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3 modren sodium hydroxide manufacturing methods

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Sodium hydroxide also known as caustic soda with chemical formula NaOH found in many forms caustic soda lye, flakes, granules and solid. Produced using three different process Mercury Cell, Diaphragm cell, Membrane Cell methods

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3 modren sodium hydroxide manufacturing methods

  1. 1. Article written and published By www.worldofchemicals.com 3 MODERN SODIUM HYDROXIDE MANUFACTURING METHODS
  2. 2. SODIUM HYDROXIDE HISTORY  Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) an inorganic compound with following synonyms  Caustic soda Lye Sodium hydrate       NaOH widely used inorganic industrial chemical. NaOH is having certain properties like Sodium hydroxide's chemical formula is NaOH NaOH molecular weight of 39.997 g/mol Sodium hydroxide is contain ph of ~12-14
  3. 3. SODIUM HYDROXIDE CHARACTERISTICS                 Sodium hydroxide characteristics can be mentioned as Raw material for various industrial products Co-product in chlorine synthesis Strong base Highly corrosive Auxiliary chemical Odorless material Caustic soda is available in two forms - Caustic soda lye and Caustic soda solid. Solid form of caustic soda can be in the form of Caustic soda flakes or Caustic soda granules Pure form of sodium hydroxide also available as Sodium hydroxide pellets Sodium hydroxide flakes Sodium hydroxide granule Sodium hydroxide solution
  4. 4. INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF CAUSTIC SODA  Caustic soda has wide variety of industrial sectors like  In pulp and paper processing industry caustic soda used at the stages like bleaching process, in de-inking of waste paper, and in water treatment.  Next major industry like textile industry caustic soda is used to process cotton and synthetic fibers  Caustic soda is utilized more in the soap and detergent industry.  Other caustic soda uses include  In oil and gas industry – to remove pungent smells In household cleaning products In beverage bottles In home soap making   
  5. 5. 3 SODIUM HYDROXIDE MANUFACTURING METHODS  Sodium Hydroxide solutions are produced by three different technologies  Mercury cells Membrane cells Diaphragm cells    Each of above processes utilizes sodium chloride (NaCl) salt as the primary raw material. Electrolytic splitting of salt results in products like chlorine and sodium ion (Na+). In turn Na+ will react with water in the mercury cell to form Sodium hydroxide and Hydrogen as by product.
  6. 6. MERCURY CELL
  7. 7. MERCURY CELL CONT ..  In the Mercury Cell Process saturated brine voyages down a steel trough roughly 15 meters in length and one meter wide between a streaming film of mercury (the cathode) and titanium plates (the anodes). Direct current is connected between the anode and cathode. Chlorine freed at the anodes gathers above the brine and is begun as a hot, wet and corrosive gas.   Sodium ions are released at the surface of the streaming mercury cathode, forming an amalgam of low concentration with the mercury, which streams out of the cell without reacting with the water or chlorine.
  8. 8. MERCURY CELL CONT…  The mercury cell thus has two products  (i) Hot, wet chlorine (ii) Sodium amalgam   The soda cell or decomposer is a cylindrical steel trough loaded with graphite balls or graphite electrodes. The sodium amalgam is passed, along with pure water, into the decomposer, where it reacts to transform Sodium hydroxide as a controlled 50 per cent aqueous solution and hydrogen gas, liberating fee mercury, which is reused again to the electrolytic cell. The graphite provides a surface that expedites this reaction.
  9. 9. MERCURY CELL CONT…  The following two types of reactions called brine cell and the soda cell respectively.  Brine Cell 2Cl = Cl2 + e Na + e = Na Na + Hg = Na/Hg   Soda Cell 2Hg 2 Na/Hg + 2 H2O = 2NaOH + H2 +
  10. 10. DIAPHRAGM CELL
  11. 11. DIAPHRAGM CELL CONT ..  This method produces 71 per cent of Sodium hydroxide. Diaphragm Cell process utilizes asbestos or alternate substitutes to asbestos, to separate the co-products Sodium Hydroxide (Caustic Soda) and Chlorine. The production of 50 per cent NaOH occurs primarily outside of the electrolytic cell.  The diaphragm cell produces a very weak 'cell liquor,' that contains 12-14 per cent, by weight, NaOH and the constant volume of NaCl salt. The cell liquor is subsequently evaporated in a three or four 'effect' evaporation method to a final nominal concentration of 50 per cent NaOH by weight. The surplus salt is precipitated and filtered through the evaporation method for subsequent reuse/recycle. This method produces the lowest quality electrochemical NaOH solutions.
  12. 12. DIAPHRAGM CELL CONT ..  he quality considerations with respect to the diaphragm cell produced Caustic solutions include comparatively high salt, chlorates, carbonates, and sulfates. Salt, as NaCl, concentrations are typically 1.0 per cent, with maximums ranging from 1.1 to 1.3 weight per cent, counting on producer.   The diaphragm cell created Caustic Soda (NaOH) is usually referred as Diaphragm Cell Grade. It is conjointly known as Commercial Grade, Technical Grade, and occasionally Technical Diaphragm or other similar combinations.
  13. 13. DIAPHRAGM CELL CONT ..  An additional 'grade' of Caustic Soda (NaOH) produced by the diaphragm cell method is the sublimate grade. The production of sublimate Grade involves the further evaporation of the 50 per cent Diaphragm Grade NaOH solution to cut back the salt concentration. The higher concentration solution is then re-diluted to the 50% concentration that is commercially available as sublimate grade Caustic Soda.  Common uses include process and sewer water neutralization, textiles production, soaps and detergents and aluminum production. These uses and applications typically can confer with the Caustic Soda as any of the varied grades.
  14. 14. MEMBRANE CELL
  15. 15. MEMBRANE CELL CONT ..  This method produces approximately 13 per cent of Sodium Hydroxide. The membrane cell method utilizes a selective membrane that separates the Chlorine and Sodium ions. The membrane permits the Sodium ion to migrate across the membrane whereas keeping the Chlorine gas and salt (brine) solution in a compartment on the opposite facet of the membrane.  The Sodium ion is reacted with refined water as within the mercury cell to provide the Caustic Soda (NaOH). Evaporation is employed, as within the diaphragm method, to lift the concentration up to the nominal 50 weight per cent solution. The salt concentrations are not targeted as considerably during this evaporation method attributable to the selective diffusion nature of the membranes as well as the reduced quantity of evaporation needed during this method opposed to the diaphragm evaporation.  The Caustic Soda produced by the membrane cell process is most typically brought up as Membrane Grade. It conjointly contains a growing acceptance as a Rayon Grade product in all areas outside of rayon fiber production.
  16. 16. REFERENCE  Reference    [1] http://www.essentialchemicalindustry.org/chemicals/sodium-hydroxide.html [2] http://www.oocities.org/tiger_dil3000/   Image Reference     Fig. [1] Mercury cell © From http://www.essentialchemicalindustry.org/chemicals/chlorine.html#membrane_ce ll Fig. [2] Diaphragm cell © From http://www.essentialchemicalindustry.org/chemicals/chlorine.html#membrane_ce ll Fig. [3] Membrane cell © From http://www.essentialchemicalindustry.org/chemicals/chlorine.html#membrane_ce ll

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