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  3. 4. Constructivist teaching is based on recent research about the human brain and how learning occurs.
  4. 5. <ul><li>Constructivism is an approach to teaching and learning based on the premise that learning is the result of </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;mental construction.&quot; </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>In other words, students learn by fitting new information together with what they already know. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Brain Based Learning Principles <ul><li>The brain is meaning driven. Meaning is more important to the brain than information . </li></ul><ul><li>Learning involves both focused attention and peripheral attention. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning always involves conscious and unconscious processes. ( Conscious % 10 – 20 Unconscious % 80 – 90 ) </li></ul>
  8. 9. … . to the other things they know about. … . to other things they do. … other things they are studying
  9. 10. ENGLISH geography music Every day life sports General Knowledge maths WHAT TO CONNECT health history Social studies
  10. 11. Stephen Krashen’s Theory of SLA <ul><li>5 main Hypotheses </li></ul><ul><li>The Acquisition – Learning hypotheses </li></ul><ul><li>The Monitor hypotheses </li></ul><ul><li>The Natural Order hypotheses </li></ul><ul><li>The Input hypotheses </li></ul><ul><li>The Affective Filter hypotheses </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Language Acquisition … requires meaningful interaction in the target language – natural communication –in which speakers are concerned not with the form of their utterences but with the message they are conveying and understanding. </li></ul><ul><li>Conscious Language Learning; presentation of explicit language rules. </li></ul>
  12. 13. HOW TO CONNECT
  13. 14. <ul><li>BEFORE </li></ul><ul><li>Where is this genuinely used ? </li></ul><ul><li>When is this genuinely used ? </li></ul><ul><li>What does this remind me of? </li></ul><ul><li>AFTER </li></ul><ul><li>What went well? </li></ul><ul><li>What was hard? </li></ul><ul><li>What can be improved? </li></ul>
  14. 15. Read the car number plates below <ul><li>34 ABC 368 </li></ul><ul><li>55 DC 875 </li></ul><ul><li>16 BEG 215 </li></ul><ul><li>35 MJI 913 </li></ul>
  15. 16. smaller than – bigger than <ul><li>3 > 1 </li></ul><ul><li>9 < 12 </li></ul><ul><li>27 > 23 > 20 </li></ul><ul><li>Tell me a number; </li></ul><ul><li>Bigger than ……. but smaller than ……. </li></ul>
  16. 17. the biggest – the smallest <ul><li>Which one is the biggest number ? </li></ul><ul><li>Which one is the smallest number ? </li></ul><ul><li>7650 – 7578- 7687 - 7678 </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>Can is 14 years old. Damla is 9 years older than him. How old is Damla ? </li></ul><ul><li>14 + 9 = 23 </li></ul><ul><li>Belgin is 48 years old. Her sister is 10 years younger than her. How old is her sister ? </li></ul><ul><li>48 – 10 = 38 </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Tell me a city . ( Bigger - smaller – hotter – wetter) </li></ul><ul><li>Tell me river. ( longer –shorter) </li></ul><ul><li>Tell me a mountain. ( higher – lower ) </li></ul><ul><li>Tell me a bay. </li></ul><ul><li>Tell me a lake. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Which one is bigger ? smaller ? The biggest ? the smallest ? Closest to the sun ?
  20. 21. <ul><li>Is there life on the moon ? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there water on the moon? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there air on the moon? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there any plants on the moon? </li></ul><ul><li>When was the first visit to the moon? (1959 by the soviet spacecraft ) </li></ul>
  21. 22. SPRING’ S COMING <ul><li>Spring’s coming </li></ul><ul><li>Spring’s coming </li></ul><ul><li>Trees are green and </li></ul><ul><li>birds are back </li></ul><ul><li>I go out </li></ul><ul><li>on these warm days </li></ul><ul><li>and play football </li></ul><ul><li>which is great ! </li></ul>
  22. 23. winter’s coming <ul><li>Winter’s coming. </li></ul><ul><li>Winter’s coming. </li></ul><ul><li>Trees are bare and leaves have gone </li></ul><ul><li>I’ve got warm clothes on these cold days </li></ul><ul><li>and drink hot things </li></ul><ul><li>Which is great! </li></ul>
  23. 24. Natural Order <ul><li>Am,is,are </li></ul><ul><li>There is-there are </li></ul><ul><li>This-that / these –those </li></ul><ul><li>Have you got…? Has she got..? </li></ul><ul><li>Much – many – a little – a few </li></ul><ul><li>Can </li></ul><ul><li>What are you doing now ? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you ………? </li></ul><ul><li>Does she…? </li></ul><ul><li>Research findings: some grammatical structures tend to be acquired early while others late. </li></ul><ul><li>Krashen rejects grammatical sequencing when the goal is LA. </li></ul>
  24. 25. spring and summer clothes
  25. 26. Look at the price list and answer the questions <ul><li>Cenk’s mother bought a pair of jeans for Cenk and a pair of sandals for Cenk’s sister. </li></ul><ul><li>How much did she pay ? </li></ul>40 YTL 30 ytl 95 YTL 80 YTL 25 YTL shorts T-shirt trainers jeans sandals
  26. 27. spring vegetables and fruit
  27. 28. <ul><li>Zehra went to the market place yesterday. She bought a kilo of zucchinis, a kilo of broad-beans and two kilos of strawberries. </li></ul><ul><li>How much did she pay? </li></ul>2 YTL 3.5 YTL 3 YTL 4 YTL 3 YTL A bunch of fresh dill A kilo of Broad-beans A kilo of zucchuni A kilo of apricots A kilo of plums
  28. 29. <ul><li>Do you like ..? Is it a kind of spring fruit ( summer / fall ) ? </li></ul>
  29. 30. The Input Hypotheses <ul><li>The learner improves and progresses when s/he receives SL “input”that is one step beyond his/her stage of LC. If a learner is at a stage “ a”, then acquisition takes place when s/he is exposed to </li></ul><ul><li>“ Comprehensible Input ” that belongs to level </li></ul><ul><li>“ a + 1” </li></ul>
  30. 31. <ul><li>Van,Turkey . </li></ul><ul><li>loyal </li></ul><ul><li>loving </li></ul><ul><li>intelligent. </li></ul><ul><li>social </li></ul><ul><li>active </li></ul><ul><li>They play a lot, even when they are older. </li></ul><ul><li>These cats like water so much and like swimming. </li></ul>PETS
  31. 32. <ul><li>Scotland </li></ul><ul><li>Powerful </li></ul><ul><li>Active </li></ul><ul><li>Loving </li></ul><ul><li>loyal </li></ul><ul><li>Friendly </li></ul><ul><li>Playful </li></ul><ul><li>Like water </li></ul>
  32. 33. Similarities and differences <ul><li>playful </li></ul><ul><li>Scotland </li></ul><ul><li>Van </li></ul><ul><li>swimmers </li></ul><ul><li>friendly </li></ul><ul><li>active </li></ul>Venn Diagram
  33. 34. FARM LIFE
  34. 35. <ul><li>Old McDonald has got a farm. He has got sheep, cows, and horses on his farm. They graze on the farm every day. The sheep eat about 4 kilos of grass. The cows eat about 8 kilos of grass. All the animals eat 20 kilos of grass. </li></ul><ul><li>How many kilos of grass do the horses eat a day ? </li></ul>
  35. 36. <ul><li>Old McDonald raises chickens, turkeys and ducks for meat and eggs. The chickens lay 20 eggs a day. The turkeys lay 10 eggs a day. Old McDonald collects 35 eggs from the nests every day. </li></ul><ul><li>So, how many eggs do the ducks lay a day ? </li></ul>
  36. 37. Do they lay eggs? <ul><li>Whales </li></ul><ul><li>The sea tortoises </li></ul><ul><li>Snakes </li></ul><ul><li>Birds </li></ul><ul><li>Chickens </li></ul><ul><li>monkeys </li></ul><ul><li>Frogs </li></ul><ul><li>Fish </li></ul>
  37. 38. Do they hibernate? ( sleep in winter) <ul><li>A bear, a cow, a fox, snake, a tortoise, hedgehog </li></ul>
  38. 39. Time Arithmetic <ul><li>If this month is September, what was last month ? </li></ul><ul><li>If this month is August, what month will it be it three months later ? </li></ul><ul><li>If today is Monday, what day was it two days ago? </li></ul><ul><li>If today is Wednesday, what day will it be tomorrow? </li></ul><ul><li>If it is 2: 00 p.m now, what time was it two hours ago? </li></ul><ul><li>If it is 6:00 p.m now, what time will it be 5 hours later? </li></ul>
  39. 40. How long ? <ul><li>Elif started her homework at six o’clock and finished it at seven o’clock last night . How long did she study? </li></ul><ul><li>Ozan went to bed at ten o’clock last night . He woke up at seven o’clock. </li></ul><ul><li>How long did he sleep? </li></ul>
  40. 41. AGE PROBLEMS <ul><li>Damla was 18 years old four years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>How old is she now? </li></ul><ul><li>How old will she be in 2010 ? </li></ul>
  41. 42. connect to their life experience
  42. 43. Have you watched the Simpsons ? Was it good?
  43. 44. KITCHEN UTENSILS <ul><li>Go into your kitchen and count. </li></ul><ul><li>How many frying pans are there in your kitchen? </li></ul><ul><li>There are …………………………………………………………….. </li></ul><ul><li>How many graters are there in your kitchen? </li></ul><ul><li>………………………………………………………………………… .. </li></ul><ul><li>How many colanders are there in your kitchen? </li></ul>
  44. 45. TRADITIONAL FOOD FROM TURKEY <ul><li>Where is baklava from? </li></ul><ul><li>Where is cağ kebab from? </li></ul><ul><li>Where is mantı from? </li></ul><ul><li>Where is cezerye from? </li></ul><ul><li>Where is poached anchovy from? </li></ul>
  45. 46. <ul><li>Put the anchovies in the pan </li></ul><ul><li>Fry it all </li></ul><ul><li>Take the anchovies out of the pan </li></ul><ul><li>Eat it all </li></ul>
  46. 47. THE MACARENA DANCE <ul><li>I get up early in the morning </li></ul><ul><li>I have a shower and I sing </li></ul><ul><li>I eat something, </li></ul><ul><li>Brush my teeth </li></ul><ul><li>Go to class when the bell rings </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher comes </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson starts </li></ul><ul><li>And I enjoy my English class </li></ul><ul><li>Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday. learn it </li></ul><ul><li>Thursday, Friday. Let’s use it </li></ul><ul><li>Saturday, Sunday. Time to enjoy it </li></ul><ul><li>That’s how we do it. </li></ul><ul><li>Right hand out </li></ul><ul><li>Left hand out </li></ul><ul><li>Right palm up </li></ul><ul><li>Left palm up </li></ul><ul><li>Right hand to the left shoulder </li></ul><ul><li>Left hand to the right shoulder </li></ul><ul><li>Right hand behind head </li></ul><ul><li>Left hand behind head </li></ul><ul><li>Right hand on left front pocket </li></ul><ul><li>Left hand on right front pocket </li></ul><ul><li>Right hand on right back pocket </li></ul><ul><li>Left hand on left back pocket </li></ul><ul><li>wiggle hips three times </li></ul><ul><li>Clap and jump and turn 90 degrees to the side </li></ul><ul><li>And repeat </li></ul>
  47. 48. So What ?