics Graphic organizer that helps students • make center box content for a make analogous relationships between general concept focus*vocabulary concepts in the text and outside of the • make 4 outer boxes content for text a specific content focusLearning Frames Cloze activity where students • Provide word bank for summarize the text by replacing missing struggling students*activating words in a paragraph that summarizes • Make board/poster sized*vocabulary the concepts/ texts learning frame. Give students sticky note words to place in the frame as whole class activity and discuss. • Have students create learning frames for each other by summarizing the content themselves and deleting words.Learning Logs Continual journal responses that allow students to summarize content, reflect on their learning, or monitor progress. Students should be given choices from a variety of summarizing strategies.
One Sentence Summarize the content learned in oneSummaries sentence. Share sentences with the whole group.Shaping Up Review Use basic shapes to summarize the • use other “symbolic” shapes information. • change content of shapes to Heart—one thing they loved anything Square—four important things • could be writing prompts Triangle—three questions Circle—summarizing statementFour Corners The four corners of the room represent • Students could summarize their four perspectives on some moral, position in writing afterwards ethical, or argumentative topic. Students align themselves with a corner and then must defend their choices through verbal debate.Free Form Mapping Students visually represent the content • Strategy changes depending on of the reading through pictures. No when used*activating words should be allowed. Students can • Can be used before, during, or*comprehending be assigned sections of the text. after reading • If activating—have them adjust maps for actual content of the textVanity Students create a vehicle vanity plate orPlates/Bumper bumper sticker relevant to the content ofStickers the lesson.Window Pane Students summarize main points in a 4 • Students can brainstormSummary pane or 6 pane graphic organizer. categories or can be teacher assignedABC Review Students are assigned letters of the alphabet to write a one-sentence summary or a sentence focusing on key point. The sentence should begin with their assigned letter of the alphabet. Have students share their sentences around the room.
Vocabulary Strategies *additional vocabulary strategies have been coded and embedded in the strategies above Strategy Description Possible ModificationsExpert to Expert Students work collaborative to teach each • Combine with trading cards other vocabulary terms determined by the*vocabulary teacher or generated by students. Students*comprehending can incorporate pictures, rhymes, actions, associations, etc.Verbal-Visual Divide a square into four sections: 1) write • Vocabulary square (like fourWord Association the word 2) define the word 3) draw a square synectics box) – visual representation 4) personal word in the middle, extra*vocabulary associations, synonyms, etc. box allows for part of*comprehension speech, antonyms, etc.Frayer Model Graphic organizer that helps students • Alternate: essential analyze the definition, characteristic, characteristics, nonessential*vocabulary examples, and non-examples of a word. characteristics, examples,*comprehension and nonexamplesAlphabet boxes Students read an article and pull essential • complete verbal visual on vocabulary from the text and place in an select vocab or section into*vocabulary alphabet square groups*comprehending • write a summary using boxed vocabVocabulary Use rhyming mnemonics and visual • student drawings can beCartooning mnemonics to analyze a word. used as “questions” on a vocabulary test Ex. A solo dude in solitude (draw picture)Webstretchers Spider-web graphic organizer with a base • color coded sticky notes can word part/definition in the center. The web be used for variations of the*vocabulary is expanded adding other words with the same web word (ex. Reform same word part. —reformed—reforming) • students can do a gallery walk and add to each other’s chartConnect Three Teacher provides a list of certain prefixes, • Point value can be given for word roots, and suffixes. Students then the number of parts used in*vocabulary work in small groups to connect parts and each word—winner gets form words. prize
Concept Circles Graphic organizer that creates a “Which of • math equations—solve— these do not belong” situation. The which one does not have the*activating concepts/vocabulary can be represented same answer*summarizing through words or pictures. • leave one blank—let them*vocabulary fill it in • give the circle parts and have them figure out of the overall concept • students can write why their word belongs or why they took out another word as a summarizerStudent Dictionary Personalized dictionary. Words should • Can be kept in a notebook to reflect student choice—words they selected be used in other team classes*vocabulary from their reading that they did not know. Students can record the sentence they found the answer in, the page #, the contextual definition, the dictionary definition, student sentence, and picture.Bag of Words Word scavenger hunt activity where students pull words from the reading. The • Will probably take more*vocabulary teacher can provide “rules” for pulling the than one day to complete word (i.e. one word that shows emotion, one word that replaces said, etc.). Small groups choose the best two words from each category, record them on notecards, and “bag them”. The bags are exchanged and another group creates a skit using those words.Looping Students are given cards or strips of paper. • I have. . . Who has. . . One set has a word and the other set has a*vocabulary definition. Students take turn going around the room sharing their strip and listening for the “match”. This can be done many times with the same words.How Well Do I Activity related to a word wall/concept wallKnow These Words —students analyze a list of words and organize into categories: Don’t know at all, Have seen or heard but don’t know meaning, I think I know the meaning; I know a meaning
Miscellaneous Strategies Strategy Description Possible ModificationsMental File Folder • Inside: KWL, Questions, Vocabulary • use a file folder or a • Back: Misconceptions sectioned poster board*activating*organizing Have students generate KWL in chunks*comprehension with groups. Generate questions after they*summarizing read. Move K – misconceptions to the back and make connections between K and L (elaboration)Read, Cover, Great for students who can’t summarize Variation of Think Pair ShareRemember, Retell large chunks.*comprehending Students read as much as they cover with their hand and then stop, cover, and retell it to a partner --- partner then does the same on the same section—may remember more, pull out more details, more repetition of materialStep Into the Story Read a thin book, showing the pictures on the overhead or with a document camera. Stop at appropriate moments so that students discuss how they would feel at that MomentFact/Fib Game Students write one factual statement and • Use library pocket cards to one fib statement on separate notecards. create a quick jeopardy*comprehending The notecards are then used in a Jeopardy board game board (T-H-I-N-K)