From ingredients to beer


Published on

Published in: Business, Technology
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

From ingredients to beer

  1. 1. From Ingredients to Beer: From Design to Realisation Stuart Howe
  2. 2. Contents• Background: Brewing is complicated• Background: Flavour is complicated• Beer design: How the big boys do it• Beer design: Smaller brewery method• Summary• Questions, arguments and fighting in the car park
  3. 3. Brewing is easy peasy• Beer is 4 basic raw materials• Cooked together in a simple process• Beer tastes of malt, hops and fruit• Flavour is controlled through recipe changes• It’s all down to selecting the right varieties• None of this is accurate!
  4. 4. •• • Adjunct cooking • Cell mass Adjunct purity temperature•• •Adjunct cooking temperature• temperature • Adjunct cooking temperature Adjunct cooking temperature •Adjunct cooking temperature Liquor cooking • Wort DO2cooking temperature Adjunct cooking temperature Adjunct•• • •• •Adjunct level Adjunct level • •Adjunct level state of yeast Metabolic • Adjunct salt profile Adjunct level Cell mass increase Liquor level • Adjunct level regime Wort heating Adjunct level • Adjunct level•• • Mash pH 2 Wort DO Mash pH •• •Mash pHpH• Mash pH Wort pH • Mash pH Mash • •Mash pHpH Fermentation temperature • Mash • Liquor temperature • Run•• • Run offFAN Run off profile Wort profile •• •Run offoff profile off profile • •Degreeoff filtration • Run off profile Wort viscosity Run profile Fermenter shape •Run off of profile Run profile•• • • Lautering rateacid oxygen Liquor dissolved Wort amino Lautering rate profile • •• •Lautering rateLautering rate • •Temperaturerate pressure • Lautering rate wort Final gravityrate Lautering of Fermenter top •Lautering rate Lautering drop•• • • Liquorrake spectrum Wort pH Lauter sugarangle Lauter rake angle Wort rake•angle •• •Lauter silicate level rake angle•Temperature of maturation • Lauter rake angle Lauter Lauter rake angle Fermenter depth • •Lauter rake angle Lauter rake angle•• • Sparge •• •Spargepolyphenol level • •Concentration of dry characteris Wort temperature temperature Sparge temperature Yeast flocculation • Sparge temperature Barley variety Zinc level Sparge temperature • Sparge temperature Sparge temperature •Sparge temperature hops•• • Spargemodification Sparge rate Vitamin level Malt rate •• •SpargeFAN • Sparge rate • •Sparge rate hops • Sparge rate Wort rate Sparge rate Yeast head potential •Type of dry Sparge rate•• • Bed height Wort colour pH drop Bed height •• •Bed height • Bed height level •Varietyheight hops Wort Maillard precursor • Bed height Bed height • •Bed height concentration Yeast cell Bed of dry • Malt•• • Collection rate level Wort carbonate Collection rate Wort beta•glucan level rate • •Maturation yeast •• •Collection rate • Collection rate Collection Collection rate Yeast growth rate •Collection rate Collection rate•• • • Grist composition Hop type fermentation Vigour of Hop type Type of • •• •Hop typekettleHop type • Hop type Hop type • •Diacetyl rest Fermentation temperature p •Hop type Hop type•• • Special malt • Hop variety modification •• •Hop variety Hop variety • •Free variety Attemperation rate • Rousing Hop variety • Hop variety heater Type of wort Hop variety •Hop rise Hop variety•• • Hop addition timings Hop addition roast Special malt timings Yeast viability Delta T on•heatingaddition timingsHop addition timings Hop surface • •Hop addition timings •• •Hop addition timings • Hop addition timings Hop addition timings Fermenter cleanliness •Antioxidant use•• • pH at Worthop additions hop • •Yeast hop additions •• •pHpH at hop additions additions pH concentration strains used Number of yeast • pH at hop additions temperature Yeast variety pH at hop additions • pH at hop additions at velocity •pH at at hop additions•• • • •Maturation vessel size Cation vitality roast moisture •• •Cation level inCation level in wort Cation level wort Presence of bacteria • Cation level in wort Yeast level in wort Special malt Cation level wort • Cation level in of heater Temperature in wort wort •Cation level in in wort•• • Shape of kettle Shape autolysis Yeast of kettle level •• •Shape of of•kettleof heater • •Maturation vessel pressure • Shape of kettle Steam pressure Shape kettle Shape of kettle Shape of kettle wild yeast Presence of • Shape of kettle•• • Degree Degreestorage temperature •• •Degree of of reflux of reflux •Maturation of fermeter constru Material vessle • •Degree of of refluxmaterial • • Degree of reflux time Yeast of reflux Special malt roast • Degree of reflux Evaporation rate Degree reflux Degree reflux•• • Boil vigour Boil temperature•profile treatment profile •• •Boil temperature profile Wood temperature constructio Material of kettle • Boil temperature profile Yeast storage time Boil temperature profile Boil temperature profile • •Boil temperature profile • Boil temperature profile Boil•• • • Type ofstorage DO2 system •• •Typedrop in• kettle of system • •Maturation addititvessystem Grist size profile Type trub removalConcentration of fatty acids pH of trub removal system system Type of trub removal system • Type of of trub removal system •Type of of trub removal system Yeast trub removal Type trub removal Type trub removal•• • • Gristlevels of time CO moisture level Hop residence time hot break • time Hop2residenceyeast storage •• •Hop residenceHop residence • •Maturation additive polyphenol time Concentration of • Hop residence time in kettle •Hop residence time concentrat formation Hop residence time Hop residence time•• • Transfer from • •Transfer time and of size •• •Transfer time and rate time and•Maturationtime and silicates Transfer timetemperature • Transfer time and rate from rate from additive from Concentration rate • Transfer time and yeastfrom Conversion and rate from Ethanol levels in rate storage Wort colour and rate from Transfer time Transfer rate from kettle on mash yeast • kettlepH drop Boil kettle •Filtration delta P Use of amylolytic enzymes • kettle • kettle stress on Shear kettle kettle kettle•• • 2+Design of calandria Use of proteolytic enzymes Design of calandria of wort •• •Designof Mgcalandria •Design of calandria • •Stabilisation calandria • • Osmotic potential Design viscosity Mash of calandria • Design of of in wort Level of calandria Design calandria Design of regime• •2+ in wort of calandria rate of calandria Flow rate •• •Flow rateCa of calandria Level of of conversion • •Stabilisation of calandria • Oil leve lof hops Recirc through hops • Degree rate calandria Flow of malt Flow rate time Flow
  5. 5. Flavour is Complicated• Flavour = aroma + taste• Taste not just bitter, sweet, salt, umami, and sour, these are just like the primary colours• Taste is sensed by taste buds or gustatory calyculi on tongue, roof of mouth, inside of cheeks and throat• Tastes can be hedonically enhancing or suppressive
  6. 6. Boring’s load of old bollocks
  7. 7. Aroma• Involves only volatile compounds• Is sensed by receptors olfactory mucosa• No “primary colours” of aroma – much more complex than taste• Aromas can be additive, antagonistic, synergistic, hedonically enhancing or suppressive• How an aroma is perceived also depends on its concentration (diacetyl)• Aroma can influence taste and taste can influence aroma (ethyl-maltol)
  8. 8. Olfactory mucosaand nerve
  9. 9. Where it gets complicated• Receptors in your olfactory mucosa and gustatory calyculi are stimulated by chemicals in the beer• They send an electronic message to the brain for processing• The brain gives you an appraisal of what it might be• Every step in this process is subject to genetic variation and inaccuracy• Beer flavour is conferred by 1000s of chemicals all interacting• Despite the 1000s of aroma compounds evolution is quite conservative (α-pinene)
  10. 10. Beer Design Stages Concept Definition Specification Recipe Pilot brew Full scale brew Market
  11. 11. Big Boys’ Design1. Market research2. Focus group3. Fuzzy front end4. Attribute specification5. Pilots6. Focus groups7. Full scale brew
  12. 12. Labatt Ice• 1992 in shrinking market innovation needed• Idea generation developed beer names• Focus groups used to select best and define attributes• “Ice Brewing Technology™” developed to attain attributes• Beer launched an became world’s biggest selling Ice beer and gained 10% market share in Canada
  13. 13. Smaller Brewery Process“We come up with ideas for new beers after a few jars inCask, Pimlico”• The brew is often the first step in the process• Concept developed by brewer• Focus group of one or two• Pilot brew may be sold• Whether it is brewed again depends on sales• Brewer’s palate and understanding of the market’s palate needs to be excellent• Product is personal to brewer
  14. 14. Chalky’s Bite• Rick likes Sharp’s beers• Rick wanted to market a beer (£Kerching!)• Rick’s team asks Stuart to brew a beer with wild fennel• Stuart re-educates Rick’s team• Pilot beers produced• Definitive pilot selected• Commercial scale beer brewed
  15. 15. Fennel• Shares many essential oil components with hops such linalol and terpenes• Has non-sugar sweetness from estragole• Has mint like character from fenchone• Aniseed aroma from anisole, another hop component• Dried fruit have very high concentrations of these compounds• Every variety and type of fennel has a different essential oil composition
  16. 16. Designing the beer around fennel• Selection of right base beer• Consistent supply of fennel• Controlling the dominance of fennel notes• Timing the point of addition• Beer sculpted from original beer through iterative brews with small changes• Compromise on taste between design team
  17. 17. From pilot brew to full regular brand • Upscale calculations • Split brews • Specify, specify, specify • Change to maintain
  18. 18. Summary• Brewing and flavour are highly complex and interesting• The process of beer design shows as much variation as breweries themselves• Novel ingredients constitute a unique challenge to the brewer• Flavour is sculpted through an iterative process• The beauty of the sculpture is in the eye of the consumer