Week 3 gb course

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Week 3 gb course

  1. 1. Energy use in Buildings Week 3
  2. 2. Where are we?
  3. 3. Understanding Energy “The ability to do work” Energy Measured in Joules (J) Power Measured in Watts (W) = 1 J/sec >>kWh
  4. 4. Understanding Energy Example: kWh/day/person 108.42 239.00 194.47 50.91 122.96 51.67 17.22 21.14 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 kWh/day/person Energy use (kWh/day/person)
  5. 5. Understanding Energy Example: Honda Wave 120km Vietnam average energy consumption = 21.42kWh/pp
  6. 6. Your ecological footprint http://myfootprint.org/
  7. 7. Energy consumption through Buildings >> ELECTRICITY When designing a green building, how do we know how much electricity our buildings will actually save?
  8. 8. Energy consumption through Buildings >> ELECTRICITY How do we know how much electricity our buildings will save? Energy Model: - Comparison with a Baseline Model - Comparison with a Benchmark
  9. 9. Electricity consumption Johor Bahru Case Study, Residential House *Kubota, Tetsu et al, "Energy Consumption and Air-Conditioning Usage in Residential Building of Malaysia”, 2011
  10. 10. *Kubota, Tetsu et al, "Energy Consumption and Air-Conditioning Usage in Residential Building of Malaysia”, 2011
  11. 11. Electricity consumption Hong Kong Data, Residential *Hoang Kong Energy End Use Data Report 2012, The Energy Efficiency office
  12. 12. Electricity consumption Hong Kong Data, Office
  13. 13. Electricity consumption Hong Kong Data, All buildings + Transport *Hoang Kong Energy End Use Data Report 2012, The Energy Efficiency office
  14. 14. Electricity consumption Hong Kong Data, Renewable Energy *Hoang Kong Energy End Use Data Report 2012, The Energy Efficiency office
  15. 15. Electricity consumption Hong Kong Data, Renewable Energy *Hoang Kong Energy End Use Data Report 2012, The Energy Efficiency office
  16. 16. Renewable Energy What types of Renewable energy are available?
  17. 17. Solar – Photovoltaics, Solar Hot Water Transparent Photovoltaics, CSIRO Energy Centre, Newcastle Australia
  18. 18. Solar – Photovoltaics - Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) - Big C Green Square PV cells on carpark shade structure & roof - Green One UN House will produce >17% of its own electricity
  19. 19. Photovoltaic Cells Cost and other Considerations - Crystalline silicon solar cell prices have fallen from $76.67/Watt in 1977 to an estimated $0.74/Watt in 2013 (Swanson’s Law prices fall 20% for every doubling of production capacity) - As of 2011 the cost of PV has fallen below Nuclear Power - Current developments achieving efficiency of 44%, commercially available cells are 14-22% efficient
  20. 20. Solar – Concentrated Solar (Thermal) Power Spain CSIRO Energy Research Centre, Newcastle AU
  21. 21. Solar Hot Water
  22. 22. Solar Hot Water - Can easily supply domestic hot water needs in houses in Southern Vietnam - Northern Vietnam may need to use higher capacity system to compensate for days without much sun * 2011 Edition Handbook for Green Housing
  23. 23. Wind Power Large scale wind farming High Altitude Wind
  24. 24. Wind Turbines integrated in buildings? 147m tall Strata Building, London Offsets 8% of power in building (equivalent to mechanical and electrical services)
  25. 25. Wind Turbines integrated in buildings? 240m tall Bahrain World Trade Centre 11-15% of power generated by wind turbines
  26. 26. Wind Turbines integrated in buildings? 309m tall Pearl River Tower, Guangzhou, China (SOM 2011) Combined with PV the renewable energy generated is <10% of building energy needs Wind turbines are a powerful green symboll
  27. 27. Hydropower?
  28. 28. Tidal or wave power?
  29. 29. Biomass? Biofuel? Geothermal?
  30. 30. Cogeneration Heat Recovery
  31. 31. Air Conditioning - Coefficient of Performance (COP) * LOTUS NR V1.1
  32. 32. Air Conditioning - Window and through wall system
  33. 33. Air Conditioning - Split System
  34. 34. Air Conditioning - VRF (Variable Refrigerant Flow)
  35. 35. Air Conditioning - Chilled Beam (passive/active) & Chilled Slab - >>Not good for tropical or humid climates
  36. 36. Lighting
  37. 37. BUT…it doesn’t matter how efficient you are It also comes down to the occupants, maintenance, controllability, automata bility and the design of the space What are some factors that could be more important than the efficiency of systems and equipment?
  38. 38. BUT…it doesn’t matter how efficient you are Consider (AC): - Floor area - Air Leakage - Individual thermal controls - Zoning - Set points (thermostat) - Cleaning of filters - Maintenance - Building Automated System - Thermal comfort
  39. 39. BUT…it doesn’t matter how efficient you are Consider (Lighting): - Size of space - Daylighting - Lighting level - Task lighting - User controllability - Timer lighting - Sensor lighting - Automated lighting - Switch zones - Hours of operation

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