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Antarctica old textbook Class 8 PPT


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Antarctica PPT according to AndhraPradesh from Class -8 Old Text book. Antarctica Landscape, Antarctica Location and Extent

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Antarctica old textbook Class 8 PPT

  1. 1. Presentation created By – B. Saikrishna
  2. 2. In the Southern Hemisphere almost with in the Antarctic circle and encompassing the South Pole, Lies ‘Antarctica’. The Worlds fifth – largest (table), the coldest, the Highest, the driest and stormiest of all the continents in the world.
  3. 3. 1. Landscape: About 98% of its surface is covered by a permanent, the thickest and the largest ice- sheet in the world. It comprises of about 29 million cubic kilometers of ice which accounts for about 90 % of all the ice and 75 % of all the fresh water in the world. If it were to melt, the sea levels across the world would rise by about 55 mts, sub merging large strips of densely populated coastal low lands, along with their large cities.
  4. 4. Flag of Antarctica The Graham Bartram design uses the flag of the United Nations as its model. A plain white map of the continent on a blue background symbolizes neutrality (Bartram was well aware of the overlapping territorial claims of the United Kingdom, Chile, and Argentina when he designed the flag). This flag was actually flown on the Antarctic continent for the first time in 2002, when Ted Kaye (editor of Raven, the scholarly journal of the North American Vexillological Association) took several full-size flags in the Bartram design on an Antarctic cruise. The bases of Brazil, Ukraine, and the UK all flew it from their flagpoles, making its raising "official". He presented a paper ("Flags Over Antarctica") which described the first flying of the Bartram design over Antarctica in Stockholm in 2003, at the 20th International Congress of Vexillology. It is perhaps the most popular flag for Antarctica, as seen by its prevalence on the Internet. The Graham Bartram design:-
  5. 5. Whitney Smith The Whitney Smith design uses the high-visibility color orange as its background (it is the international rescue color, it contrasts the best against snow, and to avoid any confusion, is unlike almost any national flag on Earth). The emblem consists of several components. 'A' stands for Antarctica. The bottom segment of the globe represents Antarctica's "position" on Earth (according to the modern convention of drawing maps with north on top), while the two hands holding up the globe segment represent peaceful human use. The emblem is colored white to represent the snow and ice of Antarctica and is offset toward the hoist of the flag so as to maintain its integrity should the flag fray badly in the high winds prevalent upon the continent. However, there is no record of it ever being fabricated or used, despite being displayed in some atlases.
  6. 6. The average thickness of this dome shaped ice –sheet is 3000 meters with 4000 to 4500 meters, recorded at certain localities and it sustains the worlds largest glaciers, such as the ‘Lambert’ and the ‘Beardmore’ glaciers. The thin margins of this enormous ice sheets are extended into the surrounding waters, along many coastal areas. Known as ‘ice shelves’ these are about meters thick in their outer margins and large chunks of these flat – topped platforms of ice-break off and float away as icebergs. The largest iceberg so far recorded in the world was sited in the southern pacific ocean in 1956. covering an area of about 31,000 square kilometers, which is slightly larger than Belgium in Europe.
  7. 7. Satellite Images Web Link for more reference:-
  8. 8. Lambert Glacier
  9. 9. East Antarctica West Antarctica
  10. 10. Vinson massif
  11. 11. 2.Climate: Strong west winds race clock-wise relentlessly around the continent called ‘West-Wind Drift’. Antarctica, being the coldest continent, records the lowest temperatures in the world during the winter, in the late August, and they usually range from – 20o C on the coast to -70o in the interior. The Vostok, a Russian Research Station, which lies at an altitude of 3420 meters, 1300 kilo meters from the coast. The summer temperatures usually range from about 0o on the coast to - 35o in the interior. In certain ice-free areas of the Antarctic Peninsula, which extend beyond the Antarctic Circle. How ever, temperatures as high as 15o C are recorded during the summer.
  12. 12. The Vostok, a Russian Research Station
  13. 13. Usually, dense, cold and fierce winds known as Katabatic winds, characterize the Antarctic coasts. At times, suddenly give rise to the ‘Antarctic Blizzards’, with wind velocities reaching as high as 225-250 Kilo metres per hour. On December 9, 1960 at ‘Mawson’ station, a standing aircraft was destroyed in these Blizzards. Antarctica is the driest continent in the world. In the Dry valley’s region no rain fell in the past two million years. The precipitation in the interior, which is in the form of dry, powdery snow is equivalent to less than 5 centimeters of rain fall per annum and it increases to 50 centimeters in the coastal regions.
  14. 14. 3.Natural Vegetation:- The freezing temperatures and the long periods of sunlight followed by the long periods of darkness create the most adverse conditions for plant growth on the earth’s surface, making it the only treeless continent in the world. There are 400 species of lichens, a few species of mosses and algae and only two species of flowering plants.
  15. 15. Flowering Plant in Antarctica Algae, Moss and Lichens in Antarctica region
  16. 16. Birds in Antarctica:-
  17. 17. Additional Link for wild life and plants in Antarctica region resources
  18. 18. The Oceanic waters surrounding Antarctica are as rich in life as the land is barren. All the animals that live in abundance in the cold Antarctic waters are insulated with blubber, a thick layer of oily fat, just beneath their skin . They include different species of seals and whales
  19. 19. Animals in Antarctica Weddell Seal Black-browed Albertross Leopard Seal Blue whale Orcas
  20. 20. Antarctic Fur Seal Southern Elephant Seal Antarctic Shag Ross Seal Crab Eater Seal
  21. 21. Wandering Albertross Emperor Penguin Chin Strap Penguin Rock Hopper Penguin Adelie Penguin
  22. 22. Penguin Rookeries in AntarcticaKrill in Antarctica
  23. 23. Scientific investigations reveled that the rocks of Antarctica contained fossils remains of ferns, forest-trees, small, primitive mammals and the giant dinosaurs, which are at least 140 million years old, indicating that much warmer climate prevailed over this continent during that time.
  24. 24. Sea Shell New Species Dinosaurs New Species Dinosaurs Tree fossil found on rock Sea Spider fossil Ancient Whale Jaw bone
  25. 25. 5. Mineral Wealth:- Antarctica contains minerals of antimony, chromium, copper, gold, galena, lead, molybdenum, tin and zinc, beside coal and rock phosphate. Recent studies indicate locally high concentrations of Ferro-manganese nodules on the floor of the southern pacific and Atlantic oceans.
  26. 26. 6. Scientific investigation:- Under an international agreement called the ‘Atlantic Treaty’, this continent is and remain, at least for the coming 50 years, as a huge Natural laboratory, where different nations, including India, would work in harmony, on scientific research, which enhances our knowledge of the earth’s climate and other matters of common interest. Though many leading nations of the world have been contemplating scientific research on Antarctica since 1957 – 58, India has entered the fray in 1981. our country, has established all –weather, permanently – manned research stations, “Dakshin Gangotri” and “Maitri” on the continent and is conducting scientific expeditions to Antarctica, every year.
  27. 27. Dakshin Gangotri Bharathi Maitri Indian Antarctic Research Stations
  28. 28. Tourism Potential:- This continent contains vast and not-yet polluted scenic resources, which seem to hold a rich potential for the future economic growth, in the field of tourism industry, which has already commenced.
  29. 29. Conclusion:- For the present, how ever, this continent is able to export only the result of fruitful scientific research and friendship to all the countries in the world. The important points that you have learnt in this lesson are: • The continent of Antarctica is the world’s fifth largest, the coldest, the highest , the driest and the stormiest of all the continents in the world. • about 98 percent of its surface is covered by a permanent, the thickest and the largest ice sheet in the world. • strong west-winds race clock wise relentlessly around the continent causing the formation of westerly ocean currents called the West-Wind Drift. •Usually dense cold and fierce winds, known as Katabatic winds, characterize the Antarctic coasts. •The Katabatic winds, at times, suddenly give rise to the ‘Antarctic Blizzards’ with wind velocities, reaching as high as 225-250 kilometers per hour. •In the “Dry –Valley’s” region, no rain fell in the past 2 million years. • Sunlight and darkness divide the year in the polar regions. •In Antarctica the conditions for plant growth are most adverse. •The Ocean waters surrounding Antarctica are rich in life unlike its land which barren. • Our country has established all-weather, permanently-manned research stations “Dakshin Gangotri” and “Maitri” on this continent and is conducting scientific expeditions to Antarctica, Every year. • for the present, this continent is exporting only the results of fruitful scientific research and friendship to all the countries in the world.
  30. 30. Additional resources  Some additional information about Antarctica is given in the form of PDF files and Video files in the same
  31. 31. I. Answer the following Questions. 1) When compared to the other continents, Antarctica has many distinctions – what are they? 2) Describe the physical features of this continent? 3) ‘Sunlight and darkness divide the year in the polar region. Explain this statement asking the south polar region as the example. 4) Describe the native Animal Life of Antarctica. 5) Describe the natural vegetation of Antarctica. 6) Describe the mineral wealth of Antarctica. 7) Describe the climate of Antarctica.
  32. 32. 8. What do you know about the scientific investigations being carried out on Antarctica? 9. Describe about the tourism potential of Antarctica.