Neoclassicism:  Neo (new) – classicism, a “new” classicism, or  the revival of classical  (Greek or Roman) forms. Rape of ...
LE BRUN AND THE FRENCH ACADEMY Charles Le Brun by Antoine Coysevox (1676) --French Academy of Painting and Sculpture found...
Embarkation from Cythera by J.-A. Watteau (France; 18 th  century)  ROCOCO: --soft, pastel colors --soft, fluid brushwork ...
ROCOCO:  The Swing by H. Fragonard (France; 18 th  century)
NEOCLASSICISM: Jacques-Louis David --Born 1748 in Paris --Boucher was a distant uncle, and he trained with him  initially;...
Drawing of the Tiber River and Castel Sant’Angelo, Rome (1777) Jacques-Louis David: Prix de Rome --Arrives in Rome in 1776...
Jacques-Louis David and the French Revolution  The Oath of the Horatii (1784)
Jacques-Louis David and the French Revolution  Brutus (1789)  --By the time the painting was completed, the  French Revolu...
Jacques-Louis David and the French Revolution  The Death of Marat (1793)  “ Citizens, the people were again calling for th...
Jacques-Louis David and the French Revolution  The Death of Joseph Bara (1794)  --A 13-year-old boy who had joined the arm...
Jacques-Louis David and the French Revolution  David’s sketch of Marie Antoinette awaiting execution (1793)  --David becam...
Jacques-Louis David: Arrest and Trial  Self Portrait (1794) --Various among the  revolutionary clique began to  exhibit pa...
Garden, painted from David’s cell  Jacques-Louis David: Arrest and Trial  --David’s wife  returned to him after he was ar...
Intervention (Rape) of the Sabine  Women (1799) Jacques-Louis David: Post Revolution  --Allegory of the state of France, c...
Napoleon Crossing the  Alps at the St. Bernard  Pass (1801) Jacques-Louis David and Napoleon  --Napoleon becomes  First Co...
--After the final defeat of Napoleon, the  Bourbon kings were restored to the  throne of France. --David was given an amne...
ROMANTICISM:  Raft of the Medusa by T. Gericault (France; 19 th  century)
ROMANTICISM:  E. Delacroix (France; 19 th  century)  Academy Salon Morocco sketch, painting
--Founded 1648;  instruction was given only  in an approved royal style,  with a rigid set of rules and  a strong emphasis...
ROMANTICISM:  Eugene Delacroix: --1798-1863 --The greatest of the French Romantic painters --Despite early success in the ...
REALISM Gustave Courbet: --1819-1877 --Had a tumultuous relationship with the French Academy, who opposed him not just on ...
Edouard Manet (France; 19 th  century) --Born in Paris in 1832  --Achieved his first notable success as a  painter with th...
--Despite his Salon success in 1862, the  next year Manet encountered difficulties with the jury--he submitted a painting ...
Luncheon on the Grass (Dejeuner sur l’herbe) E. Manet (France; 19 th  century)
--Thousands of other paintings were rejected that year and outraged artists complained  bitterly about the jury. -- The Em...
WHISTLER vs. RUSKIN (ENGLAND; 19 th  century) James Abbot McNeill Whistler  Self-Portrait (USA, England; 19 th  century) J...
James Abbot McNeill Whistler Self-Portrait (USA, England; 19 th  century) --1834-1903 --From an American military family, ...
Symphony in White #1 (The White Girl) by J.A.M. Whistler  (19 th  century; USA, England) SALON DES REFUSES (1863)
WHISTLER vs. RUSKIN  Portrait of John Ruskin  by John Everett Millais  Noct NOCTURNE IN  BLACK & GOLD  (Falling Rockets) a...
WHISTLER vs. RUSKIN  “ For Mr. Whistler’s own sake,  no less than for the protection of the purchaser, Sir Coutts  Lindsay...
WHISTLER vs. RUSKIN --Whistler sues Ruskin for libel claiming that,  coming from a critic of  Ruskin’s reputation,  the co...
WHISTLER vs. RUSKIN Points used to support  Ruskin’s defense: --mimesis --labor --“finish”  Noct NOCTURNE IN  BLACK & GOLD...
WHISTLER vs. RUSKIN Points used to support  Ruskin’s defense: -- mimesis Ruskin’s defense  attorney asks the  jury if this...
WHISTLER vs. RUSKIN Points used to support  Ruskin’s defense: --mimesis -- labor --“ finish ”  Ruskin’s defense  asks Whis...
WHISTLER vs. RUSKIN: Jury finds in favor or Whistler and  Ruskin is guilty of libel, but the jury  awards Whistler only fa...
Impression: Sunrise by Claude Monet (1873) IMPRESSIONISM --desire to capture an  instantaneous “impression” of a  scene in...
Impression: Sunrise by Claude Monet (1873) Typical of Impressionism --Primacy of light and color  --Attempt to capture the...
POINTILLISM: --calculate hues and  proportions needed to  produce the effect of a  particular color --rather than mixing t...
EXPRESSIONISM: --emphasis is on subjective emotion rather than objective reality --intensity of the artist’s  feelings ove...
FAUVISM: --emphasis of stark juxtapositions of fields of  vibrant color; colors are  often harsh or seemingly arbitrary --...
Ambrose Vollard  by P. Picasso  (Spain, France; 20 th  century) CUBISM: --reduction of all elements of the painting to a t...
The Persistence of Memory by S. Dali  (Spain; 20 th  century) SURREALISM: --founded by Andre Breton  --interest in psychia...
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Week 7 Review Done Spr

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  • BUT LE BRUN, HE IS THE KEY GUY IN LATER HALF OF CENT, AND INVOLVED IN TWO THINGS VERY CHARACTERISTICALLY FRENCH AND TIED TO FRENCH ARTISTIC OUTPUT, ONE IS ACAD, OTHER VERSAILLES
  • David on the other hand, did get it, he got poussin, and not only did he get it, he would push beyond where poussin left off
  • David on the other hand, did get it, he got poussin, and not only did he get it, he would push beyond where poussin left off
  • REVO STUFF; DOUBLE BORROWING, DOUBLE BORROWING, DOUBLE BORROWING<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
  • Onstage when voltaire did the play
  • Leader of revo—marat assassinated, and this a kind of pieta for the revo—turns a guignolesque scene into something somber, pious
  • Becomes a real propagandist for the revo cause
  • Becomes a real propagandist for the revo cause
  • not completed for a telling reason—so many people in it had become suspect, and revo burned out into the reign of terror
  • hersilia, daughter of sabine king, married to romulus, roman leader—romans had taken the sabine women. sabines try to get them back, but they want to stay with their roman husbands and families, so the women throw themselves betw the combatants to try to enforce peace
  • nap comes to studio while working on it, david I salute you—david an admirer of him, in many ways embodied the best of the era, self made man, rose through merit—had already had him sit for him while only a general—he becomes first consul in 1799
  • nap comes to studio while working on it, david I salute you—david an admirer of him, in many ways embodied the best of the era, self made man, rose through merit—had already had him sit for him while only a general—he becomes first consul in 1799
  • important—recognition that acad and its formula may not be right—that alone leads to a downfaill, and also idea of letting the public decide, if these painters want to complain, show the works, let the public decide who is right.
  • whistler ruskin
  • RUSKIN GOES COMPLETELY INSANE, DOESN’T EVEN APPEAR IN COURT, MENTALLY INCAPACITATED
  • RUSKIN GOES COMPLETELY INSANE, DOESN’T EVEN APPEAR IN COURT, MENTALLY INCAPACITATED
  • RUSKIN GOES COMPLETELY INSANE, DOESN’T EVEN APPEAR IN COURT, MENTALLY INCAPACITATED
  • whistler goes on to write scathing and to this day very insightful attack on art critics and criticism, among other points asking how someone who is not a practicing artist is in fact qualified to pass a critique on contemporary art.
  • not an art about content—which is why it is not compelling or for me to be taken as seriously as expressionism, of great decorative power, but it is not thought provoking
  • Week 7 Review Done Spr

    1. 1. Neoclassicism: Neo (new) – classicism, a “new” classicism, or the revival of classical (Greek or Roman) forms. Rape of the Sabines by Nicolas Poussin (France; 17 th century)
    2. 2. LE BRUN AND THE FRENCH ACADEMY Charles Le Brun by Antoine Coysevox (1676) --French Academy of Painting and Sculpture founded in 1648; --Le Brun was named director in 1663. --Le Brun also also helped to found the Gobelins Works to manufacture tapestries and furniture for the royal palaces. Le Brun’s positions at the Academy and Gobelins gave him almost total control of the arts in France; Le Brun was officially named by Louis as “the greatest French artist of all time.”
    3. 3. Embarkation from Cythera by J.-A. Watteau (France; 18 th century) ROCOCO: --soft, pastel colors --soft, fluid brushwork --courtly subject matter for courtly clientele --often risque --develops in 18 th century France, spreads to courts throughout Europe
    4. 4. ROCOCO: The Swing by H. Fragonard (France; 18 th century)
    5. 5. NEOCLASSICISM: Jacques-Louis David --Born 1748 in Paris --Boucher was a distant uncle, and he trained with him initially; their temperaments clashed so drastically that Boucher sent him to Josephe-Marie Vien. --Attempts to win the Prix de Rome, but is rejected on three successive attempts; after one rejection, he attempts suicide by starvation. Self Portrait (1794)
    6. 6. Drawing of the Tiber River and Castel Sant’Angelo, Rome (1777) Jacques-Louis David: Prix de Rome --Arrives in Rome in 1776 --His study there leads to a determination to not just revive a true, archeological classical style, but also what he perceives as a more ideal classical morality --Returns to France in 1781 --Commissioned to paint a scene from Roman history, the story of Horace and his sons; he declares that “only in Rome can I paint Romans,” and returns to Italy. --Comes back with the painting at the height of France’s revolutionary fervor
    7. 7. Jacques-Louis David and the French Revolution The Oath of the Horatii (1784)
    8. 8. Jacques-Louis David and the French Revolution Brutus (1789) --By the time the painting was completed, the French Revolution had begun --The government tried to prohibit it from being shown in the official salon, but that decision resulted in such a public outcry that they were forced to back down --The painting was exhibited behind a screen of students and admirers, standing as guard to protect it against any possible royalist attack
    9. 9. Jacques-Louis David and the French Revolution The Death of Marat (1793) “ Citizens, the people were again calling for their friend and spokesman; their desolate voice has been heard: David, take up your brushes, avenge Marat. I heard the voice of the people. I obeyed.” — David’s speech when presenting the Death of Marat to the National Convention
    10. 10. Jacques-Louis David and the French Revolution The Death of Joseph Bara (1794) --A 13-year-old boy who had joined the army of the Revolution --He had been captured and ordered to yell “ Long live the king,” or he would be killed; instead he chose death, yelling “Long live the Republic.” --He was considered a hero to the revolutionary cause, and David painted him as a form of propaganda, to extol his example.
    11. 11. Jacques-Louis David and the French Revolution David’s sketch of Marie Antoinette awaiting execution (1793) --David became a major force in the new Republic, organizing public demonstrations and festivities, especially for those who had died heroically --Served as a member of the new National Convention, and sat on the trial of Louis XVI and cast one of the votes which sent him to the guillotine, even though it caused his wife to leave him
    12. 12. Jacques-Louis David: Arrest and Trial Self Portrait (1794) --Various among the revolutionary clique began to exhibit paranoid and extremist tendencies; the result was known as the “Reign of Terror.” --The leader of the clique, Robespierre, was arrested, as was David. Robespierre was sent to the guillotine, David was tried and imprisoned. “ If you drink hemlock, I will drink it with you.”—David to Robespierre, at their arrest
    13. 13. Garden, painted from David’s cell  Jacques-Louis David: Arrest and Trial --David’s wife returned to him after he was arrested --He was released in an amnesty
    14. 14. Intervention (Rape) of the Sabine Women (1799) Jacques-Louis David: Post Revolution --Allegory of the state of France, caught between warring factions; a plea for peace and unity --A tribute to his wife returning to him, love prevailing over conflict
    15. 15. Napoleon Crossing the Alps at the St. Bernard Pass (1801) Jacques-Louis David and Napoleon --Napoleon becomes First Consul in 1799 --He asks David to paint for him --When Napoleon is declared emperor in 1804, David becomes the court painter of the Empire
    16. 16. --After the final defeat of Napoleon, the Bourbon kings were restored to the throne of France. --David was given an amnesty by Louis XVIII, who wanted to lure him into his services as his court painter. --David refused the position and was exiled to Belgium; he died in Brussels in 1825 after being hit by a carriage. --David had wished to be buried in France, but the government refused to allow it, and he was buried in Belgium instead. However, his friends and supporters had his heart preserved; it was returned to France and buried in Paris. Jacques-Louis David: Exile
    17. 17. ROMANTICISM: Raft of the Medusa by T. Gericault (France; 19 th century)
    18. 18. ROMANTICISM: E. Delacroix (France; 19 th century) Academy Salon Morocco sketch, painting
    19. 19. --Founded 1648; instruction was given only in an approved royal style, with a rigid set of rules and a strong emphasis on classicism. Delacroix quipped that “the Academy attempts to teach beauty as one would teach mathematics” (i.e., by formula). --The “Salon” was the official, Academy- sponsored art exhibit, and an artist’s success and standing were tied to his recognition in the Salon. FRENCH ACADEMY AND SALON
    20. 20. ROMANTICISM: Eugene Delacroix: --1798-1863 --The greatest of the French Romantic painters --Despite early success in the Salon, would battle with the Academy --Traveled to Morocco in 1832 --An enormous output: after his death, over 9000 drawings paintings, and pastels were counted in his studio alone
    21. 21. REALISM Gustave Courbet: --1819-1877 --Had a tumultuous relationship with the French Academy, who opposed him not just on artistic but also social and political grounds --Considered the first communist or socialist artist, and he heroized common people --Also could be considered one of the pioneers in social realism in the visual arts “ Show me an angel and I will paint one.”
    22. 22. Edouard Manet (France; 19 th century) --Born in Paris in 1832 --Achieved his first notable success as a painter with the Spanish Guitar player (1862). The work was considered a promising genre painting, and Manet was awarded a medal in the Academy Salon.
    23. 23. --Despite his Salon success in 1862, the next year Manet encountered difficulties with the jury--he submitted a painting entitled Dejeuner sur l’herbe (Luncheon on the Grass) which was deemed too eccentric; the painting was rejected by the Salon committee.
    24. 24. Luncheon on the Grass (Dejeuner sur l’herbe) E. Manet (France; 19 th century)
    25. 25. --Thousands of other paintings were rejected that year and outraged artists complained bitterly about the jury. -- The Emperor Napoleon III intervened, decreeing that the refused works be shown in a separate exhibition, the SALON DES REFUSES, or the Salon of Refused Artists. --The Salon des Refuses was met with derision and mockery as most people came simply to laugh at what they considered bad paintings. Manet’s painting was considered the most scandalous of all. Luncheon on the Grass (Dejeuner sur l’herbe)
    26. 26. WHISTLER vs. RUSKIN (ENGLAND; 19 th century) James Abbot McNeill Whistler Self-Portrait (USA, England; 19 th century) John Ruskin by John Everett Millais (England; 19 th century)
    27. 27. James Abbot McNeill Whistler Self-Portrait (USA, England; 19 th century) --1834-1903 --From an American military family, but spends part of his childhood in Russia --Flunks out of Westpoint --Moves to Europe (France, and then England) and works as an expatriate artist --Becomes the most famous American among the early Modernists
    28. 28. Symphony in White #1 (The White Girl) by J.A.M. Whistler (19 th century; USA, England) SALON DES REFUSES (1863)
    29. 29. WHISTLER vs. RUSKIN Portrait of John Ruskin by John Everett Millais Noct NOCTURNE IN BLACK & GOLD (Falling Rockets) and NOCTURNE IN BLUE & GOLD (Old Battersea Bridge) by J.A.M. Whistler (USA, England; 19 th century)
    30. 30. WHISTLER vs. RUSKIN “ For Mr. Whistler’s own sake, no less than for the protection of the purchaser, Sir Coutts Lindsay ought not to have admitted works into the gallery in which the ill-educated conceit of the artist so nearly approached the aspect of willful imposture. I have seen and heard much of cockney impudence before now, but never expected to hear a coxcomb ask 200 guineas for flinging a pot of paint in the public’s face.”—Ruskin, on Whistler’s nocturnes Noct NOCTURNE IN BLACK & GOLD (Falling Rockets) and NOCTURNE IN BLUE & GOLD (Old Battersea Bridge) by J.A.M. Whistler (USA, England; 19 th century)
    31. 31. WHISTLER vs. RUSKIN --Whistler sues Ruskin for libel claiming that, coming from a critic of Ruskin’s reputation, the comments had done him professional injury; asks for 1000 pounds. --Jury asked to decide on not just libel, but issues involving the definition and parameters of art itself. Noct NOCTURNE IN BLACK & GOLD (Falling Rockets) and NOCTURNE IN BLUE & GOLD (Old Battersea Bridge) by J.A.M. Whistler (USA, England; 19 th century)
    32. 32. WHISTLER vs. RUSKIN Points used to support Ruskin’s defense: --mimesis --labor --“finish” Noct NOCTURNE IN BLACK & GOLD (Falling Rockets) and NOCTURNE IN BLUE & GOLD (Old Battersea Bridge) by J.A.M. Whistler (USA, England; 19 th century)
    33. 33. WHISTLER vs. RUSKIN Points used to support Ruskin’s defense: -- mimesis Ruskin’s defense attorney asks the jury if this is an “ accurate representation” of Battersea Bridge --labor --“finish” Noct
    34. 34. WHISTLER vs. RUSKIN Points used to support Ruskin’s defense: --mimesis -- labor --“ finish ” Ruskin’s defense asks Whistler how long it took him to “ knock it off.” Whistler: A couple of hours. Defense: And that is what you are asking 200 guineas for, a couple hours work? Whistler: No. The 200 guineas are for the lifetime’s worth of experience that allowed me to be able to “ knock it off.” Noct
    35. 35. WHISTLER vs. RUSKIN: Jury finds in favor or Whistler and Ruskin is guilty of libel, but the jury awards Whistler only farthing in damages
    36. 36. Impression: Sunrise by Claude Monet (1873) IMPRESSIONISM --desire to capture an instantaneous “impression” of a scene in nature --interest in the play and reflection of light on the surface of objects, rather than the physical character of the objects themselves --painting “en plein air”
    37. 37. Impression: Sunrise by Claude Monet (1873) Typical of Impressionism --Primacy of light and color --Attempt to capture the spontaneity of vision --softness of line --shapes and details implied by areas of color, rather than meticulous reproduced --outdoor and atmospheric scenes Antithetical to Impressionism: --narrative and history painting --classical subject matter --hard lines and contours
    38. 38. POINTILLISM: --calculate hues and proportions needed to produce the effect of a particular color --rather than mixing them on a palette, dots of pure color are set down on the canvas, and the viewer’s eye merges them to produce the impression of the desired colors --intended to provide a more luminous and intense perception of color Sunday Afternoon on the Grand Jatte by G. Seurat (France; 19th century)
    39. 39. EXPRESSIONISM: --emphasis is on subjective emotion rather than objective reality --intensity of the artist’s feelings over-rides fidelity in the portrayal of objects --objects are freely distorted for emotive or expressive effect The Scream by E. Munch (Norway; 19th-20th centuries)
    40. 40. FAUVISM: --emphasis of stark juxtapositions of fields of vibrant color; colors are often harsh or seemingly arbitrary --crude drawing, sketchy brushwork --“Fauve” from French term for “wild beast” “ I dream of . . . an art . . . devoid of troubling or depressing subject matter . . . like a mental comforter, something like a good armchair in which to rest.” — Matisse Madame Matisse by H. Matisse (France; 20th century)
    41. 41. Ambrose Vollard by P. Picasso (Spain, France; 20 th century) CUBISM: --reduction of all elements of the painting to a tight geometric scheme, usually involving small, cubic shapes which both merge and collide --spatial relations and three- dimensionality collapse within the geometric scheme --the discreet identities of objects and people are fragmented and integrated into the whole --Analytic Cubism: initial phase --Synthetic Cubism: second phase
    42. 42. The Persistence of Memory by S. Dali (Spain; 20 th century) SURREALISM: --founded by Andre Breton --interest in psychiatric theories of Sigmund Freud, which held that rational forces of the conscious mind struggle against irrational, instinctual unconscious urges, thus creating conflict --desire to liberate unconscious mind and repressed desires in order to discover a larger reality (“Surreality”) which lay beyond rational notions of what is real

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