The Social Sciences version has two categories for education.
Emphasize that a single number out of context is not helpful because of differences between disciplines.
The 5-year impact factor was added because in some disciplines it takes longer for journals to be cited. The Eigenfactor comes next.
There are two eigenfactor metrics – next slides explain
So a citation from Nature will give a journal more impact than a citation from a lesser-known journal.
Using the metrics they have developed, researchers at eigenfactor.org are able to map the connections between disciplines. They look at which journals cite others and show the flow of citations. “ Orange circles represent fields, with larger, darker circles indicating larger field size as measured by Eigenfactor score™. Blue arrows represent citation flow between fields. An arrow from field A to field B indicates citation traffic from A to B, with larger, darker arrows indicating higher citation volume. “
The mathematics calculating SNIP and SJR is much more complicated than for the JIF and weights the values depending on where the citations are coming from.
developed by SCImago from the widely known algorithm Google PageRank™ . This indicator shows the visibility of the journals contained in the Scopus® database from 1996.
The SNIP Follow purple line for Journal of the American Academy of Religion to that relative to the other journals it was gaining impact 2008-2010. Also note that impact fluctuates over time.
Note that purple line is at the top for this metric as well.
Leave all Subjects checked especially if the author publishes in more than one discipline.
Note that this book is not included in the results from Scopus but represents a large impact of Vicente’s work.
This is a common problem in both Scopus and Web of Science. Do all the works retrieved belong to this author or have I retrieved all of the works published by this author. One way to bring all your works together is to register with ORCID.
ORCID is a alphanumeric code to uniquely identify scientific and other academic authors. This addresses the problem that a particular author's contributions can be hard to electronically recognize since most personal names are not unique, they can change (such as with marriage), have cultural differences in name order, contain inconsistent use of first-name abbreviations and employ different writing systems . It provides a persistent identity. The ORCID organization offers an open and independent registry intended to be the standard for author identification in academic publishing. On 16 October 2012, ORCID launched its registry services and started issuing user identifiers. Note that ORCID links to other identifiers.
ResearcherID also provides a solution to the author ambiguity problem within the scholarly research community. Each member is assigned a unique identifier to enable researchers to manage their publication lists, track their times cited counts and h-index, identify potential collaborators and avoid author misidentification. In addition, your ResearcherID information integrates with the Web of Knowledge and is ORCID compliant , allowing you to claim and showcase your publications from a single account. Search the registry to find collaborators, review publication lists and explore how research is used around the world!
Fill in your search terms. Click on Select Research Domain – allows you to limit if you are searching for a common name. OR Finish Search
Click on Select Organization for option to limit by affiliation if all options are known. Otherwise click on Finish Search to see all the documents associated with this author.
On this page --graph of articles published in last 20 years --graph of citations received in those same years --totals of citations and citing articles and h-index Why are the Times Cited and the number of Citing Articles different? More than one Vicente article cited in some of the citing articles.
To set this up, start at the University of Toronto Libraries home page. From the University of Toronto Libraries home page select “Popular Databases”
This takes you to a page that explains how to configure google scholar so that you can access the full text articles available to you from the UofT.
Kim Vicente does not have a profile on Google Scholar but here is another example from the University of Toronto. Citations, h-index and i10-index are shown for all years and last 5 years. i10-index is the number of publications with at least 10 citations. Can sort publications by Cited by or by year. See Help screen shot on next slide. In case someone asks: Why is the "Cited by" count for one of my articles crossed out? Google Scholar considers this article the same as another article in your profile. We display the "Cited by" count next to both of the duplicates, but we only count them once in your citation metrics. We recommend that you merge the duplicates - select both the articles and choose "Merge" from the "Actions" menu.
Google Scholar includes detailed directions on how to create a profile, to add and remove articles, to make the profile public, etc.
Remember that Scopus is only considering citation data from 1996 forward. The cited by information in all 3 databases is calculated as the database is updated and reflects the journals indexed in each database. Consider the source when comparing h-index between authors. GS days: To change the "Cited by" counts in your profile, you would need to have them updated in Google Scholar. Google Scholar generally reflects the state of the web as it is currently visible to our search robots and to the majority of users. If some of the citations to your article are not included, chances are that the citing articles are not accessible to our search robots or are formatted in ways that make it difficult for our indexing algorithms to identify their bibliographic data or references.
Google Scholar has taken the concept of the h-index and applied it to publications. So the journal is comparable to the author. h5-index is the h-index for articles published in the last 5 complete years. It is the largest number h such that h articles published in 2007-2011 have at least h citations each. This shows the top journals in all subjects in English.
Showing the top 10 journals from the Science version of JCR for 5-year IF and Eigenfactor NEJM=New England Journal of Medicine PNAS=Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association
The Becker Medical Library Model for Assessment of Research Impact is a framework for tracking diffusion of research outputs and activities to locate indicators that demonstrate evidence of biomedical research impact. It is intended to be used as a supplement to publication analysis.
The Becker Medical Library Model for Assessment of Research Impact is organized into the following pathways of diffusion: Advancement of Knowledge e.g. Mass media publication or broadcast refers to the research study. (no citation count) Clinical Implementation e.g. Research study cited in a clinical decision aid. Community Benefit e.g. Research study cited in a public insurance benefit plan in support of coverage. Legislation and Policy e.g. Research study members invited to serve on advisory boards. Economic Benefit e.g. Research study findings result in reduced costs in the delivery of health care services. None of these would be reflected in traditional citation counts.
Because researchers can’t read everything they depend on some kind of filters to point them at the important information.
Traditionally, the impact of research articles has been measured by the publication journal. But a more informative view is one that examines the overall performance and reach of the articles themselves. Article-Level Metrics are a comprehensive set of impact indicators that enable numerous ways to assess and navigate research most relevant to the field itself, including: usage citations social bookmarking and dissemination activity media and blog coverage discussion activity and ratings
The front page of an article in PLOS ONE gives a summary of metrics. Click on the Metrics tab to see more details.
Article usage includes views on PLOS One and PubMed Central (PMC) in 3 different formats: HTML, PDF and XML documents. Graph shows monthly views.
Citations are shown from Scopus and CrossRef plus a link to a Google Scholar search. 2 scholarly social networks: citeulike and mendeley. 2 social networks websites: facebook and twitter. Note number on facebook. Note coverage on blogs and the Google blog search = 388 blog posts PLOS Readers – 6 comments on the PLOS One website
PLOS One is a fairly new journal but some older journals have begun to add article-level metrics. BMJ provides monthly article usage statistics showing how often the article is viewed: abstract, html full text and pdf This article has ten years of data with a peak of 1783 pdf downloads in January 2008.
ImpactStory aggregates altmetrics: diverse impacts from your articles, datasets, blog posts, and more. ImpactStory is an open-source, web-based tool that helps researchers explore and share the diverse impacts of all their research products--traditional ones like journal articles, but also alternative products like blog posts, datasets, and software.
When setting up your account you can import articles from Google Scholar using Article IDs like the DOI (digital object identifier) or the PubMed identifier. Or import them from your ORCID account if you have set one up. You can also import from GitHub if you have created some software applications or from Slideshare, an archive of presentation slides.
A sample collection of resources. The blue boxes on the right reflect activity among scholars and the green ones reflect public interest. When you click on the title of an article you can see a summary of the impact metrics. Scholars - 16 bookmarks in citeulike, 148 readers in mendeley, 14 citations in pubmed….. Public – 2 likes in facebook, 2 tweets on twitter, 1 mention in wikipedia……. Note also the interpretation of the numbers – where that number places as a percentile
When metrics are adopted as evaluative tools, there is always a temptation to game them. Without rules and sanctions to prevent widespread manipulation, metrics lose their relevance, become meaningless, and are quickly disregarded by those who once believed that they stood for something important. Each year Thomson Reuters, producers of the Journal Impact Factor, puts dozens of journals in time-out for manipulating their numbers through self-citation. This year, for the first time, they delisted several titles for engaging in a citation cartel. Obviously, Google does not control their data like this and these researchers demonstrated how easy it was to “game” the citation counts to several journals. If you want to read this post http://scholarlykitchen.sspnet.org/2012/12/12/gaming-google-scholar-citations-made-simple-and-easy/
Research impact 2013 jan
IMPACT FACTORS Part 3 Scholarly Communication WorkshopsCONTACT INFORMATION •UTSC | Sarah Forbes | email@example.com •Gerstein Science Information Centre | Gail Nichol | firstname.lastname@example.org or Allison Bell | email@example.com •UTM | Pam King | firstname.lastname@example.org
How to Assess Your Research ImpactLearning Outcomes:• Finding impact factors for journals – JIF, Eigenfactor, SNIP, SJR• How to find citations to your own work – Science citation lookup – Social science citation lookup• How to quantify your research impact – H index• AltMetrics
How to Assess Your Research Impact• Major controversies surrounding the value of citation searching• Tips to increase the visibility of your research
3 Citation Searching Tools Web of Science Scopus Google ScholarAccess Commercial Commercial Free# of titles >10,000 >23,600 ?Customized Yes Yes Not yetsearches?Contains citation 1945 (some back 1996 ?content back to to 1900)Notable features Contains older Wide international Includes books, material, journal coverage, 100% of conferences, articles and Medline content, records from proceedings proceedings Open WorldCat included, patents Project, anything and theses on Open Web Adapted from Sigma Xi International Newsletter, volume 3, number 11/12 November/December 2004, with additions
What can I say about the journals I publish in?Journal Citation Reports• Journal Impact Factor• Top journals in a field• EigenfactorScopus journal analyzer
Journal Impact Factor (JIF)• A measure of the citations to a journal – (NOT individual articles or authors)• One indicator of a journal’s importance• Calculated annually by Thomson Scientific• Published in Journal Citation Reports – (now an online database)
Journal Impact FactorCalculated based on a two-year period – e.g. 2009A = the number of times articles published in 2007-2008 were cited in indexed journals during 2009B = the number of "citable items" (usually articles, reviews, proceedings or notes; not editorials and letters-to-the- editor) published in 2007-2008 2009 impact factor = A/B (note that the 2009 impact factor was actually published in the 2010 Journal Citation Reports)
To access the Journal Citation Reports:•Start at: http://gerstein.library.utoronto.ca/•Click on Journal Citation Reports
There are two editions: Science andSocial Sciences A group of journals can be viewed by : Subject Category, Publisher or Country
Depending on your discipline you may need to look atboth databases.In the Science version there is a category calledEDUCATION SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINES – 27 titles
Social Sciences version for Education….Choose one or morecategories to see the journalsin that area. Choose type of data to sort by.
Click here to change the data sorted by and then sort again.What do the IF numbers tell us?A single number without context is hard to interpret. Review of EducationalResearch has an IF of 3.326 (BUT for example in the subject of psychologythe Annual Review of Psychology has an IF of 22.750).More meaningful? RER is the number one ranked journal in the area ofEducation and Educational Research OR 1st of 139 journals.
Click here to change the data sorted by and then sort again.Data sorted by Impact Factor (2-year IF) – note how sorting by 5-year IF or by Eigfenfactor may change the order of journals
Eigenfactor Metrics• Like the IF, essentially a ratio of number of citations to total number of articles and is a measure of a journal compared to other journals.• Eigenfactor Score• Article Influence Score• “better rank the importance of scientific journals or papers by viewing them in the context of the full citation network.”
Eigenfactor Score• Articles from past 5 years• How many times cited in the JCR year• Consider which journals have cited – highly-cited journals have more influence• Journal self-citations are removed
Article Influence Score• Roughly analogous to the JIF• Mean AIS is 1.00• A score greater than 1.00 means that each article in the journal has above- average influence• Metrics Eigenfactor Project was conducted by Carl Bergstrom and his laboratory at University of Washington
Scopus Journal Analytics• Select up to 10 journals• Graphical display• See how journals are performing relative to each other• More info: http://www.info.sciverse.com/scopus/scopus-in
SNIP• Source-Normalized Impact per Paper• Measures contextual citation impact by weighting citations based on the total number of citations in a subject field.• The impact of a single citation is given higher value in subject areas where citations are less likely, and vice versa.
SJR (SCImago Journal Rank)• SJR is a measure of scientific influence of scholarly journals that accounts for both the number of citations received by a journal and the importance or prestige of the journals where such citations come from.• http://www.journalmetrics.com/sjr.php• http://www.scimagojr.com/
The top ten journals ordered bynumber of articles on the topic of aScopus search: buddhis*
Enter the titles of the top journals (up to 10) in the Journal Analyzer.E.g. Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, Religion, Journal of Indian Philosophy,Asian Philosophy, and Journal of the American Academy of Religion.
SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) , is a measure of the scientific prestige ofscholarly sources: value of weighted citations per document.E.g. same 5 journals
How to quantify your research impact• H index – Both Web of Science and Scopus will calculate an H index based on content in their database – Only looking at citations in journals• Other sources – Google Scholar will also retrieve citations in online sources like theses, government publications, white papers, course reading lists, books included in Google Books.
h index• Developed by J.E. Hirsch• Designed to “improve upon” simpler measures such as total number of citations or publications• "A scientist has index h if h of his/her Np papers have at least h citations each, and the other (Np-h) papers have no more than h citations each."
i.e. A scholar with an index of h has published hpapers, each of which has been cited by othersat least h times.
SCOPUS• Best for the Sciences but now has some Social Sciences and Humanities coverage – Life Sciences >4,300 titles – Health Sciences >6,800 titles (all of Medline) – Physical Sciences >7,200 titles – Social Sciences & Humanities >5,300 titles• References for items published 1996+• Journals, conference proceedings, trade publications & book series
From main library portal at http://www.library.utoronto.caclick on Popular Databases and choose Scopus from list
Author SearchLast name: vicente, Initial or first name: kFor broadest results, leave Affiliation blank and all Subjects checked.
Note: A link to a details page is only shown for authors with more than one document in Scopus. Documents withClick on the hyperlinked name for a details insufficient data may not page about that author. be matched, this can lead to more than one entry in the results list for the same author.
To see if there are any potential author matches
Select one or more authors and click View grouped with author.Note spelling of names:Kim is spelled K i r nVicente is spelled VincenteIf you are the author you can askScopus to merge the records.
Now we can see thenumbers for the main authorentry and also for the addedauthors.h index = 19
Remember that this graph and the h indexof 19 only reflect citations in journals orconference proceedings. And in Scopusonly citations from 1996 to the present areused.
A search in Google Scholar shows thathis book, The human factor, has beencited at least 214 times.
If you have a common name, you may need tosearch for the title of each article you havewritten, one at a time.
link to your other identifiers (such as Scopus or ResearcherID or LinkedIn).ORCID=Open Researcher and Contributor IDMore info about Scopus and ORCID collaboration:http://www.info.sciverse.com/scopus/scopus-in-detail/orcid
Researcher ID is associated with Web of Science.
107 articles by Vicente cited1675 times in WOS…..
What’s indexed in WOS?• List of journals here: – http://science.thomsonreuters.com/mjl/• Conferences 1990+ – List of conference proceedings here: • http://thomsonreuters.com/products_services/science/science_prod ucts/a-z/conf_proceedings_citation_index ….. Next up: Scopus
My Citations: author needs to setup a profileand add their own publicationsMetrics: h-index of a publication. GS displaysthe h5-index (i.e. 5 years)Alerts: create an alert on any querySettings: this is where you will be able to setyour Library Links
How do the numbers compare for Geoffrey Hinton? Web of Scopus Google Science Scholar# of docs 203 146 337Times cited 9,930 9,138 60,231H-index 37 23 84
How do the numbers compare?5 year Impact Factor Eigenfactor Google ScholarCancer J of Clinicians Nature NatureNEJM PNAS NEJMRev of Modern Physics Science ScienceAnnual Rev of Immunol Physical Review Letters The LancetNat Rev Mol Cell Bio J Am Chem Soc CellChem Rev Phys Rev B PNASNat Rev Cancer J Biol Chem J of Clinical OncologyNat Materials Appl Phys Letters Nature GeneticsNature NEJM JAMAPhysiological Reviews Cell Physical Review Letters
Google Scholar provides journal metrics forHumanities publications.
Google Scholar Facts• Estimated 40% journals, 34% conferences, rest is “other”• > coverage of non-English citations, international coverage compared to other databases• Many unique citations in GS• Expect duplication within GS search results
Qualitative Measure of Impact• Intended to balance quantitative approaches• Becker Model (Bernard Becker Medical Library, Washington University School of Medicine) – https://becker.wustl.edu/impact-assessment – Biomedical, but many measures can be applied • Patent applications; licensing; cited in curricula; material transfer agreements generated by a study; requests for reprints; citations in a major review article; hits on research study’s web site; results factored into standards…
AltMetrics• No one can read everything• Rely on filters• Traditional filters: peer review, citation counting and JIF• Are there others worth looking at?
Article-level metrics• PLOS ONE - >2000 articles/month• Metrics as a discovery tool – a filter for you to find what interests you• Data-driven stories about the post-pub reception of an article• More info at: http://article-level-metrics.plos.org/
General Debate• No one source is comprehensive• Only some formats are searchable• Publication dates can affect results• Citation counts provide a limited indication of impact
Journal Impact Factor (JIF) Debate• JIFs vary across disciplines – Variants in time-to-publication• Review journals have higher JIFs – Fewer articles per journal, cited more often• JIF calculations are easily skewed – Heavy editorial/letter/opinion content; high/low percentage of review articles• Open-access journals = higher JIFs
H-Index (H-i) Debate• H-i does not consider the context of citations – Fundamental to the argument, or just a passing ref?• Two scientists, same h=30 – A has 20 papers cited more than 1000 times – B has none• H-i can only be compared fairly within a discipline, not between disciplines• H-i likes a long publishing career – Greater chances for higher number of citations to same articles
Increase Your Research Visibility1. Do NOT automatically relinquish publishing rights – SPARC Canadian authors addendum: preserve certain rights for your use – http://www.carl-abrc.ca/projects/author/author-e.html – Find publisher archiving and publishing policies at SHERPA http://www.sherpa.ac.uk1. Publish in open access journals • Find O/A journals at SHERPA1. Self-archive your articles • https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/ • Find more archives at OpenDOAR: http://www.opendoar.org/
Increase Your Research Visibility• Strategies for enhancing the impact of research: https://becker.wustl.edu/impact- assessment/strategies – Use the same name variation – Standardized affiliation, no abbreviations – And many other suggestions about dissemination and keeping track of your research….