Integrating wind and solar energy in India for a Smart Grid platform


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Integrating wind and solar energy in India for a Smart Grid platform

  1. 1. Integrating Wind and Solar Energy in India for a Smart Grid Platform Farhan Beg With Support and Editorial by Mr Peter Meissen
  2. 2. India’s Location Source: Esri
  3. 3. India, Latitude and Longitude Source:
  4. 4. Population Current Population: 1.27 Billion Source: CIA world Factbook
  5. 5. India’s Population Density Source: /imperialisminindia/2
  6. 6. Energy Consumption (quadrillion Btu) 800 700 600 500 OECD 400 Rest of the World 300 China and India 200 100 0 1990 2000 2008 2015 Currently 2025 2035 Source : IEA
  7. 7. India’s Energy Consumption and GDP Source: EIA
  8. 8. The Two Fastest Growing Major Economies Peoples Republic of China vs. Republic of India China India Population (July 2013 est.) 1.34 billion 1.28 billion Electricity Installed generation capacity (2012 est.) 1100.78 GW 220.23 GW Electricity from fossil fuels 69.5 % of installed capacity 69.9 % of installed capacity Electricity from Renewable sources 29.6 % of installed capacity 27.6 % of installed capacity Carbon dioxide emission from 8.321 billion Mt consumption of energy.(est 2010) Source: CIA world Factbook 1.696 billion Mt Carbon dioxide emission of China is nearly 5 times more as that of India!
  9. 9. Acknowledging Power Supply and Demand The Gap between demand and supply is wide and growing. • Growing economy and massive urbanization is putting more stress on energy and the environment. • The average electricity consumption in India is still among the lowest in the world at just 630 kWh per person per year, but this is expected to grow to 1000 kWh in the near future. Source: CEA, Ministry of Power India
  10. 10. Population Growth, Electricity Production, and Electricity Consumption Population Growth Millions 1500 1000 500 0 Electricity Production MW 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 1000 500 0 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 Electricity Consumption MW 1000 Source: Indian Ministry of Power 500 0 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014
  11. 11. India’s Energy Consumption for Electricity Generation Hydro 19% Nuclear 2% Biomass & other Renewable 12% Coal 57% Gas 9% Diesel 1% Source: EIA
  12. 12. Electricity Scenario of India Key regulatory bodies in the Indian Power Sector Department of Atomic Energy Ministry of Power Central Electricity Regularity Commission Central Electricity Authority State Electricity Regularity Commissions Installed Capacity: 220 GW Peak Demand: 170 GW Peak Deficit: 8.6 % Energy Deficit: 4.8 % Growth Rate: 8-9 % PA For the Year 2011 Source: Central Electricity Authority
  13. 13. Issues Facing India’s Power Sector Generation Side Transmission Side Distribution Side
  14. 14. Generation •Fuel (Coal and Gas) Shortage is acute. •Many power plants have less than seven days' of coal stocks, a level seen as critical to continuous operation. •Present demand–supply gap of coal is around 85 million tons and it is expected to increase gradually to nearly 140 million tons by 2017. •Capacity addition from hydropower sources slowed in the past couple of years
  15. 15. Transmission • A huge 12 percent of the electricity generated is lost while evacuating power to the consumers as Transmission losses which can go to as high as 50 percent in some states. • The officially declared transmission and losses in India have steadily risen from about 7 percent up to the year 1966-67 to about 12 percent in 1998-99
  16. 16. Distribution •Distribution companies, mostly state-owned, are mired with about $35 billion in debt barring them from investing more into the R&D and up gradation of their utilities. •The estimated loss of all the State distribution utilities has been estimated at Rs 2400 million as of March 31, 2012
  17. 17. Before And Now •Grid infra-structure established over a 100 years ago •Main purpose was to supply electricity to a few loads •Power Generation was localized and built around small communities (State of Transition) •The needs of the civilization are not modest anymore •Grid structure is becoming complex with every passing day and loads are increasing in size and convulsion •A constant interest related to integrating variable sources of energies that give rise to harmonic instability.
  18. 18. Grid Modernization w Source:
  19. 19. Smart Grid, A Remedy Issue What a Smart Grid can do? •Supply Shortfalls A Smart Grid better manages the integration of all available resources of energy into the grid. •Huge Losses Allows the integration of Distribution Energy Resources (DER’s) that can allow localised generation hence reducing the transmission and equipment losses •Human element in system operations Provides the platform for introduction of Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) for a better User Interface (UI) •Peak Load Management Allows a perceptive load control which can prevent the peak time shortfall •Integration of renewable energy Manages problems caused by intermittency and distributed power
  20. 20. Smart Grid Deployment The ‘Smart’ in a Smart Grid is an Information Communication Technology (ICT) that brings together a variety of computing and telecommunications technologies. The ICT enables the Smart Grid’s envisioned benefits to become a reality. Source:
  21. 21. Technology of Smart Grids Smart Grids encompass a wide range of operations such as • detecting and identifying faults and a quick response to power outages, • providing consumers with near real-time information on the amount and cost of the power they use, • improving the security of the system, and • linking all elements of the grid to enable better decision making on the resource use. Various technologies in action • Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) • Distribution Management System (DMS) • Distribution Automation System (DAS) • Automated Meter Reading (AMR) • Geographical Information System (GIS) • Phasor Measurement Units (PMU’s) Source:
  22. 22. Home Area Network Home Area Network (HAN) connects thermostats, refrigerators and other electrical devices in a Smart Home to an energy management system Source: www.smartgrid
  23. 23. Integration of Renewable Energy Integration of Renewable Energy is probably the biggest thrust for a Smart Grid Deployment in India • Has to be converged at grid operator level and requires a superior Energy Management System • The Smart Grid’s superior capability of introducing new sources of energy to the grid clearly signifies that more Distributed Generation can be integrated into it Solar and Wind energy are crucial and primary factors of a cleaner and greener energy future
  24. 24. Demerits of Conventional Fuels Coal • Dependence on imported coal is on the rise, supply from the local quarries is on a shallow decrease on account of production and analytical constraints Oil • Energy Security and Political Instability always tan the oil import scenario of the country Natural Gas • Domestic gas resources are limited. Moreover RLNG is costly and not a feasible option for power generation Hydro • Even though India is rich in Hydro potential but harnessing Hydel potential to meet the requirements is a challenging task
  25. 25. India’s Renewable Scenario As on November 2012, 12% of total installed capacity (210 GW) through renewable sources • Wind (18.3 GW) • Small Hydro (3.4 GW) • Biomass (1.2 GW) • Solar (1 GW) Progressive Renewable Sector 2012 Small Hydro 3395 MW Solar 941 MW Biomass 1950 MW Wind 18352 MW 2017 est’d Small Hydro 4995 MW Solar 4741 MW Biomass 3250 MW Wind 28352 MW
  26. 26. The Role of Renewable Energy • • The notion of renewable energy as an “alternate” form of energy is no longer a valid argument. India is currently ranked 5th in the world in all renewable energy fronts. Source:
  27. 27. India’s Renewable Energy Breakdown by State Wind/Solar Rajasthan Tamil Nadu 11% 4% 7% 12% 9% 4% 8% 7% 14% 24% Uttar Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Others Gujarat J&K
  28. 28. Wind Energy in India • Wind Energy program initiated in 1983-84 • Total Potential of Wind Energy in India is estimated at 45000 MW Installed Wind Power Wind Power Potential (MW) 12000 280 10000 8000 6000 Gross Potential (MW) 4000 140 2000 West Bengal Tamil Nadu Rajasthan Orissa Maharashtra 2005 Madhya Pradesh 2004 Kerela 2003 0 Gujarat 2002 Technical Potential (MW) Karnataka 2001 64 Andhra Pradesh 51 65 Source: Weather Department of the University of Delhi
  29. 29. Solar Energy in India • The average intensity of solar radiation in India is on the order of 20 MW/square km • The total solar energy potential tends to as high as 657.4 million MW
  30. 30. Why do we need a Smart Grid for integrating Renewable Energies into the Grid? • Location Dependent Resources • Variability • Unpredictability
  31. 31. Location Dependence • Wind and Solar Resources are highly Location Dependent • Quality wind and solar resources that are most feasible for RE generation are based on specific locations Source:
  32. 32. Solar Energy Resources in India Source:
  33. 33. Wind Energy Resources in India Source:
  34. 34. Non-Controllable Variability and the Smart Grid • Grid operators need to deal with fluctuations in voltage and frequency in a second to minute scale. • If left unchecked can do a significant damage to the System and all the attached instruments. The Smart Grid provides a wide range of ancillary services: • • • • • Frequency regulation Spinning Reserves Non-Spinning Reserves Voltage Support Black-Start Capacity
  35. 35. What has been done in India? • Smart Grid provides the platform for a more reliable, secure and sustainable grid in India. • Pilot Smart Grid projects o Gujarat o Chandigarh • Smart Metering Infrastructure is being planned for a number of states. • Dr Sam Pitroda, chairman India Smart Grid Task Force launched the Smart Grid portal in 2013 :
  36. 36. If you have any questions, or would like to help further this research, please contact Mr Farhan Beg, via email: Farhan Beg is a Power Engineer from the National Institute of Technology, Srinagar, India ( and is a researcher at the Global Energy Network Institute, San Diego USA (