This presentation is actually an analysis into the heart of the Indian power sector; what are the problems that the Indian grid is facing and what is the best possible solution to solve them. Smart Grid proposes a dynamic electricity management system which seems to be the need of the hour for the Indian electricity System
India’s Location with respect to the world.
Tropic of Cancer passes through the country and half of the country is tropical while as half is sub tropical.
The population of the country shows a bulge when compared to other countries of the world.
Most of the population is concentrated in the East and the South of the country because of the favorable weather and a lot of commerce.
Over the years, India and China have shown a steady growth in terms of their Energy consumption while as the OECD countries show a constant energy consumption. This is mostly because of the huge growth rate in India and China.
Total Energy Consumption in the country is at a steep rise.
Carbon dioxide emission of China is nearly 5 times more as that of India. The electricity installed generation capacity of China is nearly 5 times more than India.
The demand for electricity is constantly outstripping the supply and the gap is ever widening.
The electricity production is increasing at a steady growth rate trying to match the demand because of the increasing population.
More than half of Electricity produced in the country is from conventional fuels and needs a change to a more sustainable and green fuel source.
All three facets of extracting electricity from the utilities to the consumer face some very strong issues.
There has been a transition from the needs of consumers a century before to today.
Grid modernization involving latest technologies and better storage options for integration of renewable energy is important.
Smart Grid provides the solution to all of the issues facing the India’s electricity grid.
The Smart Grid has to be deployed in certain steps and phases.
Even though not a very strong contender for smart grid deployment in India, Home Area Network is a very important parameter for the final green and reliable electricity system in India and abroad.
Renewable Sources of energy provide clear benefits over the conventional fuels.
Over the years, the Indias Renewable Energy Scene has observed a very steady growth and the growth is expected to continue.
Renewable Energy is one of the most important drivers for the Smart Grid deployment in the country. Smart Grid can do a fairly good job in integrating the energy from renewable sources into the grid.
Renewable Energy is highly distributed in the country.
Wind Energy has gained a lot of ground over the years mostly because of improvement is the wind turbine technologies as well as wind estimation technologies.
Banking on government backed missions such as the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission, tapping solar energy is one of the most important thrust areas for smart grid deployment in the country.
Most of the potential Solar resources for electricity generation are found in the western region of the country in the states of Gujarat and Rajasthan.
Integrating wind and solar energy in India for a Smart Grid platform
Integrating Wind and Solar Energy in
India for a
Smart Grid Platform
With Support and
Mr Peter Meissen
The Two Fastest Growing Major Economies
Peoples Republic of China vs. Republic of India
Population (July 2013 est.)
Electricity Installed generation
capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity from fossil fuels
69.5 % of installed
69.9 % of installed
Electricity from Renewable
29.6 % of installed
27.6 % of installed
Carbon dioxide emission from
8.321 billion Mt
consumption of energy.(est 2010)
1.696 billion Mt
Carbon dioxide emission of China is nearly 5 times more as that of India!
Acknowledging Power Supply and Demand
The Gap between demand and supply is wide and growing.
• Growing economy and massive urbanization is putting more stress on energy and the
• The average electricity consumption in India is still among the lowest in the world at just
630 kWh per person per year, but this is expected to grow to 1000 kWh in the near
Source: CEA, Ministry of Power India
Population Growth, Electricity Production,
and Electricity Consumption
1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014
1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014
Indian Ministry of Power
1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014
India’s Energy Consumption for
Biomass & other
Electricity Scenario of India
Key regulatory bodies in the Indian Power Sector
Ministry of Power
Installed Capacity: 220 GW
Peak Deficit: 8.6 %
Energy Deficit: 4.8 %
Growth Rate: 8-9 % PA
For the Year 2011
Source: Central Electricity Authority
Issues Facing India’s Power Sector
•Fuel (Coal and Gas) Shortage is acute.
•Many power plants have less than seven days' of coal stocks, a level seen
as critical to continuous operation.
•Present demand–supply gap of coal is around 85 million tons and
it is expected to increase gradually to nearly 140 million tons by 2017.
•Capacity addition from hydropower sources slowed in the past couple of
• A huge 12 percent of the electricity generated is lost while evacuating
power to the consumers as Transmission losses which can go to as high as
50 percent in some states.
• The officially declared transmission and losses in India have steadily risen
from about 7 percent up to the year 1966-67 to about 12 percent in
•Distribution companies, mostly state-owned, are mired with about $35 billion
in debt barring them from investing more into the R&D and up gradation of
•The estimated loss of all the State distribution utilities has been estimated at
Rs 2400 million as of March 31, 2012
Before And Now
•Grid infra-structure established over a 100 years ago
•Main purpose was to supply electricity to a few loads
•Power Generation was localized and built around small
(State of Transition)
•The needs of the civilization are not modest anymore
•Grid structure is becoming complex with every passing day
and loads are increasing in size and convulsion
•A constant interest related to integrating variable sources of
energies that give rise to harmonic instability.
Smart Grid, A Remedy
What a Smart Grid can do?
A Smart Grid better manages the integration of all
available resources of energy into the grid.
Allows the integration of Distribution Energy
Resources (DER’s) that can allow localised
generation hence reducing the transmission and
•Human element in
Provides the platform for introduction of Advanced
Metering Infrastructure (AMI) for a better User
•Peak Load Management
Allows a perceptive load control which can prevent
the peak time shortfall
Manages problems caused by intermittency and
Smart Grid Deployment
The ‘Smart’ in a Smart Grid is an Information Communication Technology (ICT) that
brings together a variety of computing and telecommunications technologies. The
ICT enables the Smart Grid’s envisioned benefits to become a reality.
Technology of Smart Grids
Smart Grids encompass a wide range of operations such as
• detecting and identifying faults and a quick response to power outages,
• providing consumers with near real-time information on the amount and
cost of the power they use,
• improving the security of the system, and
• linking all elements of the grid to enable better decision making on the
Various technologies in action
• Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition
• Distribution Management System (DMS)
• Distribution Automation System (DAS)
• Automated Meter Reading (AMR)
• Geographical Information System (GIS)
• Phasor Measurement Units (PMU’s)
Home Area Network
Home Area Network (HAN) connects thermostats, refrigerators and other
electrical devices in a Smart Home to an energy management system
Source: www.smartgrid portal.org
Integration of Renewable Energy
Integration of Renewable Energy is probably the biggest
thrust for a Smart Grid Deployment in India
• Has to be converged at grid operator level and requires a
superior Energy Management System
• The Smart Grid’s superior capability of introducing new
sources of energy to the grid clearly signifies that more
Distributed Generation can be integrated into it
Solar and Wind energy are crucial and primary factors of a
cleaner and greener energy future
Demerits of Conventional Fuels
• Dependence on imported coal is on the rise, supply from
the local quarries is on a shallow decrease on account of
production and analytical constraints
• Energy Security and Political Instability always tan the oil
import scenario of the country
• Domestic gas resources are limited. Moreover RLNG is
costly and not a feasible option for power generation
• Even though India is rich in Hydro potential but
harnessing Hydel potential to meet the requirements
is a challenging task
India’s Renewable Scenario
As on November 2012, 12% of total installed capacity (210 GW) through renewable
• Wind (18.3 GW)
• Small Hydro (3.4 GW)
• Biomass (1.2 GW)
• Solar (1 GW)
Progressive Renewable Sector
The Role of Renewable Energy
The notion of renewable energy as an “alternate” form of
energy is no longer a valid argument.
India is currently ranked 5th in the world in all renewable
Wind Energy in India
• Wind Energy program initiated in 1983-84
• Total Potential of Wind Energy in India is estimated at 45000 MW
Installed Wind Power
Wind Power Potential
Source: Weather Department of the University of Delhi
Solar Energy in India
• The average intensity of solar radiation in India is on the order of 20
• The total solar energy potential tends to as high as 657.4 million MW
Why do we need a Smart Grid for
integrating Renewable Energies into the
• Location Dependent Resources
• Wind and Solar Resources are highly Location Dependent
• Quality wind and solar resources that are most feasible for RE
generation are based on specific locations
Solar Energy Resources in India
Wind Energy Resources in India
Non-Controllable Variability and the Smart Grid
• Grid operators need to deal with fluctuations in voltage and frequency
in a second to minute scale.
• If left unchecked can do a significant damage to the System and all the
The Smart Grid provides a
wide range of ancillary
What has been done in India?
• Smart Grid provides the platform for a more reliable, secure and
sustainable grid in India.
• Pilot Smart Grid projects
• Smart Metering Infrastructure is being planned for a number of
• Dr Sam Pitroda, chairman India Smart Grid Task Force launched
the Smart Grid portal in 2013 : www.IndiaSmartGrid.org
If you have any questions, or would
like to help further this research,
Mr Farhan Beg, via email:
Farhan Beg is a Power Engineer from the
National Institute of
Technology, Srinagar, India
(www.NITSRI.net) and is a researcher at the
Global Energy Network Institute, San Diego