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Clostridium botulinum disease

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clinical disease

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Clostridium botulinum disease

  1. 1. Clostridium botulinum GATHER BY BEHROUZ LATIFI
  2. 2. Introduction  Clostridium botulinum:  Gram Positive Rod , Spread everywhere including water, earth, vegetable…  Spore forming ,inactivated at higher temp Anaerobic  Spore forming ,inactivated at higher temp Anaerobic  Seven neurotoxin whose subtypes labeled A_G ,All causes flaccid paralysis
  3. 3. Classification  Class : Clostridia  Order : Clostridiale  Family : Clostridiaceae  Genus : Clostridium  Species: C. botulinum
  4. 4. History and Epidmiology  Botulism = Botulus For the first time the disease was eating sausages  In U.S.A average 145 cases each year  Approximately 15% food borne  Approximately 65% infant form  Approximately 20% wound form  In IRAN : Gilan whit 79 case during 5 year the most and Western Azerbaijan whit 4 case during 5 year least
  5. 5. Transmission  1) Ingestion organism spores neurotoxin  2) Wound contamination  3) Inhalation
  6. 6. Botulism Pathagenesis  Toxin inter blood stream from mucosal or wound  bind to peripheral cholinergic nerve ending  inhibits release of acetylcholine. preventing muscle from contracting  can result from airway obstruction or paralysis of respiratory muscles  secondry complication related to prolonged ventilatory supportand intensive care
  7. 7. Human disease  human contaminated by neurotoxin type A, B, E, F  Type A is powerful toxin know in the earth  type A Infection dos 0.09ng/kg So that a person weighing 90kg with 0.9ng toxin A dies  three form disease :  Foodborne  Wound  Infant
  8. 8. Food borne botulism  Second most common form  caused by toxin ingested form  contamination food including conserve, packing food, vegetable, hot dog, kielbasa
  9. 9. Food borne botulism symptoms  12-36 h after  Muscle weakness  Diarrhea  Blurred vision  Vomiting  Eventual paralysis
  10. 10. Wound botulism  Organism and spore inter wound  Develop under anaerobic conditions  From ground in dirt or gravel  It does not penetrate intact skin  Associated whit addicts of black _ tar heroin
  11. 11. Infant botulism  Babies eat honey  Most common form  Affects babies from 1 week _ 1 year  Caused by  Ingestion contaminated food stuff  Lack of breast milk  House hold dust containing spores
  12. 12. Infant clinical signs  Poor feeding  Many gag  Weak cry  Decreased movement  Appearing lethargic  Flat, blunted facial expression  Decreased muscle tone( hypotonia )
  13. 13. Adult clinical signs  Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea  Double vision  Difficulty speaking or swallowing  Descending weakness or paralysis  Shoulders to arms to thighs to caw  Symmetrical flaccid paralysis  Respiratory muscle paralysis  Causes temporary muscle paralysis that may take 3 to 6 months
  14. 14. Diagnosis  clinical signs  Toxin in serum, stool, suspected food, gastric aspirate  Culture of stool or gastric aspirate (egg yolk agar , sxt )  Mouse neutralization test
  15. 15. Treatment  Botulinum anti toxin  Botulism immunoglobulin  Washing the stomach and the administration of antitoxin three valent( A ,B , E) Penicillin , Metronidazole , Guanidine hydrochloride
  16. 16. Animal botulism  Cattle and sheep (type C , D)  Doge ( type C and few D )  Horses ( type B , C )  Foal ( type B )  Birds , poultry ( type C , E )
  17. 17. Achalasia  Clinical: a primary esophageal motility disorder characterized by the absence of esophageal peristalsis and impaired relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) in response to swallowing  Pathophysiology: a failure of smooth muscle fibers to relax, which can cause a sphincter to remain closed and fail to open when needed  Treatment: Mechanical(pneumatic dilation) Medical(botulinum toxin) Surgery( heller myotomy )
  18. 18. botox  Botulinum toxin A
  19. 19. Bioterrorism  Many countries :  Botulinum toxin as a biological weapon potential bioterrorism threat  A one-liter bottle of the toxin (type A ) could kill the entire population of Earth
  20. 20. Thanks…

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