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Cardiovascular Response to Video Game: EyeToy Kinetic


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Results of a 2006 graduate study research on the cardiovascular effects of EyeToy: Kinetic

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Cardiovascular Response to Video Game: EyeToy Kinetic

  1. 1. 2006 Research Results Biray Alsac, M.S ., Lyndsi Johnson, M.S., Pamela Swan, Ph.D, F.A.C.S.M. Arizona State University , Mesa, AZ CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSE TO ACTIVITY-BASED VIDEO GAME IN COLLEGE-AGE MEN & WOMEN Kinetic
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION “ The opportunities for our industry are vast and exciting. We are growing and broadening our audience, opening new frontiers, developing online and wireless platforms, and creating truly original and unique forms of entertainment.” – Douglas Lowenstein, President, Entertainment Software Association
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION Overweight / obesity are risk factors associated with health problems (type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension) Still 75% of Americans insufficiently meet these recommendations PA rates are declining Time is being spent on sedentary activities Regular PA may reduce these risks – 1996 SGR suggests an accumulation of 30-minutes of moderately-intense PA per day could substantially improve health and quality of life
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION 4 out of 10 are completely inactive during leisure time TV viewing Meta-analysis between media-use and body fatness and physical activity levels proved relationships not substantial Video Games Computer Use Research suggests that game playing might be indicative of a different lifestyle than TV viewing
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION Video Games Demo research on Adolescents / Children But 43% of video game players 18 – 49 yrs old Average gamer is 30 Health-related research musculoskeletal problems, video game epilepsy, and cardiovascular changes from stresses of game play Adult population Physical Activity
  6. 6. INTRODUCTION STUDY:Tan, Aziz, Chua, Teh (2002) 10 minutes of game play, mean heart rate for male and female teenagers combined (mean age 17.5 +/- 0.7) was 137 ± 22 bpm and VO2 was 24.6 ± 4.7 ml*kg-1*min-1. Rate of Perceived Exertion was 11 ± 2. Results: intensity of the game met the minimum ACSM guidelines for developing/maintaining cardiorespiratory fitness STUDY: Lillie et al (2005) Compared DDR® to walking on a treadmill Measured RPE, HR, RER, VO2, caloric expenditure, steps/min, time to expend 150 kcal, and overall enjoyment in college age subjects (mean age 24.0 +/- 2.6 years). Results: no significance RPE or RER or time to expend 150 calories (DDR® = 38.4 mins Treadmill = 35.9 mins) DDR® significantly higher level of enjoyment DDR® could meet ACSM guidelines for PA
  7. 7. PURPOSE <ul><li>Gather preliminary data </li></ul><ul><li>Assess the CV demands during game play of four different physical activity conditions within the ‘Cardio Zone’ </li></ul><ul><li>Can it meet ACSM’s recommendations for health-related PA </li></ul>
  8. 8. RESEARCH QUESTIONS <ul><li>What is the exercise intensity level for each physical activity condition in terms of heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE)? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there a significant difference between HR, RPE and PQ across each physical activity condition? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the relationship between HR, RPE, and PQ within each physical activity condition? </li></ul>
  9. 9. HYPOTHESES <ul><li>All four physical activity conditions will fall within the recommended range for intensity (40%-59% HR Reserve or 64%-76% HR max) set-forth by ACSM’s physical activity guidelines recommended for health-related benefits. </li></ul><ul><li>There will be a significant difference between intensity levels and performance quality (PQ or game score) across the four physical activity conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>There will be a direct correlation between HR and RPE, but not with PQ within each physical activity condition. </li></ul>
  10. 10. METHODS: DESIGN <ul><li>Males/Females </li></ul><ul><li>College-age 18-30 yrs old </li></ul><ul><li>Active (ACSM) </li></ul><ul><li>Recruited from EXW dept </li></ul><ul><li>Exclusion Criteria: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affect HR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(BMI, smoke, alcohol, medication) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disabilities which limit activity & performance </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. METHODS: EYETOY KINETIC <ul><li>Conditions: Ricochet, Cascade, ArcBurst, Pulsate </li></ul><ul><li>Simple-to-follow choreography, task oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed in 10-minute bouts </li></ul><ul><li>Set at medium difficulty </li></ul>
  12. 12. METHODS: PROCEDURES <ul><li>HSQ </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptives </li></ul><ul><li>Ebbling Treadmill test </li></ul><ul><li>EyeToy: Kinetic </li></ul>
  13. 13. METHODS: PROCEDURES <ul><li>RHR </li></ul><ul><li>Warm-up </li></ul><ul><li>Testing Session for all conditions* </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tutorial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Testing bout </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recovery Period (50% over RHR or under 100) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>* Random Order </li></ul>
  14. 14. METHODS: MEASURES <ul><li>Heart Rate Response (Polar, Inc) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RHR  5 minutes seated (steady) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HR  every 30-seconds, 10-min task </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RPE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Performance Quality = Game score </li></ul>
  15. 15. RESULTS <ul><li>No Sig diff btwn men & women across 4 conditions (R, C, A, P) in HR (p=0.260), RPE (p=0.104), or PQ (p=0.408). </li></ul><ul><li>Order did not make any significance in HR (p=0.251) or RPE (p=0.620) across conditions </li></ul>Descriptive Statistics   Age (yrs) Weight (kg) Height (m) BMI RHR (bpm) Predicted VO 2 (ml*kg -1 *min -1 ) Female (n=15) 24.5 ± 2.4 61.3 ± 8.2 1.7 ± 0.1 22.2 ± 3.4 62.0 ± 10.0 47.9 ± 6.4 a Male (n=9) 23.0 ± 2.8 81.4 ± 7.7 1.8 ± 0.1 25.6 ± 3.0 68.9 ± 6.7 55.0 ± 7.0 b Combined (n=24) 23.9 ± 2.6 68.8 ± 12.7* 1.7 ± 0.1* 23.5 ± 3.6* 64.6 ± 9.4 50.9 ± 6.4* c
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  19. 19. RESULTS Performance quality was not significantly correlated with HR nor RPE within the four conditions
  20. 20. DISCUSSION <ul><li>All 4 conditions borderline ‘moderate’ to ‘hard/vigorous’ intensities in terms of %HRR and %HRM </li></ul><ul><li>EyeToy®: Kinetic meets ACSM’s recommendations for intensity for physical activity to achieve health-related benefits in addition to improving cardiovascular fitness. </li></ul>Intensity of Conditions (by Heart Rate) Conditions ACSM Intensity Guidelines* Ricochet Cascade ArcBurst Pulsate Moderate Hard (Vigorous) % HRR 65.20% 60.90% 65.10% 70.60% 40% - 59% 60% - 84% % HRM 76.50% 73.40% 76.50% 80.10%   64% - 76% 77% - 93% * Based on ACSM Classification of Physical Activity chart (2006) HRR = Heart Rate Reserve HRM = Heart Rate Max
  21. 21. DISCUSSION <ul><li>HR 140-150  RPE 12-13 – participants may have found game to be easier than HR intensity indicated </li></ul><ul><li>RPE 12-13 have been studied to 50% to 74% of VO2max (Pollock and Wilmore, 1990) – perhaps participants accurately estimated their intensity </li></ul><ul><li>Arcburst  RPE and HR did not have a significant correlation </li></ul><ul><li>Sex and Order did not have an effect </li></ul><ul><li>Ascending trend in intensity from lowest to highest (C < A = R < P) </li></ul>
  22. 22. DISCUSSION <ul><li>LIMITATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Intensity levels were estimated (HR and RPE) </li></ul><ul><li>HR can be an overestimate in dance-type aerobic exercises (Parker, Hurley, Hanlon, & Vaccaro, 1989) </li></ul><ul><li>RPE might be underestimated when working with fit individuals </li></ul>
  23. 23. DISCUSSION <ul><li>FUTURE STUDIES </li></ul><ul><li>Measure the actual metabolic cost and caloric expenditure </li></ul><ul><li>during game play </li></ul><ul><li>Research on the other activity conditions of EyeToy®: Kinetic (combat, toning, and mind-body segments) </li></ul><ul><li>Target current video game players and/or sedentary individuals - demographic most likely to utilize this alternative mode of activity. </li></ul>
  24. 24. CONCLUSION <ul><li>Incorporated into lifestyle affect adherence rates </li></ul><ul><li>Short bouts – easy accumulation of 30 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>In-home workouts </li></ul><ul><li>Exertainment or exergames – mainstream appeal: PE programs, hospitals, clubs </li></ul>
  25. 25. CONTACT For a copy of the ABSTRACT go to: If you are interested in obtaining a full copy of the research, please contact: Biray Alsac, MS [email_address]