access to thev ecity          for e ryoneplanning strategies to counteract residential segregation in Bogotá              ...
[c o n t e n t]                                   ?Bogotá         Problem        Question         Aim         Methodology
[bogotá]                                                                                                               201...
[bogotá]                  [bogotá]                                    [randstad]                  7,363,782               ...
[bogotá]                                                                                     Zipaquirá                    ...
[problem statement: residential segregation]   Today, Bogotá is a ‘profoundly segregated city’   (González, 2007, p.14). R...
[residential segregation]‘changing spatial phenomenon related in a complex way                 with social inequalities’  ...
[residential segregation]             In Latin American cities the issue has been ap-             proached from socio econ...
[residential segregation]             In Latin American cities the issue has been ap-             proached from socio econ...
con la matriz origen                                                [residential segregation]      de entradas (Pnud, I   ...
INTERVENCIÓN PÚBLICA                                 [residential segregation]                                            ...
[residential segregation]                                                                                                 ...
[residential segregation]                                                                                              2. ...
[residential segregation]                                              Urban stratification and main roads network        ...
[residential segregation]                                                                            Roads density        ...
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Presentation made for TU Delft's Master in Urbanism. Definition of problem statement, research question and aims for graduation project.

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  1. 1. access to thev ecity for e ryoneplanning strategies to counteract residential segregation in Bogotá Angela Bedoya 4112997
  2. 2. [c o n t e n t] ?Bogotá Problem Question Aim Methodology
  3. 3. [bogotá] 2010 Pop. 7,363,782 estimate 384 km2 of 1,775 km2 (25,3% is urban area) Located in the geographic centre of 0 10 30 Km the country, South America Colombia In the east mountain chain of The Andes at 2,625 metres above sea level. There (distrito capital), the 16% of the National population lives and, Accounts for 22% of the National Gross Domestic Product N (DANE-SDP, 2007) - www.bogota.gov.co - (González et al., 2008) -Source: author’s own 0 10 30 Km www.habitatbogota.gov.co
  4. 4. [bogotá] [bogotá] [randstad] 7,363,782 Population 8,000,000 384 km2 9,000 km2 [bta] 21,276 pp/km 2 [ams] 19,512 pp/km 2 [utr] 10,796 pp/km 2 [dh] 19,072 pp/km 2 [rott] 15,560 pp/km 2 N0 10 20 30 40 50 Km Source: author’s own with data from the tale of two regions and SDP, 2007
  5. 5. [bogotá] Zipaquirá Gachancipá Tocancipá Cajicá Tabio Sopó Chía Tenjo Facatativá Cota www.bogota.gov.co Bojacá Madrid Funza La Calera Main Natural borders - Bogotá river to the west, Monserrate and Guadalupe Mosquera Bogotá D.C. mountains to the east Monserrate 3,152 m.s.l. Guadalupe 3,317 m.s.l. Inside the Cundinamarca department Soacha although the city is an independent Sibaté administration district. Chipaque No Metropolitan area conformed administratively, but it exists in the urban dynamics of the city with surrounding municipalities Population census (DANE, 2005) N 0 5 10 kmSource: author’s own with SDP shape files, 2009
  6. 6. [problem statement: residential segregation] Today, Bogotá is a ‘profoundly segregated city’ (González, 2007, p.14). Rich and poor people reside in different parts of the city and do not interact often in the urban space (González et al, 2008).
  7. 7. [residential segregation]‘changing spatial phenomenon related in a complex way with social inequalities’ ‘clustering of families of the same social condition’Three specific dimensions: - Degree of spatial concentration - Social homogeneity of city areas - Reputation of those areas (Sabatini, 2003 and Marcuse, 2001)
  8. 8. [residential segregation] In Latin American cities the issue has been ap- proached from socio economic perspective How has been studied in Bogotá? Employment Subsidies Taxes[social and [distance ineconomic] $ $ Support space] incomes expenses Public Services Transport fare Di erences in quality of life Housing Education [distribution [spatial] Access to facilities of facilities] Public Parks and Housing Times facilities public space location of travel Author’s own based on González et al, 2008; González, 2007
  9. 9. [residential segregation] In Latin American cities the issue has been ap- proached from socio economic perspective How has been studied in Bogotá? Employment Subsidies Taxes[social and [distance ineconomic] $ $ Support space] incomes expenses Public Services Transport fare Di erences in quality of life Housing Education [distribution [spatial] Access to facilities of facilities] Public Parks and Housing Times facilities public space location of travel Author’s own based on González et al, 2008; González, 2007
  10. 10. con la matriz origen [residential segregation] de entradas (Pnud, I en donde haya mezc por hogar, y para qu condiciones, que hay 1. Social and economic distance de la red vial local. Pa in space que conjugar la gesti la segregación socioe Several variables used Residential segregation index Per ‘localidad’ Human development report for cuadro 3.1 C Bogotá 2008. (importance of the territorial índice de segregación residencial (isr) entity where it is calculated) (Por localidad. Tres formas de medir la segregación) y d variable localidad r Homes income Ingreso del hogar 11,46 c d Homes expenses Gastos del hogar 12,37Price per constructed square metre - housing Valor m2 construido 40,06 e Fuente: Sdp, 2007. c Segregation increases as the index s increases! se calcula de tres m El índice de segregac (valor del m 2 constr el ingreso oetel gasto (González al., 2008)
  11. 11. INTERVENCIÓN PÚBLICA [residential segregation] Effects in the urban dynamics Different urban conditions ‘the isolation of discriminated and poor population groups and the perception they have on their own condition is what Distance to centralities favours social disintegration’ (Sabatini 2003: p. 9).Main Maincity facilities city facilities High rent areas Historicaland Low rent areas financial centre Source: Fernando Arenas (n.d) in Rojas 2011
  12. 12. [residential segregation] MAPA 1. HOGARES POBRES POR N.B.I. 76000 88000 100000 112000 CHIA SOPO124000 124000 MAPA 1. HOGARES TENJO GUASCA Subsecretaría de Información y Estudios Estratégicos 01 Dirección de Información, Cartografía y Estadística COTA ENCUESTA DE CALIDAD DE VIDA 2007 FACATATIVA Fuente y Características Técnicas 76000 88000 Mapa ZIPACON Digital de Bogotá D.C. Coordenadas Cartesianas con origen en la intersección del meridiano 74 grados 09 minutos con el paralelo 4 grados 41 minutos al cual se SUBA le asignaron las Coordenadas Planas N:109.320.965 m. y E:334.879 m. 2,8 Cotas referidas a la nivelación geométrica establecida por el IGAC para el D.A.C.D. Plano de Proyección 2.550 m. sobre el nivel del mar. Datos de nivelación, nivel medio del mar. FUNZA USAQUEN 2,1 0 1.500 3.000 6.000 Metros 5% of Bogota’s homes are ESCALA 1:275000 CONVENCIONES Perímetro del Distrito LA CALERA112000 112000 Límite de localidad ENGATIVA EVOLUCIÓN DE LA POBREZA 2003 - 2007 (%) 2,7 considered to be in poverty 0,00 - 2,50 BOJACA 2,51 - 5,00 5,01 - 7,50 FONTIBON 124000 7,51 - 10,00 2,5 MOSQUERA >10 BARRIOS UNIDOS 3,5 TENJO TENA TEUSAQUILLO 0,5 CHAPINERO 1,6 conditions and 0.5% are in Subsecretaría de Información y Estudios Estratégicos 01 destitution conditions. KENNEDY Dirección de Información, Cartografía y Estadística BOSA 4,3 7,6 PUENTE ARANDA 2,2 LOS MARTIRES COTA FACATATIVA(Total households: 1,978,528) 3,6 CANDELARIA ENCUESTA DE CALIDAD DE VIDA 2007 SAN ANTONIO DEL TEQUENDAMA100000 100000 5,3 SANTA FE ANTONIO NARI¥O 9,2 3,4 SOACHA Fuente y Características Técnicas TUNJUELITO CHOACHI 6,2 RAFAEL URIBE URIBE 7,6 SAN CRISTOBAL Mapa ZIPACON Digital de Bogotá D.C. Higher percentages in the south 7,4 Coordenadas Cartesianas con origen en la intersección del meridiano 74 grados 09 minutos con el paralelo 4 grados 41 minutos al cual se UBAQUE le asignaron las Coordenadas Planas N:109.320.965 m. y E:334.879 m. Cotas referidas a la nivelación geométrica establecida por el IGAC para part of the city88000 88000 CIUDAD BOLIVAR 13,9 el D.A.C.D. Plano de Proyección 2.550 m. sobre el nivel del mar. Datos FOMEQUE de nivelación, nivel medio del mar. FUNZA SIBATE SILVANIA CHIPAQUE EVOLUCIÓN DE LA POBREZA 2003 - 2007 0 1.500 3.000 6.000 14 Metros 12 CAQUEZA ESCALA 1:275000 Poor homes per ‘localidad’ (administrative unit) 10 Legend 8 CONVENCIONES according to unsatisfied basic needs. 676000 76000 4 2 District perimeter Perímetro del Distrito 112000 0 Localidad limit Límite de localidad Usme Rafael Uribe Uribe Ciudad Bolívar San Cristóbal Usaquén Santa Fe Chapinero Tunjuelito Fontibón Engativá Total Bogotá Teusaquillo La Candelaria Los Martires Bosa Suba Barrios Unidos Antonio Nariño Puente Aranda Kennedy LOCALIZACIÓN DE BOGOTÁ D.C. EN USME 9,1 Poverty evolution 2003 - 2007 (%) (%) EVOLUCIÓN DE LA POBREZA 2003 - 2007 Criteria: Inadequate housing (0.7%), critical over- crowding (2.6%), inadequate services (0.2), high EL DEPARTAMENTO DE CUNDINAMARCA Pobres 2003 Pobres 2007 0,00 - 2,50 PUERT O SALGAR UNE economic dependence (1.6%), school dropout YACOPI SIM IJACA SUSA FOSCA FUQUENE PAIM E GUACHET A CAPARRAPI BOJACA TOPAIPI LA PAL MA CARM EN DE CARUPA SAN CAYETANO UBAT E LENGUAZAQUE EL PENO N VIL LAGOM EZ SUT ATAUSA CUCUNUBA VIL LAPINZO N LA PENA PASCA 2,51 - 5,00 UTICA TAUSA GUADUAS NIMAIM AVERGARA PACHO SUESCA CHOCONT A QUEBRADANEGRA COGUA NEM OCON TIBIRIT A (0.5%). NOCAIMA SUPATA QUETAME VIL LETA GACHANCIPA MACHETA ZIPAQUIRA SESQUIL E CHAG UANI LA VEG A SUBACHOQUE TOCANCIPA MANTA SASAIMA SAN F RANCISCO TABIO GUAYABAL DE SIQUIM A CAJI CA GUATAVITA VIANI AL BAN SO PO GACHET A CHIA SAN JUAN DE RIO SECO BIT UIM A TENJO FONTIBON FACATATI VA GUASCA UBALA ANO LAIMA COTA ZIPACON 5,01 - 7,50 FUNZ A BELT RAN PUL I QUIPILE CACHIPAY LA CALERA JUNIN GAMA BO JACA SAN PEDRO DE JAGUA LA MESA TENA MOSQUERA GACHAL A SAN ANT ONIO DEL TEQUENDAMA SO ACHA JERUSALEN ANAPOIM AEL COLEGIO CHOACHI FOM EQUE GUATAQUI APULO UBAQUE MEDINA SIBAT E VIO TA SIL VANIA CHIPAQUE TOCAIM A NARINO CAQ UEZ A PARATEBUENO AG UADE DI OS GIRARDOT TIBACUY FOSCA QUETAME 2,5 RICAURT E NILO FUSAGASUG A PASCA UNE 7,51 - 10,00 ¯ ARBELAEZ GUAYABETAL64000 64000 PANDI GUTIERREZ SAN BERNARDO BO GOT AD. C. MOSQUERA Source: Life quality survey Bogotá (DANE-SDP, VENECIA ¯ CABRERA GUAYABETAL SUMAPAZ 21,3 GUTIERREZ >10 2007) FUSAGASUGA TENA ARBELAEZ
  13. 13. [residential segregation] 2. Uneven distribution of facilities Urban stratification Classification of residentialInformación y EstudiosDistrital – SDP Subsecretaria de areas, im- Secretaria de Planeación Estratégicos mediate surroundings and urbanised La estratificación urbana de Bogotá y el proceso de actualización context in Bogotá. La clasificación de cada manzana, en uno de seis estratos, se realiza directamente por el software, teniendo en cuenta la información registrada. En la imagen 2 se visualiza un ejemplo prototipo de cada estrato en Bogotá. Imagen 2. Fotografías por estrato en Bogotá Urban stratification Stratum 1 Stratum 2 Stratum 3 Stratum 4 Stratum 5 N Stratum 6 Without Fuente: SDP - Dirección de Estratificación 2009 Source: Urban stratification document (SDP, 2009) Se llama la atención sobre el hecho que no son objeto de estratificación los predios 0 5 10 km dedicados a usos distintos al residencial, es decir, no se les asigna estrato a lotes, zonasSource: author’s own with SDP shape files, 2009
  14. 14. [residential segregation] Urban stratification and main roads network N 0 5 10 km 1 and 2 3 and 4 5 and 6Source: author’s own with SDP shape files, 2009
  15. 15. [residential segregation] Roads density In the south western parts of the city the main roads density is lower, and the local roads density is rela- tively higher Density of main urban roads per Density of neighbourhood roads localidad per localidad 0.0519 - 0.0943 0.0989 - 0.1289 0.0449 - 0.0518 0.0738 - 0.0988 0.0324 - 0.0448 0.0662 - 0.0737 0.0219 - 0.0323 0.0589 - 0.0561 0.0113 - 0.0218 0.0435 - 0.0588 Localidad limit Localidad limit0 5 10 km 0 5 10 km (González et al., 2008)

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