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MANNERISM: The Madonna with the Long Neck by Parmigianino, Italy, c.1535 Other key mannerist painters include: Giulio Roma...
MANNERISM: PONTORMO  Pontormo (1494-1557): --Born Jacopo Carrucci in the city of Pontormo. --May have studied  under Leona...
MANNERISM: ROSSO FIORENTINO  Rosso Fiorention (1494-1540): --Born in Florence --Studied under Andrea del Sarto, but refuse...
MANNERISM: BRONZINO  Agnolo Bronzino (1503- 1572):  --Born in Firenze. --Studied under Pontormo and painted in Florence. -...
MANNERISM: PARMIGIANINO  Parmigianino (1503- 1540): --Born Girolamo  Francesco Mazzola in Parma. --Worked in Rome,  Bologn...
MANNERISM: --Emphasis on artistic virtuosity; sprezzatura  --Deliberately difficult, to  the point illegibility; if it  is...
COUNCIL OF TRENT  (1545-63):  Catholic response to  the Protestant Reformation. Counter-Reformation  Calls for reform of a...
Giulio de’Fabriano (1564; Dialogues of the Errors of History Painting): criticizes  contemporary Catholic  artists for sho...
Archbishop Paleotti of  Bologna (Discourse on  Sacred and Profane  Images): art should be clear  and easy to understand— “...
Some points of Church  decrees on the reform of  art: --No “seductive charms;”  no eroticism,  lasciviousness  --The main ...
Philip II  by Titian (1551) El Escorial: Juan Bautista de Toledo and Juan de Herrera  --Charles V retires in 1556, leaving...
EL ESCORIAL: J. FERENANDEZ DE NAVARRETE (EL MUDO)  Juan Fernandez de Navarrete (El Mudo): --Born in Logorno c.1538 --Calle...
EL ESCORIAL: J. FERENANDEZ DE NAVARRETE (EL MUDO)  The Martyrdom of St. James  by El Mudo (c.1570) “ The attitude and move...
EL ESCORIAL: J. FERENANDEZ DE NAVARRETE (EL MUDO)  El Mudo dies in 1579 Only 8 of his 32 commissioned  paintings had been ...
DOMENIKOS THEOTOKOPULOS:  EL GRECO  El Greco: --Born 1541 in Candia  (Heraklion), Crete --Trained as an icon painter  --By...
EL GRECO: CRETE, ICONS   Dormition of the Virgin and St. Luke  Mid-1560s gives up his  trade on Crete, moves  to Venice, I...
EL GRECO: ROME  Staying at the Farnese  Palace, El Greco was  introduced by the palace librarian, a scholar  named Fulvio ...
EL GRECO: SPAIN—Toledo  The Disrobing  of Christ (1577-79)
EL GRECO: SPAIN—El Escorial  The Martyrdom of St. Maurice and the Theban League (1580-81)
EL GRECO: SPAIN—El Escorial  The Martyrdom of St. Maurice and the Theban League (1580-81)  “ There is a painting here by o...
EL ESCORIAL: ITALIAN PAINTERS  Pellegrino Tibaldi: Came to the Escorial in 1586, assigned to complete the unfinished work ...
EL GRECO: THE BURIAL OF COUNT ORGAZ  1323: Death of Gonzalo  Ruiz de Toledo, Count of  township of Orgaz; a  sponsor of th...
EL GRECO: THE BURIAL OF COUNT ORGAZ  1327: Gonazlo Ruiz’s  body is transferred from  its original burial site in  an Augus...
EL GRECO: THE BURIAL OF COUNT ORGAZ  “ Two glorious saints, St.  Stephen . . . and St.  Augustine . . . descending from on...
EL GRECO: THE BURIAL OF COUNT ORGAZ  1564: The town had, after  two centuries, tired of  paying the endowment. They had re...
EL GRECO: THE BURIAL OF COUNT ORGAZ  1569: Lawsuit settled in  favor of Santo Tome, and  the church, receiving  back payme...
EL GRECO: THE BURIAL OF COUNT ORGAZ  1583: Andres Nunez and Santo Tome receive  official recognition of a  miracle and aut...
EL GRECO: THE BURIAL OF COUNT ORGAZ  1587: El Greco signs  contract for the  commission; Santo  Tome was his parish  church
EL GRECO: THE BURIAL OF COUNT ORGAZ  1588: El Greco completes the painting
EL GRECO: THE BURIAL OF COUNT ORGAZ  Two modes    Heavenly realm:  more abstract     Worldly  realm: more material— real...
EL GRECO: THE BURIAL OF COUNT ORGAZ     John the Baptist, Virgin Mary as  intercessors    Angel holding up  Gonzalo Ruiz...
EL GRECO: THE BURIAL OF COUNT ORGAZ  St. Stephen, Gonzalo Ruiz, and St. Augustine
EL GRECO: THE BURIAL OF COUNT ORGAZ     Pointing: draw  viewer’s attention to  a point of importance; a lesson is being  ...
EL GRECO: THE BURIAL OF COUNT ORGAZ  Justification through good works
EL GRECO: THE BURIAL OF COUNT ORGAZ     Good works bring you into a saving relation  with God        
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Class 3 Review

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Class 3 review: Mannerism, Counter-Reformation, El Escorial, El Greco

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Class 3 Review

  1. 1. MANNERISM: The Madonna with the Long Neck by Parmigianino, Italy, c.1535 Other key mannerist painters include: Giulio Romano Pontormo Rosso Fiorentino Bronzino
  2. 2. MANNERISM: PONTORMO Pontormo (1494-1557): --Born Jacopo Carrucci in the city of Pontormo. --May have studied under Leonardo da Vinci before entering Andrea del Sarto’s workshop. --One of the first Florentine artists to turn away from the High Renaissance and towards Mannerism.
  3. 3. MANNERISM: ROSSO FIORENTINO Rosso Fiorention (1494-1540): --Born in Florence --Studied under Andrea del Sarto, but refused any permanent master. --Moved to France and painted there for Francois I. --Noted for his strange quirks, including a pet baboon; supposedly committed suicide after accusing a friend of theft falsely.
  4. 4. MANNERISM: BRONZINO Agnolo Bronzino (1503- 1572): --Born in Firenze. --Studied under Pontormo and painted in Florence. --Painted for Duke Cosimo I de Medici.
  5. 5. MANNERISM: PARMIGIANINO Parmigianino (1503- 1540): --Born Girolamo Francesco Mazzola in Parma. --Worked in Rome, Bologna, and Parma. --Accused of growing increasingly eccentric, becoming obsessed with alchemy and allowing his beard to grow long and disordered.
  6. 6. MANNERISM: --Emphasis on artistic virtuosity; sprezzatura --Deliberately difficult, to the point illegibility; if it is too easy, it lacks class --Grazia (grace): emphasis on elegance --Taste for bizarre and novel, often including erotic --Abstraction—art placing aesthetic concerns over worldly concerns and religious values
  7. 7. COUNCIL OF TRENT (1545-63): Catholic response to the Protestant Reformation. Counter-Reformation Calls for reform of art within the Church, as the Mannerist style was considered inappropriate.
  8. 8. Giulio de’Fabriano (1564; Dialogues of the Errors of History Painting): criticizes contemporary Catholic artists for showing a lack of piety and devotion and paying no attention to subject matter; rather, he claims, they interested only in “the charms of art.” Says true beauty is in clarity, and both in style and subject matter art should strive for beauty through clarity.
  9. 9. Archbishop Paleotti of Bologna (Discourse on Sacred and Profane Images): art should be clear and easy to understand— “ books for the illiterate.” Desires an new art that will “ incite devotion and sting the heart.”
  10. 10. Some points of Church decrees on the reform of art: --No “seductive charms;” no eroticism, lasciviousness --The main function of art must be to incite devotion and inspire the heart of the worshipper --Art should instruct the worshipper in tenets of the Faith
  11. 11. Philip II by Titian (1551) El Escorial: Juan Bautista de Toledo and Juan de Herrera --Charles V retires in 1556, leaving control of Spain, its territories and defense of the Catholic faith in the hands of his son, Philip II. --Among Philip’s early projects is a royal monastery, El Escorial, construction on which begins in 1563. COUNTER-REFORMATION: SPAIN (Hapsburgs/Habsburgs)
  12. 12. EL ESCORIAL: J. FERENANDEZ DE NAVARRETE (EL MUDO) Juan Fernandez de Navarrete (El Mudo): --Born in Logorno c.1538 --Called “El Mudo” because he was a deaf mute; struck deaf by a childhood illness --Lived and worked in Italy, returning to Spain around 1565 --Starts work at the Escorial as a restorer and copyist --Is eventually made the principal painter at the Escorial and signs a contract for 32 paintings for chapels in the basilica
  13. 13. EL ESCORIAL: J. FERENANDEZ DE NAVARRETE (EL MUDO) The Martyrdom of St. James by El Mudo (c.1570) “ The attitude and movement of the knife passing through the neck is done with such propriety and naturalism that those who see it will swear that he is already starting to expire.” — Father Jose de Siguenza
  14. 14. EL ESCORIAL: J. FERENANDEZ DE NAVARRETE (EL MUDO) El Mudo dies in 1579 Only 8 of his 32 commissioned paintings had been completed
  15. 15. DOMENIKOS THEOTOKOPULOS: EL GRECO El Greco: --Born 1541 in Candia (Heraklion), Crete --Trained as an icon painter --By 1563 listed as a master icon painter
  16. 16. EL GRECO: CRETE, ICONS Dormition of the Virgin and St. Luke Mid-1560s gives up his trade on Crete, moves to Venice, Italy (Crete was part of the Venetian Republic) to retrain himself as an Italian-style artist.
  17. 17. EL GRECO: ROME Staying at the Farnese Palace, El Greco was introduced by the palace librarian, a scholar named Fulvio Orsini, into a learned circle that included several prominent Spaniards. Among them was Luis de Castilla, whose father Diego was a dean at Toledo Cathedral. Luis de Castilla encouraged El Greco to move to Spain, and helped arrange a commission for him in the sacristy of the cathedral.
  18. 18. EL GRECO: SPAIN—Toledo The Disrobing of Christ (1577-79)
  19. 19. EL GRECO: SPAIN—El Escorial The Martyrdom of St. Maurice and the Theban League (1580-81)
  20. 20. EL GRECO: SPAIN—El Escorial The Martyrdom of St. Maurice and the Theban League (1580-81) “ There is a painting here by one Domenico Greco . . . of St. Maurice and his soldiers . . . it did not please his majesty which is no wonder . . . although they say that it has great art . . . (Improper art can) deceive the ignorant mind by means of certain tricks and illusions, and thus succeed in pleasing the ignorant and thoughtless . . . (but) as our own Mudo said . . . ‘the saints must be painted in such a way that the desire to pray to them . . . is unfailing . . . because this must be the main effect and purpose of painting.’”--Siguenza
  21. 21. EL ESCORIAL: ITALIAN PAINTERS Pellegrino Tibaldi: Came to the Escorial in 1586, assigned to complete the unfinished work of the other painters, as well as the library and other areas.
  22. 22. EL GRECO: THE BURIAL OF COUNT ORGAZ 1323: Death of Gonzalo Ruiz de Toledo, Count of township of Orgaz; a sponsor of the Church of Santo Tome in Toledo (where he wished to be interred), he left an endowment to be paid annually by the residents of Orgaz to the church
  23. 23. EL GRECO: THE BURIAL OF COUNT ORGAZ 1327: Gonazlo Ruiz’s body is transferred from its original burial site in an Augustinian monastery to Santo Tome; when he was being interred at Santo Tome, a miracle occurred.
  24. 24. EL GRECO: THE BURIAL OF COUNT ORGAZ “ Two glorious saints, St. Stephen . . . and St. Augustine . . . descending from on high . . . reaching the body, they carried it to the tomb where . . . they placed it, saying: ‘ Such is the reward of those who serve God and His saints,’ and then they disappeared, leaving the church full of fragrance and heavenly aromas.”
  25. 25. EL GRECO: THE BURIAL OF COUNT ORGAZ 1564: The town had, after two centuries, tired of paying the endowment. They had refused payment for several years. Andres Nunez, the parish priest of Santo Tome, brings a lawsuit against the town of Orgaz seeking back payment of the endowment
  26. 26. EL GRECO: THE BURIAL OF COUNT ORGAZ 1569: Lawsuit settled in favor of Santo Tome, and the church, receiving back payments, is greatly enriched
  27. 27. EL GRECO: THE BURIAL OF COUNT ORGAZ 1583: Andres Nunez and Santo Tome receive official recognition of a miracle and authorization to depict it in a painting
  28. 28. EL GRECO: THE BURIAL OF COUNT ORGAZ 1587: El Greco signs contract for the commission; Santo Tome was his parish church
  29. 29. EL GRECO: THE BURIAL OF COUNT ORGAZ 1588: El Greco completes the painting
  30. 30. EL GRECO: THE BURIAL OF COUNT ORGAZ Two modes  Heavenly realm: more abstract  Worldly realm: more material— realism
  31. 31. EL GRECO: THE BURIAL OF COUNT ORGAZ  John the Baptist, Virgin Mary as intercessors  Angel holding up Gonzalo Ruiz’s soul for judgment
  32. 32. EL GRECO: THE BURIAL OF COUNT ORGAZ St. Stephen, Gonzalo Ruiz, and St. Augustine
  33. 33. EL GRECO: THE BURIAL OF COUNT ORGAZ  Pointing: draw viewer’s attention to a point of importance; a lesson is being taught.
  34. 34. EL GRECO: THE BURIAL OF COUNT ORGAZ Justification through good works
  35. 35. EL GRECO: THE BURIAL OF COUNT ORGAZ  Good works bring you into a saving relation with God   

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