Indian J. Anim. Res., 41 (4) : 266-269, 2007 FOOD AND FEEDING HABITS OF CATLA CATLA (HAMILTON - BUCHANAN) FROM DAYA RESERVOIR, UDAIPUR, RAJASTHAN Raj Kumar*, B.K. Sharma and L.L. Sharma Department of Aquaculture, College of Fisheries, MPUAT, Udaipur-313001, India ABSTRACT In the present study, an attempt has been made to investigate the food and feeding habits of the Indian major carp, Catla catla from Daya reservoir, Udaipur. On the basis of qualitative and quantitative analysis of gut contents, Catla catla has been categorised as planktivorous. Gastrosomatic indices were found to be higher during winter months as compared to summer. INTRODUCTION Jhingran (1991) has summarised the In general, growth of a fish is feeding habits of several Indian species viz.,influenced by the quality and quantity of food Catla catla, Cirrhinus mrigala,materials available and consumed. Thus, any Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Puntiusvariation in quality and quantity of food species. Yadav (1997) reported the food andm t r a sw l a f c g o t r t o t ef s . T e aeil il fet rwh ae f h ih h feeding habits of Catla catla and Labeo rohita.q a i a i ea dq a t t t v v r a i n o n t r l ulttv n uniaie aitos f aua Panicker (2000) recorded the food and feedingfood materials in a water body are under the habits of several important fish species includinginfluence of several abiotic and biotic factors. Catla catla and Labeo rohita from Chulliar andThese variations could be known by qualitative Malampuzha reservoirs of Kerala. Selvaraj etand quantitative analysis of gut contents of a al. (2000) conducted the study on the food andfish and/or by the estimation of gastrosomatic feeding habits of several important fishes ofidx ne. Thirumoorthy reservoir. Hatikakoty and Biswas Food and feeding habits of carps have (2003) reported the food and feeding habitsbeen a field of interest to fisheries researchers of Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters) insince very long. Natarajan and Jhingran (1961) relation to seasonal changes and gonadalstudied the food habits of Catla catla and maturity from a small pond situated in upperreported a zooplankton dominated food Assam. Ujjania (2003) studied thepreference for the fish. Hora and Pillay (1962) Gastrosomatic index of Catla catla, Labeoreported the feeding habits of Catla catla. Khan rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala from Mahi Bajajand Jhingran (1975) have given a report on sagar, Surwania dam and Aasan pond ofthe food and feeding habits of an Indian major Southern Rajasthan.carp Labeo rohita (Ham). Rajgopal (1978) MATERIAL AND METHODSdescribed the foods and feeding habits of some In order to study the food and feedingcommercial fishes from the Tungabhadra habits of Catla catla, samples were collectedreservoir. Sunder et al. (1990) studied the food from the commercial catches during fishing yearand feeding habit of the Cyprinus carpio var. 2004-2005 at landing centre of Daya reservoir.specularis from Dal Lake (Kashmir) in relation All the fish specimens were weighed separatelyto gastrosomatic index, condition factor and and then gutted for the collection of gutlength-weight of fish and reported that the contents. The collected guts were weighed andmonthly fluctuations in feeding activity and their contents emptied in the watch glass. Thegastrosomatic index (GaSI) is in agreement with same were analysed qualitatively as well aseach other. quantitatively by eye estimation volumetrically*Present Address:- W 12/86, Pabagali, Chabutra Bazar, Udhampur (J&K) 182101, India
Vol. 41, No. 4, 2007 267(Pillay, 1952) and occurrence method (Hynes, cladocerans and copepods in the diet of the1950). For evaluating the relative importance species were Daphnia, Moina, Macrothrix,of all food items, the index of preponderance Bosmina, Cyclops, Diaptomus, Nauplius larvae(Natarajan and Jhingran, 1961) was obtained and Canthocampus. The rotifers were next inusing formula: the order of dominance forming 18.20 per cent V1 OI by volume and 14.81 per cent by occurrence I= x 100 in the gut contents of Catla catla. This group VI OI was mainly respresented by Keratella, Brachionus, Hexarthra, Trichocerca and Filina.Where, Bacillariophyceae (diatoms) formed the nextI = Index of preponderance important item in the gut contents formingVI = Volume percentage 15.45 per cent by volume and 7.40 per centOI = Occurrence percentage by occurrence. Amongst the Bacillariophyceae,Ó = Summation the abundant genera were Fragilaria, Synedra, Gastrosomatic Index (GaSI) was Pinnularia, Diatoma and Navicula. Aquaticcalculated using the formula given by Biswas insects and their instars formed 13.74 per cent(1993): by volume and 11.11 per cent by occurrence. Chlorophyceae (green algae and desmids) Weight of gut (g) group also formed a part of gut content GaSI (%) = x 100 constituting only 9.30 per cent by volume and Weight of fish (g) 9.26 per cent by occurrence. The major genera RESULTS AND DISCUSSION of Chlorophyceae in the diet of the species wereComposition of gut contents Pediastrum, Cosmarium, Gonatozygon, Various food items and their Hydrodictyon, Protococcus and Coelastrum.percentage composition (by volume and Percentage of Myxophyceae (blue green algae)occurrence) found in the gut of Catla catla are in the gut contents of species were 8.12 perenumerated in Table 1. The Table 1 also shows cent by volume and 5.56 per cent bythe preponderance indices of different food occurrence. In Myxophyceae, the major generaitems observed in the guts of the species. were Nostoc, Polycystis, Anabaena, and Crustaceans (cladocerans and Aphanizomenon.Remnants of macrovegetationcopepods) formed the main item of gut contents were next in the order of occurrence andforming 28.19 per cent by volume and 41.89 represented 5.67 per cent by volume and 6.19per cent by occurrence. The major genera of per cent by occurrence. These plant remnants TABLE 1 : Grading of various food items of gut contents in Catla catla from Daya reservoir, Udaipur Food items % composition of items by VI OI Index of preponderance Grading Volume(VI) Occurrence(OI) ’I’= VIOI x 100/ÓVIOI Crustaceans 28.19 41.89 1180.879 62.520 I Rtfr oies 18.20 14.81 269.542 14.271 I Iscs net 13.74 11.11 152.651 8.082 I I I Chlorophyceae 9.30 9.26 86.118 4.559 V Bacillariophyceae 15.45 7.40 114.330 6.053 IV Myxophyceae 8.12 5.56 45.147 2.390 VI Plant material 5.67 6.19 35.097 1.858 VI I Decayed organic matter 1.33 3.78 5.027 0.266 IX VIOI = 1888.791
268 INDIAN JOURNAL OF ANIMAL RESEARCH TABLE 2 : Gastrosomatic Index (GaSI) of Catla catla from Daya reservoir, Udaipur Fish S.No. Winter season Summer season Weight of fish (g) Weight of gut (g) GaSI Weight of fish (g) Weight of gut (g) GaSI 1 6750 164.32 2.434 4500 93.87 2.086 2 7000 170.00 2.429 6500 120.18 1.849 3 2600 67.69 2.603 3500 56.44 1.613 4 1900 37.42 1.969 2500 39.57 1.583 5 2200 59.16 2.689 1800 34.03 1.891 6 2900 74.08 2.554 2300 32.67 1.420 7 1700 32.98 1.940 5500 89.09 1.620 8 2500 52.06 2.083 4000 83.74 2.094 9 4500 87.31 1.940 4750 97.24 2.047 10 1900 36.45 1.918 1750 35.66 2.038 11 3000 69.07 2.302 2000 39.03 1.952 12 2600 48.50 1.865 2300 43.18 1.878 13 3000 80.09 2.670 3500 61.19 1.748 14 4200 70.55 1.680 3100 58.12 1.875 15 2500 46.03 1.841 2250 46.20 2.053 Mean 3283.333 2.194 3350.000 1.850include the fragments of Typha. Decayed and reported it to consume primarilysemi-decayed organic matter constituted only phytoplankton and zooplankton, decayed1.33 per cent by volume and 3.78 per cent by microvegetation and detritus. Yadav (1997),occurrence. however, reported that the adult catla feedGastrosomatic index (GaSI) mainly on algae, crustaceans, some plants, Gastrosomatic index (GaSI) of Catla rotifers and insects and hence he categoriedcatla was calculated from the fish samples the same as a plankton feeder. The presentcollected during winter and summer months observations are in consonance with thoseonly, November-February. and April-June for reported by earlier workers that the catla isthe study of feeding intensity because of the planktophagus and feeds primarily onlegal restrictions on fishing. The values of GaSI zooplankton.were higher during winter months as compared Studies on gastrosomatic index (GaSI)to summer months (Table 2). of Catla catla revealed that the feeding intensity From the present study on the food remained high during winter months (non-and feeding habits, it appears that the basic spawning period) and reduced during summer months (pre-spawning period). It is reportedfood of catla in Daya reservoir mainly that generally during spawning season, feedingcomprised crustaceans (62.52%) and rotifers rate would be relatively lower and it increases(14.27%) followed by insects (8.082%), immediately after spawning as the organismsBacillariophyceae (6.053%), Chlorophyceae feed voraciously to recover from fast (Rao et(4.559%), Myxophyceae (2.390%) and plant al. 1998). Low feeding rate during spawningmaterial (1.858%). The decayed organic has also been reported by Hatikakoty andmatter formed negligible (0.266%) amount of Biswas (2003). The findings of present studythe gut content. are in confirmation to the observations of Rao Hora and Pillay (1962) assigned Catla et al. (1998) and Hatikakoty and Biswascatla as a plankton and detritus feeder and (2003).
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