Common crapofindia

393 views

Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Common crapofindia

  1. 1. Create account Log in Article Talk Read Edit Search Common carp From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is a widespread freshwater fish of eutrophic waters inMain page lakes and large rivers in Europe and Asia.[2][3] The wild populations are considered vulnerable Common carpContents to extinction, but the species has also been domesticated and introduced into environmentsFeatured content worldwide, and is often considered an invasive species.[2] It gives its name to the carp family:Current events Cyprinidae. It is on the List of the worlds 100 worst invasive species.Random articleDonate to Wikipedia Contents [hide]Wikimedia Shop 1 Taxonomy Interaction 2 History 3 Physiology Help 3.1 Habitat About Wikipedia Conservation status 3.2 Diet Community portal 3.3 Reproduction Recent changes 3.4 Predation Contact Wikipedia 4 Introduction into other habitats Toolbox 5 As food and sport Vulnerable (IUCN 3.1)[1] 6 See also Print/export Scientific classification 7 References Languages 8 External links Kingdom: Animalia Alemannisch Phylum: Chordata Аҧсшəа Taxonomy [edit] Class: Actinopterygii ‫اﻟﻌرﺑﯾﺔ‬ Order: Cypriniformes Azərbaycanca The four subspecies are: Family: Cyprinidae Bân-lâm-gú Cyprinus carpio carpio (European carp) is found in Eastern Europe (notably the Danube and Genus: Cyprinus Башҡортса Volga Rivers).[2][4] Беларуская Cyprinus carpio yilmaz (Deniz carp) is found in Anatolia Turkey (notably around Corum) and Species: C. carpio Български Victoria, Australia (around Merri Creek and Coburg Lake). Binomial name Bosanski Cyprinus carpio haematopterus (Amur carp) is native to eastern Asia. [4][5] Cyprinus carpio Brezhoneg Cyprinus carpio rubrofuscus, from Southeast Asia,[4] is treated as a separate species Linnaeus, 1758 Català Cyprinus rubrofuscus by many authorities.[6] Чӑвашла It is related to the common goldfish (Carassius auratus), with which it is capable of Česky interbreeding.[7][8] Dansk Deutsch History [edit] Eesti Español The common carp is native to Asia, and has been introduced to every part of the world with the Esperanto exception of the Middle East and the poles. The original common carp was found in the inland ‫ﻓﺎرﺳﯽ‬ delta of the Danube River about 2000 years ago, and was torpedo-shaped and golden-yellow in Français colour. It had two pairs of barbels and a mesh-like scale pattern. Although this fish was initially Cyprinus carpio carpio on the dry lake bed of Lake Albert in New South Wales, 한국어 kept as an exploited captive, it was later maintained in large, specially built ponds by the Australia Hrvatski Romans in south-central Europe (verified by the discovery of common carp remains in Ido excavated settlements in the Danube delta area). As aquaculture became a profitable branch Bahasa Indonesia of agriculture, efforts were made to farm the animals, and the culture systems soon included spawning and growing ponds.[9] The Italiano common carps native range also extends to the Black Sea, Caspian Sea and Aral Sea. ‫עברית‬ Both European and Asian subspecies have been domesticated. [4] In Europe, domestication of carp as food fish was spread by monks Basa Jawa between the 13th and 16th centuries. The wild forms of carp had reached the delta of the Rhine in the 12th century already, probably also ქართული with some human help.[10] Variants that have arisen with domestication include the mirror carp, with large, mirror-like scales (linear mirror Қазақша – scaleless except for a row of large scales that run along the lateral line; originating in Germany), the leather carp (virtually unscaled Kurdî except near dorsal fin), and the fully scaled carp. Koi carp (錦鯉 (nishikigoi) in Japanese, 鯉魚 (pinyin: lĭ yú) in Chinese) is a Latviešu domesticated ornamental variety that originated in the Niigata region of Japan in the 1820s.[11] They also invaded the Great Lakes in 1896 Lietuvių when the area near Newmarket, Ontario, flooded and allowed them to escape into the Holland River. Magyar Bahasa Melayu Physiology [edit] Монгол Nederlands Wild common carp are typically slimmer than domesticated forms, with body 日本語 length about four times body height, red flesh, and a forward-protruding mouth. Norsk (bokmål) Their average growth rate by weight is about half the growth rate of domesticated Norsk (nynorsk) carp [12][13] They do not reach the lengths and weights of domesticated carp, ‫ﭘﻧﺟﺎﺑﯽ‬ which (range, 3.2–4.8 times)[2] can grow to a maximum length of 120 Picard centimetres (47 in), a maximum weight of over 40 kilograms (88 lb),[2] and an Polski oldest recorded age of at least 65 years, but reliable information seems to exist Português about nishikigoi of over 100 years.[13][14] The largest recorded carp, caught by Dutch wild carp Română an angler in January 2010 at Lac de curtons (Rainbow Lake) near Bordeaux, converted by Web2PDFConvert.com
  2. 2. Русиньскый France, weighed 42.6 kilograms (94 lb).[15] The largest recorded weight of a domesticated carp was of a nishikigoi especially bred forРусский size, with a length of 125 cm and a weight of 45 kg.[13][16]Саха тылаShqip Habitat [edit]Simple English Although tolerant of most conditions, common carp prefer large bodies of slow orSlovenčina standing water and soft, vegetative sediments. As schooling fish, they prefer toSlovenščina be in groups of five or more. They naturally live in temperate climates in fresh orСрпски / srpski slightly brackish water with a pH of 6.5–9.0 and salinity up to about 0.5%,[17]Basa Sunda and temperatures of 3 to 35°C.[2] The ideal temperature is 23 to 30°C, withSuomi spawning beginning at 17–18°C; they easily survive winter in a frozen-over pond,Svenska as long as some free water remains below the ice.[17] Carp are able to tolerateதமி water with very low oxygen levels, by gulping air at the surface.[3]ไทย Carp from Vltava river, Czech RepublicTürkçe Diet [edit]Українська Common carp are omnivorous. They can eat a vegetarian diet of water plants,Tiếng Việt but prefer to scavenge the bottom for insects, crustaceans (including zooplankton), crawfish, and benthic worms.‫יי ִדיש‬中文 Reproduction [edit] An egg-layer, a typical adult female can lay 300,000 eggs in a single spawn.[18] Although carp typically spawn in the spring, in response to rising water temperatures and rainfall, carp can spawn multiple times in a season. In commercial operations, spawning is often stimulated using a process called hypophysation, where lyophilized pituitary extract is injected into the fish. The pituitary extract contains gonadotropic hormones which stimulate gonad maturation and sex steroid production, ultimately promoting reproduction. Predation [edit] A single carp can lay over a million eggs in a year, [3] yet their population remains the same, so the eggs and young perish in similarly vast numbers. Eggs and fry often fall victim to bacteria, fungi, and the vast array of tiny predators in the pond environment. Carp which survive to juvenile are preyed upon by other fish such as the northern pike and largemouth bass, and a number of birds (including cormorants, herons, goosanders, and ospreys)[19] and mammals (including otter and mink). Introduction into other habitats [edit] Common carp have been introduced, sometimes illegally, to most continents and some 59 countries. Due to their fecundity and their feeding habit of grubbing through bottom sediments for food, they are notorious for altering their environments. In feeding, they may destroy, uproot, disturb and eat submerged vegetation, causing serious damage to native duck, such as canvasbacks, and fish populations.[20] Similar to the grass carp, the vegetation they consume is not completely digested, and rots after excretion, raising the nutritional level of the water and causing exsessive algae growth. They destroy nests of other fish and eat their eggs, reducing their numbers significantly. Efforts to eradicate a small colony from Tasmanias Lake Crescent without using chemicals have been successful, but the long-term, expensive and intensive undertaking is an example of Carp gather near a dock in Lake Powell both the possibility and difficulty of safely removing the species once it is established.[21] One proposal, regarded as environmentally questionable, is to control common carp by deliberate exposing them to carp-specific Koi herpes virus with its high mortality rate. In Utah Lake, the common carps population is expected to be reduced by 75% by using nets to catch millions of them and either give them to people who will eat them or processing them into fertilizer. This, in turn, will give the native June sucker a chance to recover its declining population. Another method is by trapping them in tributaries they use to spawn with seine nets and exposing them to rotenone. This method has shown to reduce their impact within 24 hours and greatly increase the native vegetation and desirable fish species. This also leaves the baby carp easily preyed upon by native fish. In Australia, enormous anecdotal and mounting scientific evidence indicates introduced carp Carp in Maribyrnong River, Australia are the cause of permanent turbidity and loss of submergent vegetation in the Murray-Darling river system, with severe consequences for river ecosystems, water quality and native fish species.[22] In Victoria, Australia, common carp has been declared as noxious fish species, the quantity a fisher can take is unlimited.[23] In South Australia, it is an offence for this species to be released back to the wild.[24] An Australian company converts common carp into plant fertilizer.[25] Common carp were brought to the United States in 1831.[26] In the late 19th century, they were distributed widely throughout the country by the government as a food-fish, but they are no longer prized as a food-fish. As in Australia, their introduction has been shown to have negative environmental consequences,[27] and they are usually considered to be invasive Carp in the duck pond in Herbert Park, species. Millions of dollars are spent annually by natural resource agencies to control Dublin, Ireland common carp populations in the United States.[22] converted by Web2PDFConvert.com
  3. 3. Common carp are believed to have been introduced into the Canadian province of BritishColumbia from Washington. They were first noted in the Okanagan Valley in 1912, as wastheir rapid growth in population. Carp are currently distributed in the lower Columbia (ArrowLakes), lower Kootenay, Kettle (Christina Lake), and throughout the Okanagan system.[28]As food and sport [edit] See also: Carp fishingCyprinus carpio is the number one fish of aquaculture. The annual tonnage of common carp, Koi in Chinese Garden Zürich,not to mention the other cyprinids, produced in China alone exceeds the weight of all other Switzerlandfish, such as trout and salmon, produced by aquaculture worldwide. Roughly three milliontonnes are produced annually, accounting for 14% of all farmed freshwater fish in 2002. China is by far the largest commercial producer,accounting for about 70% of carp production.[17] Carp is eaten in many parts of the world both when caught from the wild and raised inaquaculture. In Central Europe, it is a traditional part of a Christmas Eve dinner. Many people in Poland,Germany,Czech Republic andSlovakia buy a live carp and bring it home three or two days before Christmas Eve. It is kept one or two days in a bathtub, and then killed.Traditional Czech Christmas Eve dinner is thick soup of carps head and offal, fried carp meat with potato salad or boiled carp in blacksauce. In some Czech families, the carp is not killed, but after Christmas returned to a river or pond. Slovak Christmas eve dinner is quitesimilar with soup varying according to the region and fried carp as the main dish. In Western Europe, the carp is cultured more commonlyas a sport fish, although there is a small market as food fish.[29][30] Carp are mixed with other common fish to make gefilte fish, popularin Jewish cuisine.Common carp are extremely popular with anglers in many parts of Europe, and their popularity as quarry is slowly increasing amonganglers in the United States (though destroyed as pests in many areas), and southern Canada. Carp are also popular with spear, bow,and fly fishermen.The Romans farmed carp and this pond culture continued through the monasteries of Europe and to this day. In China, Korea and Japan,carp farming took place as early as the Yayoi Period (c. 300 BC – 300 AD). [31]Carp eggs used for caviar is an increasing popularity in the United States.[citation needed]See also [edit] List of freshwater aquarium fish species Rough fish Benson, a notable common carp Mud carpReferences [edit] 1. ^ Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. (2011). "Cyprinus carpio" . IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved June 23, 2011. 2. ^ a b c d e f Fishbase: Cyprinus carpio carpio Linnaeus, 1758 3. ^ a b c Arkive: Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) 4. ^ a b c d Jian Feng Zhou, Qing Jiang Wu, Yu Zhen Ye & Jin Gou Tong (2003). Genetic divergence between Cyprinus carpio carpio and Cyprinus carpio haematopterus as assessed by mitochondrial DNAanalysis, with emphasis on origin of European domestic carp Genetica 119: 93–97 5. ^ Fishbase: Cyprinus carpio haematopterus Martens, 1876 6. ^ Fishbase: Cyprinus rubrofuscus Lacepède, 1803 7. ^ Taylor, J., R. Mahon. 1977. Hybridization of Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus, the first two exotic species in the lower Laurentian Great Lakes. Environmental Biology Of Fishes 1(2):205-208. 8. ^ Photo of goldfish x common carp hybrid in Melton Hill Reservoir from the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency 9. ^ Balon, E. K. (2004). About the oldest domesticates among fishes. Journal of Fish Biology, 65 (Supplement A): 1–27. In Carp Fishing Science 10. ^ Aanvullend Archeologisch Onderzoek op terrein 9 te Houten-Loerik, gemeente Houten (U.) 11. ^ Ray Jordan Koi History 12. ^ Wilt, R.S. de, Emmerik W.A.M. (2008-31-1). "Kennisdocument Karper Sportvisserij Nederland" . Retrieved december 13,2011. 13. ^ a b c Füllner G., Pfeifer M., Langner N.. "Karpfenteichwirtschaft" . Sächsische Landesanstalt für Landwirtschaft. Retrieved december 13,2011. 14. ^ "ghostcarplake.com" . ghostcarplake.com. Retrieved 2011-12-03. 15. ^ Lac de curtons (in French) 16. ^ Unread prime source: Teichfischer, B.: Farbkarpfen. Urania-Verlag Leipzig, Jena, Berlin (1988): 152 S. 17. ^ a b c FAO Fisheries & Aquaculture: Cultured Aquatic Species Information Programme – Cyprinus carpio 18. ^ "Carp Fishing for carp fishing information" . Carp-fishing.org. Retrieved 2011-12-03. 19. ^ Cramp, S. (ed.). The Birds of the Western Palearctic volumes 1 (1977) & 2 (1980). OUP. 20. ^ "Welcome to" . Lakeconservation.com. 2010-01-15. Retrieved 2011-12-03. 21. ^ "fisheries of america" . Scribd.com. Retrieved 2011-12-03. 22. ^ a b "Echuca Moama Fishing - European Carp" . Echuca.ws. Retrieved 2011-12-03. 23. ^ Victorian Recreational Fishing Guide 2006-2007 24. ^ fishsa.com 25. ^ carp as fertilizer 26. ^ [1] [dead link] 27. ^ USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Program 28. ^ Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus) on Living Landscapes, from the Royal British Columbia Museum 29. ^ [2] [dead link] 30. ^ [3] [dead link] 31. ^ Daily Yomiuri newspaper, September 19, 2008 converted by Web2PDFConvert.com
  4. 4. External links [edit] "Cyprinus carpio" . Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 4 October 2004. Wikimedia Commons has media Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2004). "Cyprinus carpio" in FishBase. related to: Cyprinus carpio September 2004 version. Cyprinus carpio Arkive Wikispecies has information related to: Cyprinus carpio v · t · e· Carp [hide] Carp groups Cyprinidae (the carp family) · Asian carp · Indian carp · African carp · Bighead carp · Black carp · Carnatic carp · Common carp (European carp) · Chinese mud carp · Crucian carp · Deccan white carp · Fringed-lipped peninsula carp · Goldfish · True carp species Grass carp · Hora white carp · Koi · Mud carp · Pigmouth carp · Predatory carp · Prussian carp · Siamese mud carp · Silver carp · Smallscale mud carp · Krishna Carp · Siamese mud carp · Japanese crucian carp · Giant salmon carp · Mirror carp · Siamese giant carp · Nile carp · Sabre carp · Other carp species Sea carp · Diseases Carp lice · Koi herpes virus · Spring viraemia of carp · Recreational fishing Carp fishing · Redmire pool · Chod rig · Hair rig · Yateley Complex · Boilie · Eliburn Reservoir · Carp anglers Rod Hutchinson · Richard Walker · Chris Yates · As food Fishermans soup · Kuai · Taramosalata · Benson · Total Carp · Carp streamers · The Adventures of Little Carp · Aquaculture in China · Related topics Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences · Koi pond · Goldfish pond · v · t · e· Principal commercial fishery species groups [show] Categories: IUCN Red List vulnerable species Cyprinus Carp Commercial fish Fish of Asia Fish of Pakistan Introduced freshwater fish of South Africa Introduced freshwater fish of Argentina Introduced freshwater fish of Chile Fly fishing target species Animals described in 1758 Invasive fish species Invasive animal species in the United States Invasive animal species in Australia Introduced freshwater fish of UkraineThis page was last modified on 22 December 2012 at 00:11.Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. See Terms of Use for details.Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.Contact usPrivacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Mobile view converted by Web2PDFConvert.com

×